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J..T.UU1V 1- ?0 

February 71-130 li 131-196 

April 197-268 

Muy 26»-334 

Juiii- 335-400 

July .loi-ieo 

August 461-616 

Sepi.-mber 617-604 

I' . : ■ 3 605-724 

■ ■ iir 72B-786 

.\ . . mber 787-S48 

Uecember 849-904 


Acildi'iit In ChU-njro. Kluvaied Rail- 

to a Cross-Compound Engine, 

(Reagan i 

A Peculiar 

Workers. Trio of Fraudulent... 

Accidents. Recent 

and Their I'reventlon, Knglne.. 

Three Recent 

Accountant's Question Box. The.... 

Tribute to Mr, Brockway by 

Accounilng, as Aid to the Operating 
Department (Leussler) 


Interurban Ticket (Pardee) .... 

Lotteries In Aid of 

Standards. Possibility of Inter- 

Willi l-'our , Departments 


Acland, R. L. (portrait) 

Adam Couks Sons 

Adams. H. H. (portrait) 

Adjustment of Damage Claims, The 
Personal Element In the 

Administrative Ability, Municipal. 

Advertising Literature 514, 848, 


White City 

Affairs, Sad State of 

Air-Brake Order, Baltimore 

— -^-Order for 

Recent Progress 

Air Compressors, Prize for 

Portable Boilers and 

AJax Metal Co 

■Albany Grease" Trade .Mark, The. 

Allen, C. Loomis (Address of the 

Allls-Chalmers Co 


Steam Turbine, Blading of the.. 

Steam Turbine for the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Co 

Allison, Giles S 

Allernators, Weslinghouse Belted- 
Type Rotating Field 

Alton, Granite & St. Louis Trac- 
tion Co.. Equipment for the.. 

Aluminum Excursion, An 

American Railways Co 

Railway S'upply Co 

Steel & W'lre Co 

Ventilating Co 

Ambulance Chasers, Fakirs. Mallg- 
erers and (Pratt) 

Amesbury Trolley Wheel, The.*26u, 

Amsterdam - Haarlem Tramways 
System, The 

Amsterdam, Holland, The Electric 
Tramways of (Guarlni) 

Amiiseiiient Machines for Street 
Railway Parks 

Anchors. Miller 

for Fence Posts (Miller) 

Instructions for Installing 

Stombaugh Guy 

Andersun Manufacturing Co., A. & 
J. .M 

Patent Cushion Non-Return 

Valve, The 

Angerer, Victor. 

Special Tr.ii k W^ork 

Anniversary, Crane Co.'s 60th 

Announcement. Change in Editorial 

Announcements, Removal 

Answers .ind Questions, On 

Antl-Frlctional Metal. A New 

Appleyard Situation in Ohio 

Archer .\ve. Terminal of the Chi- 
cago & Joliet Electric Rail- 
way Co 

Arc Clrcuiis. Locating Breaks In 

Armature Buggy, Convenient 

Armstrong Journal Oiler, The.'lDl, 

Arnold. B. J. (Methods of Increas- 
ing the Capacity and Reduc- 
ing the Noise upon the Union 
Elevated Railroad of Chicago) 

Arnold Co., The 

Arnold Report on .Municipal Street 
Ry. of Chicago 








































Artificial Proillcs In Chicago e4S0 

Artisans, Summer School tor 333 

As Others See Us 607 

Assessment Bill, Tennessee 381 


Accountants Street Railway..., 417 

Proceedings of the 766 

Proceedings Ninth Annual 

Meeting 705 

Program 669 

American Railway Mechanical 

and Electrical. 

Third Annual Meeting of... 

618. 658 

Membership of the 768 

New Members of the 724 

OHlcers of the 605 

Program of the 559 

Question Box of the (Mow- 

er) 775 

American Railway Engineering 

and Maintenance of Way, 
Sixth Annual Convention of 

the 168 

Officers of the American... 623 

American Street and Interurban 

Railway. Proposed Consti- 
tution and By-Laws of the.. 576 

The Transportation Depart- 

ment of the 744 

American Street Railway 559 

Announcement 509 

Committee Meeting 391 

Conventions 704 

24th Annual 70S 

Proceedings 24th An- 

nual Convention 686 

Correspondence 146 

Discussion of Papers by 

Charles F. Scott and W. 

B. Potter 769 

Membership Committee ... 146 

— ■ — Executive Committee Meet- 
ing 91 

Work of the 561 

New Memb^s 724 

— — Program 559 

■ Reorganization Plans.. 261, 561 

State -Association and the. el49 

Birmingham Mutual Benefit.... 595 

British. -Vmalgamation of the. e480 

Program 900 

Canadian Street Railway 37 

Claim Agents 465 

First Convention of the.... 663 

Colorado, .\nnual Meeting of the 766 

Directory of Street Railway 126 

Indi.-ina Electric Railway. 57, 58, 

103. 135. 284. 347. 387. 744, S07 

Industrial Beneluial 260 

Interstate Electric Railway.... 322 

Iowa Slate 212, 305 

Mechanical and Electrical, 101, e419 

New Members 681 

Program 417 

Question Box (Mower), 832, 889 

Montreal Street Railway Bene- 
fit 449 

Annual Picnic 564 

Mutual Benefit (Ross) 265 

' Name of the e420 

Newman Properties 105 

New e24 

New York State. Twenty-third 

Annual Convention of the 

Street Railway •406 

Northwestern Electrical (port) 82 

Officers for 1905-1906 768 

Ohio Interurban Railway, 40, 

no. 174. 247. 379, 445, 802, 870 

— - — Railways Protective 763 

Reorganization of the e98 

— — Technical Publicity 308 

York Countv Railways Benefi- 
cial 86 

.Atlas Railway Supply Co., The 630 

Atlantic Northern Railway 'SSS 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway 
Co.. Some Operative Fe.itures 

of the •286, ^350 

Australian Tramway Systems 168 

Auto Cars for Railroads e211 

Automatic Stop Valve Combination. •260 

Automobile Competition el4S 

Automotoneer, The Latest Design of 

the 'ISO 

Auto-Starter for a 1,400-H.P. Induc- 
tion Motor ^386 

Autumn Danger. An e742 

Auxiliary Business e295 

Avebury. Lord (Municipal Trading). 
-Address Before the Industrial 

Freedom League 501 

Avery Steel Tie. The •514 

Awards, World's Fair 65 


Babbit Metal, New Process 602 

Badges for Interborough Employes '69 

Bag Fastener, A New ^767 

Baggage, Carrying el49 

Shall It be Carried Free? 809 

Bailey, Theo. P. (portrait) 23 

Baker, Charles P 624 

Baker, C. F. (portrait) 605 

Baldwin Electric Locomotives •67S 

Locomotive Works 664 

Ball Bearings tor Center and Side 

Bearings •391 

Ballast, Slag for go 

Ballasting •242 

Baltimore Air Brake Order 601 

Cr>o-Resinate Processed Wood 

Paving Elocks in "502 

Large Order Cars for 459 

Park Improvements at 293 

Band Rip Saw, Car Shop •904 

Banister, A. N. (Tramway Car 

Wheels) 221 

Banquet. West Penn Annual 70 

Bates, Putnam A. (New York & 

Stamford Railway Co.) ^96 

Battle Creek, Mich., Double Track- 
ing In •vse 

Bay City Railway & Light Co., Sag- 
inaw & •sse, '409 

Bayonet Detachable Harp •400 

Beardsley, H. M. (Accounting with 

Four Departments) 762 

(Income and Operating En- 

penses per Mile for Electric 
Railways Members of the New 

York State Association) 438 

Bearings, Ball Bearings for Center 

and Side •sgi 

Bearings, Metals Scientific 901 

Beaver Valley 'Traction Co. Prop- 
erty Sold 605 

Bedard, F. W. (portrait) 231 

Beggs. John I. (portrait) 665 

Belvidere Electric Co., Elgin & 866 

Benjamine, C. H. (Smoke and Its 

Abatement) 368 

Benjamin Wireless Clusters •640 

Bergh, Robert, S. S. (Electric State 
Railway Experiments In 

Sweden) 109 

Berlin & Hamburg, Rapid Transit 

Between 220 

Bex Gryon Villars Railway, New 
Electric Locomotive for the 

(Guarlni) ^430 

Boilers and Air Compressors, Port- 
able •196 

Bibbins. J. R. (The Application of 
Gas Power to Electric Ball- 
way service) ^714 

Bijur Storage Battery •884 

Birmingham. Freight Tariffs in... 315 
Distribution of Freight Expen- 
ses at 339 

Handling Freight In 208 

Improvements at 86 

Mutual Benefit Association at.. 596 

Track Records ^469 

Bissell Co. Trade Mark, The F •695 

Blading of the Allis-Chalmers Steam 

Turbine •S99 

Blake, H. W. (Contrasts Between 
Company and Municipal Own- 
ership and Management of 

Public Utilities) •441 

Signal, The ^895 

Signal & Manufacturing Co 664 

W. H. Condenser, The •318 

Blank for Time Keeping and Pay 

Roll ^482 

Bliss Co., E. W 723 

Block Signal, McGill •SOS 

• Stuart Automatic ^451 

Blue Printing Machine, The Buck- 
eye Electric •SSS 

Bluffton-Ft. Wayne Contract 413 

Boat. The Mulllns Special Livery. . . 327 
Boats for Street Railway Parka, 

Steel ...' ^250 

Bodler. F. F. (An Emergency Track 

Brake) •eoe 

Boilers. E. Keeler & Co.. Water- 
Tube •316 

Boiler House Equipment, Modern 

(Kocster) •731 

Bond. -A Permanent Type of Plastic , 

Rail •?40 

Twin Terminal Kail ^847 

Boring Mill, "Gisholt" ^227 

Eoston & Northern and Old Colony 
Systems. What has been Ac- 
complished on tlie. by the Pas- 
senger Department. (Derrah) •581 
Boston Elevated Construction Car, 

The •lO 

Manganese Steel Rails on 

the 204 

Power Distributing System 

(Hile) '606 

Wheel Grinding '274 

Boston, Mass., and Manchseter. N. 

H., New Interurban Lines Be- 
tween 260 

Boston Tunnel, The East e24 

Opening 32 

Boston & Worcester, New Sub-Sta- 
tion at Marlboro, The •225 

Brabston, T. DeG 120 

Brady Brass Co 662 

Brake, An Emergency Track (Bod- 
ler) •66fi 

Combined Wheel and Rail '786 

"Pearoik" for Chicago 262 

Exhibit of 630 

In Canada 444 

'Articles marked with an asterisk are accompanied bj illustrattoas; e, editorial. 



Order 600 

Plilludelpliht Air ♦335 

Progress, llecent Air e867 

Quiek Aeting EeamlcSB 'bil 

In Scries An; Clrculls, l.ocHllriB 'SOS 

Hrlcker, Jiimes (portriill) 662 

IJrldge, SuBBeatlons for a. Street 

Kfillway (Weeks) •506 

Bridges, ,Strengthenlng Traction 

(Tyrrell) •2^'! 

Brill Co.. I'lilladclphla, The Works 

o£ llio J. O 'ISS 

The Olllccrs of the J. Q 633 

All-Sttel Car In the Brill Ex- 
hibit •632 

Brill, 0. Martin (portrait) 633 

John ^i. (portrait) 633 

John Oeorso (portrait) 633 

Cars for Memphis 488 

For New V'ork 455 

"Grooveless Post" Seml-Con- 

vcrtlble Car. The '693 

Brllllum, Tests olf 48 

British Associations, Amalgamation 

of e480 

British Association, Program of... iiOO 
British Columbia Electric Kailw.-iy 
(.'o. Absorb.'^ the V'aiii-oliver 
and Liilii Islam! Jtallway 

Property 168 

British Notes 583 

lirockway. Accountant's Tribute to 

Mr e294 

Brockway, Testimonial to Mr 285 

Brooklyn Heights Railroad, Rail 

Bonding on the (Forbes) .... •237 

Brooklyn, Ijaconla Gondola I'ars for •TIS 

Motor Box Freight Cars for... 'eTO 

New Equipment for 186 

Brooklyn Polytechnic. Course In 

Electric Transportation at... 452 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.. AlUs- 
Chalmors Steam Turbine for 

the '836 

^Annual Report 730 

New Office Building 507 

Improvements on the 761 

World's Largest Turbines for... 464 

Brown, Harold P 657 

J. W. (The Transportation De- 
partment and the A. S. & I. 

R. A.) 744 

Brunots Island Power Station of the 

Pittsburg Railways Co *401 

Buckeye Kngine Co., The 662 

Automatic Lowering Jack. The *128 

Electric Blue Printing Machine. 

The •838 

("Souvenir From Nature.").... 624 

Buda CsiT Replacer •465 

Buenos Aires. The Street Railway 

Systems of 888 

Buffalo, N. Y., Changes at 189 

Electrical Features at 514 

Buffet Cash Fare Slips 834 

BuUard Automatic Wrench Co 625 

Bumps, The *39S 

Burbridge, A. H. (portrait) 283 

Bushnell. Fred N. (The Power Sta- 
tion) •668 

Caldwell. F. C. (Test of the Rail- 
way System of the Scioto Val- 
ley Traction Co.) ^795 

(California. An Exciting Crossing 

Fight in •194 

Cambridge Rapid Transit Develop- 
ments. The 466 

Subway 416 

Camden Interstate Railway Co.. 
New Power Plant of the (Can- 

dage) •269 

Canada. Electric Railway. Statistics 

in 190 

Canada, New York Central Lines to 

Enter 246 

"Peacock" Brakes in 444 

Canadian .Street Ry. Association.. 37 

Candage, G. F. (New Power Plant 
of the Camden Interstate 

Railway Co.) ^269 

Canopy Insulator, A Safe •193 

Carrying Baggage el49 

Car, A New Combination Mail and 

Express ^129 

Barn Construction with a View 

to Fire Protection. Some 

Methods Used in 468 

Car Barns and Shops of the 

Saginaw Valley Traction Co.. 

New ^861 

Boston Elevated Construction.. •lO 

Companies to Combine 503 

Cleaning System. A Vacuum.. •303 

Convenient Crane •221 

Equipment of the Indianapolis 

and Cincinnati Traction Co.. 

Single-Phase •151 

Equipment. Use and Abuse of 

(Kelsey) ^174 

Danville, American ^380 

for East Boston Tunnel Service, 

g^g^] •393 

for Ft. Wayne & 'Wabash 'Val- 
ley, New Combination •348 

Heater, A New Electric 260 

Houses. Hoisting Facilities In.. eSOB 

-for Interurban Service, A Desir- 
able (Mitten) 872 

Klng-LaWHon I>ump •I?? 

tor Lancaster & York Furnace, 

Fine Type of .%mI-Convertl- 

ble •119 

for Latrobe, Pa., "Orooveless- 

Post" Convertible 'H39 

for Montreal, A New Type of. . •359 

New Observation ^477 

for the Portsmouth, Dover & 

York Street Railway Co., 

Seml-Convertlblc '187 

Replacer, Buda •465 

.Sanitation In Indiana (llurty).. 431 

Service on the ,\letropolllan, 

Funeral *447 

Shop Methods (Fish) 'SIB 

Warren-Jamestown ^682 

Cars In American Cities, 7>ateHt 
.Standards of Electric (Wil- 
son) 440 

for Baltimore. Large Order 469 

for Brooklyn, Laconi;i (Gondola. •713 

• Motor Box FrelKht Cars for ^679 

for Chicago City Hallway, Two 

Hundred 268 

New Standard 1!H)5 •591 

for Cincinnati & Columbus 

Traction Co., New Cars '680 

for City and Suburban Service, 

Suitable for (Wilson) 439 

for City Service for United 

Railroad of San Francisco, 

Standard Type '290 

for Cleveland, A Novel Type.... •456 

for (Cleveland & Southwestern 

Traction Co., New •893 

for Detroit, New ^194 

and Eciulpment, The Construc- 
tion and Maintenance of 

(Clark) 68 

for Ft. Smith, Ark., Open ^268 

for Jersey Central Traction Co., 

Semi-Convertible •65 

for Lima, Electric 340 

for Memphis, Brill 48S 

for New York, Brill 455 

for Newport News & Old Point, 

Semi-Convertible '308 

tor Northern Texas Traction 

Co., High Speed •510 

on the Pacific Electric Uy., Ob- 
servation "356 

tor Peru. Stephenson •eOS 

for Philadelphia, Seml-converti- 

bla *191 

for Railroads, Auto ^250 

for Rochester, Forty Kuhlman •65 

Rodger Eallast ^627 

tor Shreveport, La., Convertible ^780 

for Springfield Consolidated 

Ry., Closed •321 

for Torreon, Mexico, New '66 

and Tracks 780 

Types of Interurban (Shanna- 

han) 424 

for Washington, Semi-Converti- 
ble '497 

Carver, D. F. (portrait) 605 

Cash Fare Receipts. McDonald •BOl 

Cash Fare Slips. Buffet 834 

Cast-Welding of Rail Joints (Sim- 
mons) '650 

Catalogs, Link-Belt 602 

Catenary Trolley Construction, The 
Effect of Temperature 

Changes on 208 

Cattle Guards. Advantages of Clay. 394 

. The "Climax" '600 

Cement and Concrete Mixing 487 

Census Report on Street and Elec- 
tric Railways. Some Data 

from 345 

Centralization e804 

Central Railway of Missouri 846 

The Havana (Cuba) 457 

Central Station B^ires. Avoidable 

Causes of (Weeks) 5 

Steam Heating Plants for 584 

Chain Blocks, Yale & Towne Trip- 
lex '837 

"Champion" Street Car Fender, The 'Sll 
Chattanooga Electric Co., The 

Power Plant of the •136 

Electric Ry 83 

Chesterfield, England — Tramway 

System at '212 

Chicago, Arnold Report on Munici- 
pal Street Ry. of 339 

Artificial Profiles in e480 

Business District. Limited Ex- 
press Train to the •182 

City Railway Co.. New Stan- 
dard 1905 Cars of the •591 

Two Hundred Cars for.... 268 

City Annual Meeting (portrait) lOD 

City Ry. and Hammond. Whit- 
ing & East Chicago Electric 
Rv.. Power Improvements of 

the South *819 

Consolidation. The 23 

Election 212 

Elevated Railway Accident in. 140 

& Joliet Electric Railway Co., 

Archer Ave. Terminal '450 

& Kankakee, Interurban Ser- 
vice between 383 

Methods of Increasing the Ca- 
pacity and Reducing the 
Noise upon the Union Ele- 
vated Railroad of (Arnold).. •ISS 

& Milwaukee Electric Railroad 

Extension 899 

"Peacock" Brakes for 

Pneumatic Tool Co 

Duntly Alr-Cooled Electric 


& Southern Traction Co 

Traction Situation .....148, 329, 

390, 406, ell 8. 509, 697, c742, 

-White City, .S'earlnK Completion 

In , 

Work of the Illinois Tunnel Co. 

Chimney vs. Mechanical Draft 

Choice of Prime Movers, The (Rob- 

Chubbuck, H. R. (portrait) 231, 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction 

Co., New C'ars for the 

Northern Tra' tlon Co 

.Single-Phase Line, Inspertlon 

Trip on the Indianapolis &.. 

Toledo & Detroit Short Line... 

Union Terminal Rallro.'id Co., 


Circuit Breaker for Direct Current 
ITses, Westlnghouse Rallw.-iy 


city Entrances for Interurbans. . . . 
Claim Anents' Association, Street 


('lalms at (Cleveland, Fr.-iudulent . , . 

Clay Tic, A Vitrified 

Cleveland, A Novel Type of Car for 

-Fraudulent f:ialms at 

Ingersoll's Luna I'ark 

Low-Fare Kxperlmi*nt 

& Southwestern Traction Co., 

New Cars for 

Woostcr, Mt. Vernon & Colum- 
bus Railway Co 

Climax Rolled and Corrugated 


Clay Cattle Guard 

Clark, L. M. (The Construction and 
Maintenance of Cars and 


Clarksburg Traction Line, Contracts 
Let for the Construction of 

the Fairmont & 

Coal Handling Locomotive Cranes 
for Electric Railway Power 


Coaster, The Roller 

Coeur d'AIene & Spokane Ry., High 

Speed Cars for 

Cole, William Howard (Thermit 

Welding of Rail Joints) 

Collections, Interurban Fare (Ful- 


Colorado Association, Annual Meet- 
ing of 

Electric Light. Power & Rail- 
way Association 

Columbus. Ohio 

Combination Gear Cases 

"Come Along" 189. 

Competition In Illinois 


Compressed Air In the East Boston 


Compressor Governor, A New Air.. 
Concrete and Iron, Experiments on 

Beam Construction 

In Railway Work 

Mixing. Cement and 

Power House. Reinforced 

Condenser & Pump Co.. C. H. 


for Turbines 

W. H. Blake. The 

Conductor to His Son, Letters of an 

Old Trolley 

Conflicts, Street Railway and High- 

Connecticut Railroads, Report of 


Connecticut Valley Railway Co 

Consolidated Car Fender Co 662, 

Car-Heating Co 

Engine Stop Co 


Constitution and By-Laws of the 
American Street and Inter- 
urban Railway Association, 


Construction Work in 1905, New... 

Contest, Photographic 

"Continuous" Rail Joints 

Contract. A Large 

Contracts in San Francisco, Impor- 

Controller Handle, The Durkin 

The Series-Parallel Railway 


Conventions Accountants' Associa- 
tion, Former 

Conventions A. R. M. & E. A., For- 

A. S. R. A., Former 

Convention, Pratt & Lambert 

Convention Preparations 296. 

Rules Regarding Reduced Rates 

to the 

The Twentv-Fourth Annual... 

Correspondence 16. ^203. 291. 

Corliss Valve Engine. A Recent 

Type of • - ■ ■ 

Cost of Carrying a Passenger. The 


of Operation. The Power Sta- 
tion Load as a Factor in the 


of Power. Data on 

Counter-Weight Tramway at Syd- 
ney (Guarini) 




















































Couplers for Electric Cars, Develop- 
ment of Automatic (Van 

Dorn) SI 

Washburn 698 

Washburn Automatic 'SSS 

Coupon Ticket Books. Report of the 

Committee on 284 

Courtesy 154, eS66 

Crane Car. Convenient "221 

Co's. 50th Anniversry 610 

Some New Products of the 48 

-for Electric Railway Power 

Plants, Coal Handling Loco- 
motive '427 

Motor, Westinghouse 129 

Quick - Oponingr f?elf - Packing 

Radiator Valve '781 

Cravath, J. R. (Light Electric Rail- 
ways) 342 

Crecellus, Lawrence P. (The Power 
Station Load Factor as a Fac- 
tor in the Cost of Operation) 'GIO 
Cross-Compound Engine. An Acci- 
dent to a (Reagan) 822 

Crossing Fight in California, An 

Exciting •194 

Improved Overhead '396 

Improved Railway 'olS 

Cross-Ties, Life and Chemical Pres- 
ervation of (M'Math) 47 

Crouse-Hlnds Co 660 

Curtain Fixture, The National •599 

Supply Co., The 6G4 

("Ring" Fixture Curtains) 631 

Curtis Steam Turbines in Japan.... 512 

Curwen, S. M. (portrait) 633 

Cutting Oft Machines, Newton Cold 

Saw '228 

Cyclone Track Drill, The *899 

Cyclopedia of Applied Electricity.. 245 

•Daily Review" For 1905. The e560 

Dalrymple on Municipal Ownership. e360 

Dalton, H. E 24S 

Damage Claims. The Personal Ele- 
ment in the Adjustment of 

(Rockwell) 272 

Damon, George A. (Line Construc- 
tion for High Pressure Rail- 
roads) ^239 

Danforth, R. E. (portrait) 438 

Danville. American Car for •380 

Darby & Sons Co.. Inc., Edward 

(Pen-Dar Metal Lockers) .... *675 

Davis. B. B. (portraiture) 623 

Combination Back Pressure 

and Relief Valve •64 

Turbine Relief Valve, The ♦178 

Dayton. O. (New Equipment for the 

People's Railway Co.) •842 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works. 691 
Deflection of Track Rails, A Device 
for Measuring the (Gradcn- 

witz) •385 

Denver Tramway Crew, Attempted 

Holdup of 209 

Depreciation Reserves, Insurance 

Fund and (MacAfee) 292 

Derrah. Robert H. (An Electric 
Railway Passenger Depart- 
ment) 'SSI 

Trolley Trips 396 

Detective Agency, The Drummond.. 70 
Detroit. Flint & Saginaw Railway 

Co. (Hunt) ^849 

Monroe & Toledo Short Line... *45 

• New Cars for ^194 

Terminal Station for 135 

United Railway and Rapid 

Railway System. Tariff 

Sheets of the ^499 

Development In Electric Traction.. elOO 

in Massachusetts, .\ Talk on 

Railway 109 

Device, A New Shop 430 

Dibbs, W. A. (portrait) 623 

Direct Current Steam Turbine, The e743 
Directory of Street Railway Asso- 
ciations 126 

of Electric Railways e360 

Discipline In Europe and United 

States (NlchoU) 206 

of Employes. The Hiring, 

Training and e419 

Dispatching as Handled on the In- 
dianapolis & Eastern Railway 

Dispatching System. The Egry '780 

Train (Pearson) 389 

Train (Spllman) 387 

Distribution System of the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Co.... ^539 
Does the Freight and Express De- 
partment Pay? e211 

Doyle, J. S. (portrait) 605 

Presses, "Hamilton" Upright.. •228 

Drummond Detective Agency, The. 70 

Draft, Mech.anical 513 

Drawbridges, Electrically Operated 362 
Drawbridges. Electrically Operated •332 

Drill Clamp. Security •196 

Dubuque Ball Park ^349 

Duff Manufacturing Co., The 626 

Duluth Street Railway Co., New 

Shops of the 'IS? 

Dundee Broughty Ferry & District 

Tramways Co.. Ltd 326 

Duplicate Transfer & Rebate Co... 680 

Durkin .-ontroUer Handle, The.... ^898 
D. & W. Fuse Co. In New Quarters, 268 
Wj-stern Electric and 627 

Eagle Park Swing The ♦452 

Karll Trolley Retrievers 091 

Earnings, Electric Railway 504 

East Boston Tunnel, Compressed 

Air in the 1.76 

^Boston Tunnel. Opening of.... 32 

Service, Steel Car for •393 

From the West 510 

—Liverpool Traction & Light Co. 

(Trolley Merger In Eastern 

Ohio) 761 

Eastern Railroad Co.. Rochester, 

Syracuse & 8G9 

Wisconsin Railway & Light Co. 

Personnel 825 

Economy, Repair Shop e361 

Editorials 24, 98, 148, 210, 

294, 360. 418, 478, 560. 742, 804, 866 
Efficiency Test of a Large Gas En- 
gine 835 

Egry Dispatching System, The.... ^780 
Electric and Cable Car Mail Service. 249 

Car Heater, A New 260 

-Cars, Motor Buses and '. . . e479 

Light & Power Stations, Cen- 
tral 748 

Railways, Directory of e360 

Light (Cravath) 342 

for 1905, Plans for 251 

In Japan 459 

In and About Spokane •461 

in Switzerland, Some In- 

teresting Features of.... •343 
Railway Equipment (Potter).. 702 

Equipment Co.. New Plant 

of the 170 

Service, The Application of 

Gas Power to (BIbbins) . . •714 

Freight Service. The (Polk). 309 

Men, An Offer to 420 

Power Production and 

Transmission in the State 
of Indiana. Cost of 
(RIchey) 43 

Properties. Recent Tests of 

Automatic Sprinkler Pro- 
tection for •397 

Storage Battery Co 'eSO 

Traction 349 

Development in elOO 

Welding of Rail Joints 649 

Electrical Trades Exposition 831 

Electrical Rail Welding •648 

Electrically Operated Drawbridges. •332 
Electricity for Heavy Freight Serv- 
ice 321 

Elgin & Belvldere Electric Co 856 

Elk Carnival, July lOth. Electrical 

Features at Buffalo During.. 514 

Ellis, Walter (portrait) 552 

Emergency, Meeting An (West Penn 

Railways Co.) ^772 

Track Brake, An (Bodler) 'GGe 

Elmlra, Rapid Theater Construction 

in •141 

Ely, W. Caryl (portrait) 665 

Empire Safety Tread Co 660 

Employes, About Rooms for (Pratt) 602 

Entertained, Pittsburg 626 

the Hiring. Training and Dis- 
cipline of e4in 

Personal Records of •421 

^Uniform Standards of Examina- 
tion of Railway (Peck) •423 

Engine. A recent Type of Corliss 

Valve ♦896 

Accidents and Their Preven- 
tions 262 

of the Same Power? Can a 

Stcaui Turbine Be Started In 
an Emergency Quicker Than 

•a Reciprocating (Mann) 382 

Stop, Monarch 325 

Stop and Speed Limit System, 

Monarch •381 

Englund. A. H. (portrait) 588 

Entertainment, Manufacturers' Vau- 
deville 768 

Equipment for the Alton, Granite & 

?t. Louis Traction Co •327 

Electric Railway (Potter) '702 

^for Los Angeles, New *432 

Modern Boiler House (Koester). •'^31 

for Northern Ohio Traction & 

Light Co., New 885 

for Pittsburg Railways Co.. New ^898 

Repairs to (Nash) 354 

of the United Railroads of San 

Francisco, Miscellaneous .... •! 

Eureka Automatic Electric Signal 

Co 632 

"Eureka" Automatic Electric 

Signals 599. 664 

Europe and United States, Dis- 
cipline In (NIcholl) 206 

European Notes 293 

Notes on Tickets, Some (NIch- 
oll) 738 

Some (NIcholl) 317 

Evans, E. A. (Handling Express by 

Electric Suburban Railways) . 92 

Evolution In Massachusetts. Street 

Railway e296 

E.Kuniinatlon of Railway Employes, 

Uniform Standards of (Peck). ^423 

"Exchange" Tickets e660 

Excursion, An Aluminum 326 

Exeter Corporation Tramways '470 

Exhibitors at the Convention 628 

Exhibits at the Lewis & Clark Ex- 
position 398 

Experiments in Sweden, Electric 

St£.te Railway (Bergh) 109 

Exporters, Card Index of 599 

I-;xpoBitlon, Electrical Trades 831 

Express by Electric Suburban Rail- 
ways. Handling (Evans) .... 92 

Department I'ay? Does the 

Freight and e2I 1 

Service. Syracuse Rapid Tran- 
sit Co 260 

Terminals. Indianapolis ^340 

Trallii- on Interurban Hallways, 

Freight .md (Grastim) 807 

I'raiiis to the Chicago Business 

District, Limited ^182 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction 
Line, Contracts Let for the 

Construction of the 455 

Park Transportation Co *557 

Fakirs, Malingerers and Ambulance 

Chasers (Pratt) 772 

Falk Co., The 584, 639 

Co's. '04 Frog 'SSS 

Fan Engine. Three-Bearing ♦839 

Fares In Massachusetts, Suburban.. e866 

in Italy, Tramway 359 

The Latest Experiment In Low. e99 

Fare Collections, Interurban (Ful- 

lerton) 765 

Experiment, Cleveland Low . . . 101 

Increasing Rates of e98 

Fast Trains in Indiana. New 846 

Fay & Egan Co., J. A 'OOO 

No. U3 Molder ^459 

Fetney. J. P. (portrait) 623 

Fcuco Posts. Miller Anchor for.. ♦398 
Fences for Parks, Wire. •ISO 

Pender Co., Consolidated Car '839 

The "Champion" Street Car. . . 'eil 

Figures Arc Made to Talk. How... e24 
Finnegaii, 5. B.. Joseph B. (The 

Fire Hazard 'U Car Barns).. •SSS 

Fire at Freeport, III 503 

Hazard in Car Barns, The (Pln- 

negan) 'seS 

Hazards, Portable Sub-Stations 

and eS66 

Protection, Some Methods Used 

In Car Barn Construction 

With a View to 468 

Fires, Avoidable Causes of Central 

Station (Weeks) 5 

Fish, J. D. (Car Shop Methods) 'SIS 

Flange Wear, How to Eliminate Ex- 
cessive "Wear of Steel-TIred 

Wheels (Price) 109 

Flint & Saginaw Railway Co.. The 

Detroit (Hunt) ^849 

Flooring Machine, A New •129 

Flowers. A Friend of the Wild.... 356 
Flynn, C. E. (Some Early Overhead 

Mnterial) 'BSS 

Folder, An Attractive Electric 

Railway 467 

Foibes, Howard C. (Rail Bonding on 
the Brooklyn Heights Rail- 
road) •237 

Fornip for Purchasing, Delivering 
and Paving for Materials 

(Schurz; •seg 

Port Smith. Ark., Open Cars for. . . •268 
Waync-Bluffton Contract 413 

& Wabash Valley Contract. 453 

Van Wert & Lima Traction 

Co 26 

& Wabash Valley, New 

Combination Car for •348 

Foster, E. C. (portrait) 665 

Poster Superheaters In Washington 

Navy Yard •328 

— '■ — Superheater, The ^894 

Franklin Railway Supply Co 679 

Fraudulent Accident Workers, Trio 

of •578 

Claims at Cleveland 579 

Freeport, 111., Fire at 503 

Freight Development by Interurban 

Roads (Selxas) 821 

and Express Department Pay? 

Does the e211 

Traffic on Interurban Rail- 

ways (Graston) 807 

Expenses at Birminghom, Dis- 
tribution of 339 

Between Steam and Electric 

Roads, Interchange of 38 

Service, Electricity for Heavy. . 321 

The Electric Railway 

(Polk) 309 

Tariffs In Birmingham, Ala. . . 315 

Traffic of the Ohio River Elec- 
tric Railway & Power Co., 

The (Oppenhelmer) •SSS 

French, Arnold (How to Obtain a 

Suitable Car Varnish) 824 

Frog, The Falk Co.'s '04 •SSS 

Frost. Walter J. (Gorleston-on-Sea 

Electric Tramways) ^739 


Fulleron, Irwiii Mntt-nirbJin Faro 

Colloc.tlons) 705 

Funeral Hur Service on the Metro- 

pomiui '447 

Galena Slpnal Oil Co 632 

Annual Meeting of the .... 432 

GalcsburK }tallway & l^lght Co., 

Power Plant of Ihc '363 

Oarton Co., The W. K 639 

Two Products of the 327 

Garton-Danlels Co 662 

Gas Engine. Kfllclency Test of a 

Large 835 

Engines tor Rallw.iy and Power 

Service •217 

Wllh Reference to Hallway 

Work, Notes on the Design of 
Large (West) '700 

Power to Electric Railway 

Service, The Application of 

(BIbblns) ♦714 

Situation, The Philadelphia.... e361 

Gasoline-Electric Motor Car, New.. '2i3 

New Type of Trucks for... '394 

Gear Cases, Combination '320 

General Electric Co., Annual Report 

of the 324 

Exhibit 680 

Representatives 625 

Railway Supply Co., The 691 

Generating Set, New Sturtcvant. . . '67 

Sturtov.ant 25 KW •458 

Geneva, New York, Limited Service 

Between Rochester and 370 

Traction Co.. The 15 

Germany, The New Tariff of the 
Municipal Street Railway In 

Cologne 565 

"Glsholt" Boring Mill •227 

Glendalo Park, Nashville 31S 

Glenslde Lino and Willow Grove 
Terminal. Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co '546 

Glenslde Sub-Station. Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Co •.'i42 

Globe Ticket Co., The 682 

Chopper, The •713 

Golden-Anderson Valves 639 

Valve Specialty Co 329 

Gold Improved Electric Heater. . . . 660 
Goldschmidt Thermit Co.. at Wash- 
ington, Exhibit of the 124 

(Demonstrations of Ther- 

mi-Weldiiig) 624 

Goodrich, C. G. (portrait) 665 

Gorleston-on-Sea Electric Tram- 
ways (Frost) •739 

Gould Storage Battery Co 625 

Government Control of Electrical 
Development in Ontario 

(Worman) 385 

Governor, A New Air Compressor. . •840 
(Sradenwltz. A. (A Device for Meas- 
suring- the Deflection of 

Track Rails) •385 

Grant, A. E. (portrait) 215 

H. F. (portrait) 665 

Graphical Mathematics. VI. (Hol- 

man) '219 

VII. (Holman) ^346 

Graston, M. E. (Freight and Ex- 
press Tratflc on Interurban 
Railways) 807 

Great Britain, Motor Omnibuses in. *484 

Ground Return in Railroad Systems, 
The Treatment of the (Her- 
rick) 567 

Guarlnl. E. (Counter-Weight Tram- 
way at Sydney) '277 

(New Electric Locomotive for 

the Bex Gryon Villars Rail- 
way) ^430 

(The Electric Tramways of 

Ainsterdam, Holland) ^17 

Guide, The Indiana Electric Rail- 
way 31S 

Guthrie Electrical Railway Co 101 


Hale, Henry S. (portrait) '6SS 

& Kilburn Manufacturing Co.. *6S3 

Exhibit 626 

Hamburg and Berlin, Rapid Transit 

Between 220 

Hamilton. Ont.. New Generators at. 121 

Upright Drill Presses ^228 

Hammond. Whiting & East Cliica- 
go Electric Ry.. Power Im- 
provements of the South Chi- 
cago City Ry. and '819 

Hand-Power Hydraulic Wheel Press •693 

Hanna Co., J. A 63 

Handling Freight in Birmingham.. 20S 

Hanshin Electric Railway 771 

Harp. Bayonet Detachable •400 

Harrington. W. E. (portrait) 665 

Harris (Process for Cleaning Ma- 
chine Oil) '386 

Havana (Cuba) Central Hallway. 

The 467 

llazclton, Hugh (Mulllplo Unit 

Systems of Train Control)... ^614 
Headijuarters llotrls ( I'hiladcliillla) 597 
Hcderstedt. W. It. P. O'ortralt) . . . . 472 

Henry, F. R. (portrait I 677 

'Hercules" Insulator, The 71 

Herrlck. Albert B. (The Treatment 
of the Ground Return In 

Railroad Systems) 667 

Herschell-Splllman Co •MO 

Heullngs, Jr., W. H. (portrait) 127 

Hi-witt, Charles (portrait) BBS 

Higher Line Potentials e210 

High Potential Trolley Operation 

Details. .S'ome 429 

Hlle, C. IL (The Power Distributing 
System of the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway Co.) •606 

Illnstorff, D. C. (I'urchnBlns and 

Slorekeeplng) 292 

Hippee, Geo. B., Address of Presi- 
dent 305 

Hoisting Facilities In Car Houses. c805 

Hoist, Motor-Driven Car ^782 

Hoists for Electric Railway Repair 

Shops 'SZO 

Holdup of Denver Tr,'imw,ay Crew, 

Attempted 209 

Holman, A. G. (Graphical Mathe- 
matics) ^219, •346 

Honnold, O. A. (The Utah Light & 

Railway Co.) •726 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co. 209 

Huellngs, ,7r., W. H. (portrait) 633 

Hunt, Edward J. (The Detroit, Flint 

& Saginaw Railway Co.).... ^849 
Hurty, X. N. (Car Sanitation In 

Indiana) 431 

Hydraulic Jacks. Dependable 590 

[llinois. Competition In c294 

Tunnel Co., Chicago, Work of 

the 506 

mini Trail," "The 903 

Illuminated Signs ^329 

Improvements at Baltimore, Park.. 293 
Income and Operating Expenses 
per Mile for Electric Rail- 
ways Members of the New 
York State Association 

(Beardslcy) 438 

Index, Annual e24 

Indiana. Car Sanitation in (Hurty). 431 

Electric Railway Guide. The.. 318 

Electric Railway Association. 57. 135 

February Meeting 103 

April Meeting 284 

May Meeting 347 

June Meeting 387 

October Meeting 745 

November Meeting 807 

Charter Members 58 

Union Traction Appointments.. 635 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 

Co., The •87 

& Cincinnati Single-Phase Line, 

Inspection Trip on the 872 

Single-phase Car Equip- 

ment of the ^151 

& Eastern Ry., Train Dis- 
patching As Handled on the 

(Pearson) 389 

Express Terminal ^340 

Newcastle & Toledo 207 

Switch & Frog Co. (New "Indi- 
anapolis" Crossing) •656 

Traction & Terminal Co., The 

New Terminal Station of •34 

Induction Motor, Auto-Starter for 

a 1,500 H.-P 'SSe 

Industrial Beneficial Association... 260 

of Exporters, Card 599 

IngersoU. Frederick (portrait) 312 

Tiigersoll's Luna Park, Cleveland.. 179 

Institute Annual Dinner 41 

Instruction for Motormen. The Pol- 
icy of More Liberal (Taylor) 735 

Insulator. A Safe Canopy •igs 

The Lima ^67 

Insulators, Third-Rail ^231 

Insurance, Electric Railway e805 

Fund and Depreciation Reserves 

(Mac Afee) 292 

Interborough Strike. The el4S 

Interchangeable Coupon Ticket 
Books. Report of the Commit- 
tee on 284 

Interchange of Freight between 

Steam and Electric Roads. . . 38 
International Accounting Stand- 
ards. Possibility of e41& 

Railway Exhibition, Westing- 
house Companies at the. 

Washington 331 

Register Co 679 

Interurban Service between Chicago 

and Kankakee 383 

Service. A Desirable Car for 

(Mitten) ■S72 

Lines Between Boston. Mass., 

and Manchester, N. H.. New. 250 

Passenger Traffic (Schlesinger) 103 

Interurbans. City Entrances for.... e210 
Interstate Electric Railwav .\ssoci- 

atlon 322 

Rallwnyii Co 688 

Tunnel Railway Co 774 

Iowa & IlllnolH Railway Co., The.. ^72 

Stair; AHHoclntlon 212, 306 

— - — Valley Interurban Railway Co. . 240 
Iron, Experiments on Con'-roto nnd. 9 
Italy; Electric Omnibus Line In... 83 
Tramway Fares In 3B9 

J.'ick», Dependable Hydraulic 590 

Jackson Railway Co., The Lanalng 

& 283 

Japan, Electric Railways In 880 

Curtis .Steam Turbines In 612 

Electric Rallwayii in 459 

The Kobu Railway Co. of 334 

Jersey Traction Co., Seml- 

Converllble Cars for •65 

"Jim Crow" Law In Tennessee... o295 

Johns — Manvllle Exhibit, H. W. . . 627 

Johnson's Plan, Mayor 293 

Johnson, W. .M. (The Schoen Steel 

Wheel) •192 

Joints, Climax Rolled and Corru- 
gated 456 

Jolt Lubricators 711 

Jones. Frank G. (portrait) (65 

Journal Boxes. Machined 102 

Oiler. The Armstrong 'Hi 

Kalamazoo Railway Supply Co... 462. 640 

Kankakee Interurban Service be- 
tween Chicago and 383 

Kansas CIty-Leavenworth Railroad 

Co 512 

Railway & Light Co.. Annual 

Report 4go 

Kearney Cable Clamp. The 'eSO 

Keeler Co., Water Tube Boilers, E. . •iie 

Kelsey, G. H. (Use and Abuse of 

Car Equipment) •174 

KIng-Lawson Dump Car, The .... 'm 

Kilmarnock Electric Tramways 

System '282 

Kingston, Ont., Municipal Owner- 
ship Too Costly for 430 

Knowlton. Howard S. (The Western 
Massachusetts Street Rail- 
way) .881 

(Traffic Problems Upon 

Loops and Stub Tracks). ^799 

Kobu Railway Co. of Japan, The.. 334 

Koester, Franz (Modern Boiler 

House Equipment 'TJi 

(Superheated Steam and the 

Construction of Superheat- 
ers as Used In Power Plants) 'SB? 

Kruger. Charles O. (portrait) .... 552 

Lancaster & York Furnace, Fine 
Type Seml-Convertlble Car 

tor 'lis 

Lagonda Manufacturing Co 679 

Lamps. Electric Marker •780 

Lansing & Jackson Railway Co.. 

The 283 

Latrobe. Pa.. "Grooveless-Post," 

Convertible Car for 'gSS 

Law 49. 115. 161. 

233. 301. 375. 433, 489. 749. 811. 873 

Jim Crow. Tennessee 310 

In Tennessee. "Jim Crow".... e295 

Leavenworth Railroad Co.. Kan- 
sas City 512 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co.. The 512 

Lester, J. W. (portrait) J77 

Letters of an Old Trolley Conductor 

to His Son 472 

Leussler. R. A. (Accounting as an 
Aid to the Operating De- 
partment) 314 

Lewis & Clark Exposition. Exhibits 

at the 398 

Lewiston & Southeastern Electric 

Railway Co.. Ltd 59. 399 

Liberty Trolley Harp. The •454 

Lightning .\rrester. Improved 

Wurts 330. 514 

Protection 2C8 

Lima. Electric Car for 340 

Electric Tramways in 469 

Lincoln. F. H. (portraits 552 

Line Construction for High Pres- 
sure Railroads iDamon) .... •239 

Potentials. Higher (Damon) ... e210 

Lirk-Belt Catalogs 602 

Linn. Jr.. A. L. (portrait) 677 

Lintern Signal System. The 181 

Lion and the Lamb. The el4g 

Litigation. Chicago 329. 509 

Liverpool Corporation Tramways 

Report 32S 



steel Tired Wheels in 323 

Lockers, Steel 'BB 

Locomotive for the Bex Gryon Vil- 
lars Railway, New Klectric 

(Guarini) '430 

for Sweden. Single-Phase .... •249 

Logansport I'ark Train '446 

London, Improved Tramway Termi- 
nal Plans for 446 

Metropolitan Railway of '155 

Office of the Peckham Co 382 

United Tramway System. Ex- 
tension of the 330 

Long Island Railroad. Third Rail 

Bonds on the '119 

Loops and Stub Tracks. Traffic Prob- 
lems Upon iKnowlton) '799 

Lorain Steel Co. Representatives. . 632 

Lord Electric Co 620, 682 

^■^ Dinner 107 

Exhibit 656 

Los Angeles, New Equipment for... '432 

Pacitic Railroad 154 

Lotteries in Aid of Accounting.... e47S 
Lowering Jack, The Buckeye Auto- 
matic '128 

Losses, Reducing Avoidable 359 

Lubrication e804 

Lubricator, The Jolt •l>S7 

Lumen Bearing Co 626 

Luna Park. Pittsburg 'SIX 

Lundell Universal Motors, The *127 


Machine Tools, Modern '227 

Macon-Evans Varnish Co 684 

(Insulating Compounds) . . . 630 

Mall Service, Electric and Cable 

Car 249 

Maintenance of Way, Master Paint- 
ers' Convention, The 488 

Maize, W. L. (portrait) 553 

Malingerers and Ambulance Chasers, 

Fakirs (Pratt) . 772 

Malta, Tramways at 347 

Management. Power House *493 

of Public Utilities. Contrasts Be- 
tween Company and Municipal 

Ownership and (Blake) 441 

Manchester. N. H.. and Boston, 
Mass.. New Interurban Lines 

Between 250 

Manganese Steel 90 

Rails on the Boston Ele- 
vated 204 

Manila Street Railway '598 

Opening of 312 

Mann, A. S. (Can a Steam Turbine be 

Started in an Emergency 
Quicker than a Reciprocating 
Engine of the Same Power?) 

Manufacturers' Association 692 

at New York State Convention. . 443 

Marker Lamps. Electric '780 

Marlboro, The Boston & Worcester 

New Sub-Station at '225 

Master Painters' Convention, The 

Maintenance of Way 488 

■ Massachusetts. A Talk on Railway 

Development in 109 

Board of Railroad Commission- 
ers, Annual Report of the.... 122 
Street Railway Evolution in .... e296 

The Western (Knowlton) . . '881 

Materials. Forms for Purchasing, 

Delivering and Paying for 

(Schurz) '569 

Tramway Overhead Equipment 

(Sayers) 169 

Mathematics. Graphical. — VII. (Hol- 

man) *346 

Mayer, C. J. (portrait) 588 

& Engluna Co.. The *688 

and Allies 631 

'Protected' Rail Bonds)... '655 

Mayor Johnson's Plan 293 


Detroit, Flint & Saginaw Ry. . . 850 

Detroit United Railway and 

Connections 499 

Electric Interurban Railways.. 241 

Electric Railways of Central 

Indiana ■ 207 

Elgin & Belvidere Electric Co. 

and Connections 856 

Ft. Wayne. Van Wert & Lima 

Electric Rv 28 

Illinois Valley Railway 132 

Indianapolis. Newcastle & To- 
ledo 207 

Metropolitan R.ailway of Paris. . 185 

Missouri Valley Electric Ry. . . . 829 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Sys- 
tem Showing Location of 
Power Plants and Sub-Sta- 
tions 528 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern 

R. R 869 

South Jersey Division of Public 

Service Corporation 569 

Spokane & Inland Ry 464 

Standard Right of Way. A 205 

Subway and Elevated Railroad 

of the Philadelphia Rapid 

Transit Co 618 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Rall- 

w.TV and Connections 580 

West Penn Railways .System... 198 

Western Massachusetts Street 

Ky 882 

MacAfee, J. B. (Insurance Fund and 

Depreciation Reserves) 292 

M'Cunn (Electric Tramway for West 

Fife) 40 

M'Donald, D. (Relieving Congested 

Traffic at Rush Hours) 31 

Cash Fare Receipts *601 

F. (Rural Railways) 306 

M'Gowan. Hugh J. (portrait) 37 

M'Laughlin. R. A. (portrait) 367 

McAloney. W. II. (portrait) 605 

ilcCulloch. Richard (portrait) 666 

.McGill Block Signal 'SOS 

McKinley Syndicate Properties of 

Northern Illinois ..'ISl, '229. •363 
MMath. Thomas B. (Track and 
Roadbed Construction and 

Maintenance) 47 

McQullkin. Isaac (portrait) 677 

Mechanical Association, New Mem- 
bers of the 681 

and Electrical Association, The. 

101, e419 

Program 417 

. Question Box (Mower) .... 889 

New Members 724 

Draft. Chimney vs 32 

Membership Committee, Work of the e561 

Memphis. Brill Cars for 488 

■ Street Railway Property 

Changes Hands 144 

Men in Charge of Men, For 50" 

Metals, Scientific Bearing 901 

Metcalfe. George R e99 

Metropolitan Elevated. Annual Re- 
port of 262 

Railway of London •15.5 

• Paris (Vingoe) *84 

Mexico. Proposed Betterments for. 834 

Micanite Sustained. Basic Patent for 400 

Middlcton Cars for York, Pa '42 

Millar. John (portrait) 605 

Millpi" .\nchors •128 

Anchor for Fence Posts *39S 

Mileage Tables and Tariff •SSO 

Milwaukee Electric Railroad Exten- 
sion. Chicago & 899 

Miniature Railway, The •453 

Missouri. Central Railway of 846 

Trade Mark. Southwest •417 

Valley Electric Railway Co 829 

Mitten. P. J. (A Desirable Car for 

Interurban Service) 872 

T. E. (portrait) 130 

Molder. J. A. Fay & Egan No. 133.. ^459 

Monarch Engine Stop 325 

and Speed Limit System.... •SSI 

Montgomery Traction Co. Changes 

Hands 209 

Montreal, A New Type of Car for . . . •359 

New Observation Car for ^477 

Street Railway Co., Annual Re- 
port of the 856 

■ Benefit Association, The.... 449 

Annual Picnic 554 

Morse. Samuel (Municipal Trading) 357 

Morris Co., Elmer P 625 

William L. (Piping and Power 

Station Systems 

•?, "lOe, 'les, ^297, 

•371, *414, •473, •753, •SIS. '877 
Motor Brushes, Lengthening the Life 

of 124 

Motor Buses and Electric Cars.... e479 

vs. Electric Tramways 

(Roliinson) 143 

Motor Car. New Gasoline-Electric. •263 

New Westinghouse Railway . . . ^778 

of 1905. The Railway e26 

— — No. 92-A. Westinghouse Rail- 
way *68 

— Omnibuses in Great Britain '484 

Motors. The Lundell Universal '127 

The National Electric Co.'s. 

New Induction Motors '778 

Motormen. The Policy of More Lib- 
eral Instruction for (Taylor) 735 
Mower, S. W. (portrait) 605 

Question Box of the Ameri- 

can Railway Mechanical 
and Electrical Association 

775. 832. 889 

Mullins Special Livery Boat. The... 327 
Multiple Unit Systems of Train 

Control fHazelton) •614 

Municipal Administrative Ability... 285 
Ownership. Mr. Dalrymple on.. e360 

a Burden on Taxpayers 202 

and Management of Public 

Utilities (Blake) *441 

Not Operation (NIchoIl) . . . . 291 

Too Costly for Kingston, 

Ont 430 

Street Railway in Cologne, Ger- 
many. The New 565 

Trading fAvebury) 501 

Trading (Morse) 357 

Munro. H. D. (portrait) 472 

Mutual Benefit Association at Bir- 

mingham 59.> 

Associations (Ross) 265 

Myers Co.. L. E 584 


Nachod Automatic Block Signal... 691 

Nahant & Lvnn Street Railway Co.. 32 

Name. The Value of .i e294 

Nash. M. M. (Repairs to Equipment) 350 

Nashville, Easter Outing In 268 

Glendalc Park 

National Carbon Co 

Car Wheel Co 

Curtain Fixture, The ^599, 

Electric Co '. • 

New Induction Motors, The. 



National Lock Washer Co. (The Pos- 
itive Spring Nut Lock) 

New England Street Railway Club.. 

Fall Meeting 

January Meeting (portrait) 

December Meeting 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co... 
Newport News & Old Point, Semi- 
Convertible Cars for 

New Publications 460, 503, 603, 

New South Wales Tramways 

New York Central Plans 

Lines to Enter Canada.;... 

Storage Battery Installation 

Changes. Westinghouse 

City Railway Earnings 

Annual Convention of the Street 

Railway Association of the 

State of 

New Haven & Hartford Adopts 

Westinghouse Single-Phase 


& Stamford Railway Co. (Bates) 

State Convention, Manufacturers 


• Association. Income and Op- 
erating Expenses per 
Mile tor Electric Railways 
Members of the (Beards- 



Traction Merger in 

Newman Properties Association, The 
Newton Cold Saw Cutting Off Ma- 
chines V 

Nicholl, T. J. (Discipline in Europe 
and United States) 

(Municipal Ownership Not Op- 

(Some European Notes on Tick- 

Nichols, H. B. (portrait) 

(Joints and Track Construction 

in Philadelphia) 

(Some European Notes) 

Lintern Sanders 

Northern Texas Traction Co., High 
Speed for the 

Improvements and Changes 

Northwestern Electrical Association, 
Report of 13th Annual Con- 
vention (portrait) 

Elevated Annual Report 

Norris. Henry H. (The Recent Work 
of the Electric Railway Test 

Norveil, F. D. (Shall Baggage be 
Carried Free?) 


Notes. European Some (Nicholl).... 

Nuttall Co., The R. D 

Exhibit, R. D 

Bali-Bearing Trolley ... 






















Obituary 61, 

121, 189, 249. 449, 505, 597, 779, 845, 903 

Bailey, George C. (portrait) . . 845 

Beach, H. E 903 

Boyle. John 505 

Collins. W. Forman 61 

Edgar. Wm. H 903 

Gates, J. Holt B05 

Goddard. Alpheus P 189 

Haines. F. M. 449 

Hoskins, Frank B 779 

Miles. Col. George W 189 

Mullln. Edward Hemphill (por- 
trait) 121 

Mundy. William Offut (portrait) 249 

Naugle, E. E 449 

Shlpp. William L 903 

White. William 189 

W^oodworth. Col. Albert Charles 697 

Observation Car for Montreal, New. ^477 

O'Connor, E. W. (portrait) 623 

Officers and Executive Committee 
of the American Street Railway 

Association. 1904-'05 665 

for in05-'06. Association 768 

of the American Association of 

Street Railway Claim Agents. 623 

of the American Railway 

Mechanical and Electrical 

Association 605 

of the J. G. Brill Co.. The 623 

of the Street Railway Accoun- 
tants' Association 677 

Office Building. Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co.'s New 507 

of the Secretary. The e479 

Ohio. Appleyard Situation in 94 

Brass Co. Exhibit. The 630 

Fire The 342 

Steel Hose Bridge 691 

The Monarch Track Clean- 
er 699 

Ohio Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion, Annual Meeting of the.. 110 



Feb]-u:u-y MnUnK 174 

March MeetliiK 247 

May M(!ctlng 379 

June MoolliiK ■'46 

October McclInK 802 

Novcrnh(?r Meeting 870 

'December Meeting 40 

River Kleetric H.illway & Pow- 
er Co., 'Vhr Freight Tnifllc^ 

of the (Oiipenhelrner) 'SSC 

Traetlon gi. Light Co.. New 

Equipment tor 885 

Trolley Line, Trans B80 

Mergi^r In K.astern 761 

Ohmcr Fare RcKlater Co., The .... 682 

. Contracts 399 

OlimerKraph, Koliillnn of Ihe Trans- 
fer IM'oblom, 'I'Ik? •G35 

Oil atul Waste; .Saving Machine Co. •590 

lOiectric Oenerators, Automatic. •841 

Process for Cleaning Machine 

(Harris) •386 

Old Colony Street Railway Co., 
Newiiort, K. L. (T..ocatlng Breaks.. 

in Series Arc Circuits) •BOS 

Olils K. W. (porlrait) 605 

Oliver Machinery Co 662 

R. G. (portrait) 553 

Omnibus Lino in Italy, Electric... 83 

Ontario, Government Control of 
l:ieclrical Development In (Wor- 

man) 385 

Operating Department. .Accounting 

as an Aid to th(' (Leussler) 314 

Expenses per Mile for Electric 

Railways Members of the New 
York State Association, in- 
come and (Heardsley) 438 

Opponhcimer. I. L. The Freight 
Traltic of tlie Oiilo River Electric 

Hallway & Power Co 'Sir, 

Ottawa Electric Railway Co., An- 
nual Report of the 97 

Outing, A Pleasant 447 

Overhead Crossing, Improved •396 

Material, Some Early (Fiynn). •538 

Paciflc Electric Railway, Observa- 
tion Cars on the •356 

Coast Water Powers for Opera- 
tion of Railroads 97 

Packing, Rogers Indestructible ^196 

Paints, Insulating (Weeks) •747 

Parcel Carrying on Street Railways. 249 
Pardee, J. H. (Interurban Ticket 

Accounting) •764 

Paris Metropolitan Railway Co. 

(Vingoe) '84 

I'ark Attractions tor York Street 

Railway Co 209 

I'ark. Cleveland. Ingersoil's Luna.. *179 

Dubuque Ball •349 

Improvements at Baltimore.... 293 

Receipts e2B 

Seats •64 

Swing, The Eagle '452 

Train, Logansport ^446 

Willow Grove, Philadelphia, 

Rapid Transit Co ^649 

Summer (Tingiey) •563 

Steel Boats tor Street Railway. •250 

Ornamental Iron Fences for... *1S0 

Groves and Seashore Resorts.. 329 

Parks. Amusement Machines for 

Street Raii'-ay •324 

Parsons. Joh, B. (portrait) 551 

Passenger Department. An Electric 

Railway (Derrah) •581 

The Cost of Carrying a (Ting- 
ley) 793 

Paving Blocks in Baltimore, Creo- 

Resinate Processed •502 

Pav Roll, Blank for Time Keeping 

and •482 

Hour Extending Table 583 

"Peacock" Brake, C. Style •676 

for Chicago 262 

in Canada 444 

Order 500 

People's Railway Co.. New Equip- 
ment for the ^842 

Pearson, W. A. (The Series-Parallel 

Railway Controller) •612 

W. L. (Train Dispatching as 

Handled on llie Indianapolis 

& Eastern Rv.) 389 

Peck. Dr. F. H. (portrait) 423 

(Uniform i^tandards of Exam- 
ination of Railway Employes) *423 
Peckham Co., I,ondon Office of the.. S82 

Short Wheel Base Truck •266 

Peerless Rubber Co 710 

Pellisier. G. E. (Thermit Rail Weld- 
ing) ^642 

Pen-Dar Metal Lockers ♦675 

Penington. T. C. (portrait...).... 665 
A. S. R. A. Tribute to Secretary 712 

Announcement 509 

Pensions in America, Street Rail- 
way 212 

Pensylvania Lines to the Conven- 
tion, The 512 

Special for Western Delegates. 597 

Personals 60. 120. 188, 248. 

322, 392. 44S. 505, Sn?. 711. 779, 844, 902 

Arnold, Howard B 844 

Alderman, C, A 18S 

-Archibald, F. B 69« 

-nalley, W. P 606 

^H.ilrd, S. P 822 

-Baker, C. F 844 

-nancroft, CharicB FoHter .... 822 

-Barlon. Guy C 60, 120 

-Hasford, George M 690 

-Rales & NellHon 696 

-Beach, ll.irry E 188 

-Beatty, Richard 'D 844 

-BeggH, John 1 822 

-BIckneli, Warren 844 

-Bien. W. F 248 

-Binek. Charles M 120 

-Brartneld, JO 902 

-Bradford, Henry Percy 892 

-Bramlette. J. M 822 

-Brlckell, William D 60 

-Brill and Allied Companlen .... 711 

-Brush, Matthew C 902 

-R'oykin, R. M 188 

-Burch, E. P 248, 902 

-Buttrick, W. A 505 . 

-Byrne. 6. H 188 

-Carr, C. E. A 711, 902 

-Carter, William C 60 

-Chance, G. W 902 

-Cherry. T. C 448 

-Cool, U B 188 

-Connette, Edward G 448, 605, 779 

-Conover, A. B 844 

-Crane, Albert S 892 

-Crocker-Wheeler Co 248 

-Cory, Meredlty & Allen 392 

-Crosby, E. A ., 822 

-Cross, Charles W 188 

-Culver, W. P 892 

-Darling, John T 322 

-Darrow. E 902 

-Davey, John 188 

-Davis, Thomas 844 

-Derrah, R. H 188 

-Deverell. F. A 844 

-Dimmock. E. S. 60 

-Dobie. Robert McF 902 

-Drum, A. L 120 

-Dunbar, S. R 392 

-Dutton, Arthur N 696 

— Eisenmenger, Leonard 322 

-Eldridge, Howard 120 

-Emmerick. A. C 322 

-Emmons. CD 322 

-Evans, W. H 449 

-Fisher, John H 120 

-Fiske, H. T 188 

-Fleming. Robert J 61 

-Flynn. Charles E 60 

-Folds. George R 597 

-Folsom. 5. C 505, 844 

-Ford, F. R 188 

— Fosgate, Prank P 711 

—Fox, David 60 

— Prazee, William 188 

—Frost, A. C 120 

— Preshney. Samuel A 596 

-Fuller, F. L 449 

— Gibbs, George 392 

-Girdler, L. T 188 

— Goldsborough. W. Ewell 121 

— Goodloe. J. S. M 392 

— Cionzenbaeh. Ernest 61 

— Goss. W. P. M 188 

—Graves. W. C 902 

— Grover, Henry 596 

— Grover. T. P 506 

— Gunn, E. B 188 

— Gunn, Robert T 120 

— Hackett, Charles H 448 

— Hagar, Guy A 120 

— Hain. James C 779 

— Halllday, Edwin 120 

—Harris, H. W 60 

—Harrington, Walter E 505, 597 

—Hastings, George S 844 

—Hawkins, E. C 248 

— Hayward, A. H 60 

— Hayward, R. H 448 

— Heywood, James 779 

— Honnold. O. A 711 

— Hott. Charles E 120 

J— Houston. Reagan 60 

—Huntington. P. B 779 

— Huntress, Frederick A 248 

—Ivory, Robert T 902 

— Jasperson. R. 188 

—Judge, John B 60 

— Keeble. S. M 60 

—Kennedy, Dr. A. B. W 505 

—Kinney. Ely M 505 

—King, R. W 120 

—King. William R 120 

— Klapp. Eugene 120, 902 

— Klevin, Lord 24S 

—Kline, P. D 844 

— Kllng. P. M 596 

— Kneedler, H. S 60 

— Kruger. Charles 596 

— La Croix. William 505 

—Lea, E. S. 61 

— Lewis. C. C 61 

— Leavitt, Robert P 392 

— Lindall, John 844 

— Lindsey. T. C 248 

— Linn, Jr., Arthur L 121 

— Littell, H. M 60 

— Loftus, M. J 392 

— Lohman, Charles G 188 

— Lucas. Fred. L 120 

— Luxton. William E 505 

— Lvman. T. T. . 322 

— Manson. John T 596 

— Mark. Charles : 120 

. — Marshall. Cloyd (portrait) 60 

— Matson. John L 322 

— Matthews, C. P 696 

Meloon, I. L 248 

Menden, W. 8 696, 844 

McrRhon, Ralph D 902 

Mctzclaar, A. H 322 

McCullnch, Richard 120 

McMlchacI, J. 120 

MeKlnley. Wlillarii H 24« 

McQuilkIn, I»aac 844 

—Miliar, John 696 

Miller, Wlillarn R 448 

Mitten, P. J 696 

Mitten. Thomaa K 131, 606 

Montgomery. H. M 248 

Morehouse, George D 711 

Morley, CharleH R 120 

Mortlmciv Jr., Henry C 120 

Mowry, F. L. 606 

Murch, George A 248 

Murdock. Charles 448 

Muse. W. E 120 

Nagle. George 60 

Nell, J. F 779 

New, Harry S 322 

NIcholi, H. A. (portrait) 248 

Ohmer. John F 60 

Olson. Charles A 902, C. J 188 

Page, Menry C 448 

Page. H. Vf. 902 

Parker. George W 505 

Parsons. William Barclay 188 

Patteson, 8. K 902 

Pearce. H. F 822 

Pearce. James A. 188 

Peck, A. P. (portrait) 846 

Pegram. George H 448 

Peiligsler, O. E 902 

Pepper & Register 696 

Perrlne, Frederick A. C 248 

Phlpps, Henry W 248 

Pierce, H. J. (portrait) 189 

Porter, H. P. J 69S 

Porter, N. B. 448 

Prob.asco. W. »L 505 

Ralph. A. C 248 

— — Randall. Frank C 448 

Ransom. H. N 449 

Reynolds. Henry E. (portrait). 448 

Reynolds, H. S 188 

Richards, Archer 322 

Richards, E. A. 322 

Richards, E. H. 392 

Riehey, Albert S 120. S96 

Robb, Russell 60 

Robinson, J. Clifton 606 

Rockwell, William 60 

Rose, G. G 120 

Rounds. George W 392 

Ruth, Frank J 505 

Rykert, H. S 696 

Sanger, Harry "V 60 

Sargent, Frederick 18». 248 

Sexton. Paul D 448 

Schroder, B. A 188 

Seibert, Charles 60 

Shelton, C. W 605 

Shelton. T. W 120 

Sherwood, Senator F. D 322 

Simpson, C. 120. 844 

Sllfer, H. J 392 

Sloat, Fred J. J 392 

Slocum, J. P. (portrait) 248 

Smith, F. E 120 

Smith, Isaac 120 

Smith, L. E 392 

Smith, Peter 392 

Smith. W. H 248 

Starkey, J. E 448 

Stevens. W. N 121 

Stiilweil, H. C 596 

Stocum, C. H. 60 

Stone. A. E 902 

Street. Willis W 248 

Stretlow, W. L. 60 

Strickland. Randolph 696 

Swenson. Professor Bernard V. 

779. 902 

Tarsney. T. B 902 

Taylor, Joseph W 328 

Taylor. Lewis H. 902 

Terwiliiger, W. J 392 

Thompson. George H 448 

Thompson. S. B 448 

Towne. Henry M 188 

Townley, Calvert 61 

Vanderbllt. Jr.. William K. . . . . 392 

Voight. George W 902 

Wadsworth. George R 448 

Wagner. C. 1 902 

^Valton. L. A 188 

'«-altz. Frederick H 392 

Wallace. H. U 506 

Warren. Arthur 188 

'S^'eber. H. L 448 

Wells. T. K. 844 

Wheeler. Leavenworth 596 

White, Elmer M 596 

White. Elmer M. (portrait) ... 60 

White, R. A 120 

Whiteside, Walter H. (portrait) 596 

'Whitney. C. W 60 

^\-|lcoxon. C. N. (portrait) 392 

'Winters. E. E 188, 248 

'n'itmer. J. P 711 

Wolf. L. J 188 

Wolff. S. E 902 

Wood. 'W. 90J 

'Woodcock. H. J 902 

Woolfolk, William C 61 

Yount. J. M 121 

Wright, C. P 449 

Wright. W. a 449 

Peru. Stephenson Cars for •eOS 

Philadelphia Air Brake '395 

Co.. Annual Report of the 325 



-Commercial Museum. The 'TOB 

-Pairmount Park Transportation 

Co 657 

-Gas Situation. The e361 

-Joints and Traek Construction 

In (Nlchols-Voynow) '644 

-Rapid Transit Co., Distribution 

System '539 

Engineering Features of 
the Subwav and Elevated 

Divisions 'Sn 

Its Ofllrers and Heads of 

Departments 'SB! 

Kingston Ave. Shops '740 

Power Equipment •526 

Track and Track Tools... '757 
Seml-convertlble Cars for .... 'ISl 
Street Railways, A Brief His- 
tory of 'BBl 

Subway and Elevated Railroad, 

The '517 

-The Works of the J. G. Brill 

Co •783 

& West Chester Traction Co... •556 

& Western R. R 568 

Photographic Contest 293 

Pittsburg Employes Entertained... 626 

Luna Park •311 

Railways Co., New Equipment 

for •898 

Plans. Reorganization A. S. R. A... e561 
Polk. H. H. fElPctrIc Railway 

Freight Serviced 309 

PoTver House Management '493 

Plants. Superheated Steam and 

the Constriirtlnn of Super- 
heaters as Used In fKoester) •SR? 
Preservatives. The Strength of Tim- 
ber Treated with 216 

Prnsser & Son. Thomas 711 

Publications. Style for Technical . . e360 
Public TTtllttles. CnntrnSts Retwpen 
Company and Municipal Own- 
ershin and Management of 

(BIake> •441 

Publicity fWhltcl 425 

Association. Technical 856 

Purchaslne and Storekeeplng (Hlns- 

torffl 292 

Piping and Power station Svstems 
fMnrrlsl ..•7 •106. *165 •1!97 
•371. •414. ♦473. •7.';3. 'SIS. •S77 
Pittsburg Railwnvs Co.. Brunots 

Island Power St.Ttion of the... •401 
Plans of Electric Rnllwavs for 1905 251 

for Peorgnni-^Ing the A. S R A. 261 

Planer. New Fentures on 1 Cabinet 3S4 
Plastic Ball B'ond. A Permanent 

Tvne of •J14n 

■^latt Iron "WnrVs '^n . The 1?9 

Pleasure Besorts. Two New 16 

Poor's Manuals 189 

Population and Traffic 6 

Portable Sub-Stations and Fire 

Hazards e866 

Portsmouth. Dover g- York Street 
Ballway Co.. Semi-Converti- 
ble Car for •ISI 

Poster. Advertising ^45; 

Potter. E. E. fportralt^ SO 

— Discussion in .\hstract of 

Papers by Messrs. Charles 

F. Scott and W. B 769 

W. B fElectric Railway 

Enulnmenti ". 702 

Poste! S- T>inn 383 

Power. Data on Cost of 140 

Distribution System of the Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway Co. 

(Hlle) •606 

Eoulpment of the Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co ^526 

House by Telephone, Helping 

the e560 

Reinforced Concrete 627 

Plant of the Camden Interstate 

Rallwav Co.. New fCnndngo'j •269 

Production and Transmist^inn in 

the State of Indiana. Cost of 
Electric Railway ('Richcy) 43 

Station .'^Jvstems. Pinirf nnd 

CMorrisI . .•7 "106. •16.S '^OT 

•3V1. ^414. '473. •75'!. 'Sin ' •S77 

Load Factor as a Factor in 

the Cost of Operation 
fCrecellusI 'eifl 

Pratt, Earl M. (About Rooms for 

Employes) 602 

Pratt, James R, fFakirs. Malinger- 
ers and .Ambulance Chasers). 772 

Pratt & Lambert Convention a^ 

Price, W. G., Wear of Steel Tired 
■Wheels — How to Eliminate 
Excessive Wear 109 

Prime Movers. The Choice of (Rob- 
erts) 110 

Products of the W. R. Garton Co., 

Two 327 

Progress In the United Kingdom, 

Tramway 504 

Public Service Corporation Blanks 707 

Publicity, Value of Verified e478 

Punch, Woodman's Consecutive 

Registering Ticket ^724 

Purdue Railroad Museum, Additions 

to 16 

Purchasing, Delivering and Paying 
for Materials, Forms for 
(Schurz) '589 

Questions and Answers, A. R. M. 

and E e5G2 

Question Box 413 

-of the Mechanical Electrical As- 
sociation (Mower) ... .775, S32. SS9 

The Accountant's 477 

Radial Drill with Motor Drive .... *227 
Rail Bonding on the Brooklyn 

Heights Railroad (Forbes).. '237 

Joint Co., The S25 

Joints. The Cast-Welding of 

(Simmons) '650 

Thermit Welding of (Cole) 244 ' 

The Treatment of (Sim- 
mons) •641 

Ralls, A Device for Measuring the 
Deflection In Track (Graden- 
wltz) 'SSS 

A Good Method for Piling ^512 

on the Boston Elevated, Man- 
ganese Steel 204 

Railway and Power Service, Gas 

Engines for •217 

Journal Lubricating Co 676 

(Complimentary Stenog- 

raphy Service) 624 

Matters on the Continent 146 

— — The Miniature •463 

Men, An Offer to 420 

Motors of 1905, The e26 

System. The Single-Phase 

(Scott) 697 

Railways, Census Report on Street 

and Electric 345 

Protective Association 763 

Rural (M'Donald) 306 

Some Data from Census Report 

on Street and Electric 345 

Railroad. The Philadelphia .Subway 

and Elevated '517 

Rapid Railway System. New Type 

of Agent's Ticket for 421 

Transit Between Berlin and 

and Hamburg 220 

Rates to the Convention. Rules Re- 
garding Reduced 559 

Rawle. James (portrait) 633 

Reagan, H. C. (An Accident to a 

Cross-Compound Engine) .... 822 

Receipts. Park e25 

Recording Clocks 786 

Records of Employes, Personal.... ^421 

Registering Contracts. Ohmer 399 

Removal Announcements 267 

Renaud. W. H. (portrait) 623 

Renewals. Recording Special Work 

and Special Work •466 

Rennick, Alex (portrait) 662 

Reorganiation Plans (A. S. R. A.).. e561 
Repairs to Enuipment (Nash) .... 354 
Repair Shop, The Time Element in 

the e561 

Economy e361 

Report, Liverpool Corporation 

Tramways 325 

of the Montreal Street Railway 

Co., Annual 856 

of the Connecticut Railroads. 125 

of Massachusetts B'oard of Rail- 
road Commissioners, .\nnual. 122 
of Metropolitan Elevated, An- 
nual 262 

of the Railroad Commissioner 

of the State of Wisconsin, Bi- 
ennial 300 

Reports for Track Department .... *223 
Resorts, Parks, Groves and ' Sea- 
shore 329 

Richey, Albert S. (Cost of Electric 
Railway Power Production 
and Transmission in the State 

of Indiana) 43 

Ridlon Co., Frank 640 

Babbitting Device 680 

Trolley Catcher, The ^723 

Right of Way Data '204 

Rip Saw, Car Shop Band '904 

Roadbed (Construction, Track and 
— Life and Chemical Preser- 
vation of Cross Ties (M'Math) 47 
Roberts & Abbott Co., New Work 

of 154 

Roberts, E. P. (Choice of Prime 

Movers. The) 110 

Robinson. J. riitton (Motor Buses , 

vs. Electric Tramways 143 

Rochester, Forty Kuhlman Cars for 65 

& Geneva, New York. Limited 

Service Between 370 

Syracuse & Eastern Railroad 

Co 869 

Rockwell. H. B. (Personal Element 
In the Adjustment of Damage 

Claims. The) 272 

Rodger Ballast Cars '627 

Rogers Indestructable Packing .... •196 

Roller Coaster. The ^897 

Roofing for Power Houses, Metal 

Tile •846 

Rooms for Employes, About (Pratt) 602 

Root No. 2 Scraper, The •604 

Railway Scraper. The ^609 

Rope Lubrication, Wire •786 

Ross, W. G. (portrait) 677 

(Mutual Benefit Association).. 266 

Rules Reg.-irding Reduced Rates to 

the Convention 559 

Rural Railways (M'Donald) 306 

Saginaw & Bay City Railway & 

Light Co 'SSS. ^409 

Railway Co., The Detroit, Flint 

& (Hunt) •849 

Valley Traction Co., New Car 

Barns and Shops for the ^861 

Salamanca, Travias de •69 

Sand Box, The Ham ^897 

Drying Plant, A Modern '897 

Sanders for Street' Railway Service, 

Pneumatic Track •634 

San Francisco, Important Contracts 

In 16 

San Francisco, Miscellaneous 

Equipment of the United 

Railroads of •! 

San Francisco. Seeing .... 432 

• Standard Type of Cars 

for City Service for Unit- 
ed Railroads of •290 

Saw, A New Eand Scroll ^195 

Car Shop Band Rip '904 

Sayers, H. M. (Tramway Overhead 

Equipment Materials) 169 

Schnectady, New Terminal Station 

at 277 

Scioto Valley Traction Co., Test of 
the Railway System of the 

(Caldwell) ^796 

.Schoen Steel Wheel, The (Johnson) ^192 

Solid Pressed and Rolled Steel 

Wheel. The ^694 

School for Artisans. Summer 333 

Schurz. James R. (Forms for Pur- 
chasing, Delivering and Pay- 
ing for Materials) •569 

.Schuylkill Railway Co 323 

Schuylkill River, New Bridge Over 

the . ^517 

Schlesinger, Louis J. CInterurban 

Passenger Traffic) 103 

Scioto-Valley Traction Co 264 

Scott, Charles F. and W.-B. Potter, 
Discussion in Abstract of Pa- 
pers by Messrs 769 

Chas. F. (The Single-Phase 

Railway System) 697 

Scraper, The Root Railway •509 

The Root No. 2 •604 

Selfridge, R. B. (portrait) 553 

Shops of the Duluth Street Railway 

Co.. New ^187 

Seattle, Seeing 768 

Seats, Orders for Wheeler 178 

Secretary, The Ofl^ce of the e479 

Selxas, E. F. (Freight Development 

by Interurban Roads) 821 

Service, A Desirable Car for Inter- 
urban (Mitten) 872 

Series-Parallel Railway Controller, 

The (Pearson) •612 

.Service Stripes 806 

Shannahan, J. N. (Types of Inter- 
urban Cars) 424 

Sherwin-Williams Co 706 

Shop Device, A New 430 

Shops of the Saginaw Valley Trac- 
tion Co., New Car Barns and ^861 
Shreveport, La., Convertible Cars 

for ^^Sl 

Sign Letter for Street Railway 

Parks, A Solid Porcelain •173 

Signs. Illuminated ^329 

Signals, "Eureka" Automatic Elec- 
tric 599 

Signal, The Blake ^895 

System, The Lintern 181 

Simmons Co.. Motor-Driven Tools 

in the Plant of the John.... •782 

Fred G. (The Cast-Welding of 

Rail Joints) ^650 

(The Treatment of Rail 

Joints) ^641 

[portrait) 605 

Single-Phase Railway System, The 

(Scott) 697 

in the South, The First... •585 

Locomotive for Sweden 249 

System, New York, New Haven 

& Hartford Adopts Westing- 
house 713 

Sleet Cutter, The Sloan •OS 

To Prevent Trouble with 458 

Sloan Sleet Cutter, The •eS 

Smith, F. E. (portrait) 676 

Heater Co., Peter 625 

Smoke and Its Abatement (Benja- 
min) 368 

Smyrna, Tramways at 42 

South Bay Railway Co., The Syra- 
cuse & •892 

Chicago City Ry. and Ham- 
mond, Whiting & East Chi- 
cago Electric Ry., Power Im- 
provements of the •819 

Side Elevated R. R., Improve- 
ments on the *810 

Southern Pacific 1905 Hunting Trip 904 
Southwestern Traction Co., New 

Cars for Cleveland & '893 

.s^peclal Track Work (Angerer) .... 53 
Special Work and Special Work Re- 
newals, Recording '466 



Long Switch Timbers under *6 

Spoor Carbon Co TIO 

Spllnian, O. 1'. (Truln Dispatching) 387 

Spokaici' & Inland Itallway Co 779 

SpokaiiL-, Klectrle Hallways In and 

About *''I>1 

Sprlngllcld Consolidated Ky., Closed 

Cars lor '321 

Sprinkling- Car, The New Centrifu- 
gal • • 7^J 

Sprinkler Protection for Electric 
Hallway Properties, Recent 

Testa of Automatic •397 

Standard Automatic Lubricator Co. (i!)5 

Paint Co f 660 

Hallway Track Appliance Co... 710 

Steel Works, The 640 

Standards of lOxamlnatlon of Rail- 
way lOm'ployes, Uniform 

(Peck) •123 

.Possibility of International Ac- 
counting ' ells 

Stanley, J. J. (portrait) 660 

Star Brass Works. The 02b 

State Meetings 330 

Statistics In Canada, Electric Rail- 
way 100 

Station of the Indianapolis Traction 
& Terminal Co., The New Ter- 
minal ^33 

Stations, Central Electric Light and 

Power 748 

Steam and the Construction of Su- 
perheaters as Used In Power 
Plants, Superheater (Kocs- 

ter) •S57 

and Electric Roads, Inter- 
change of Freight Between.. 38 

Heating Plants, Central Station 584 

Railroad Competition 362 

Koad as a Trolley Manager, The elBO 

Sterllng-Meaker Co. Exhibit 693 

Varnish Co 452, 631 

(A Word About "Sterling" 

Varnish) 661 

Stephenson Car and Truck Plant 

Sold (portrait) 12i 

for Peru ^603 

Steel Tie, The Avery •B14 

Ties. Objections to 430 

Tired Wheels •326 

in Liverpool 323 

Stiles Anti-Friction Metal Co., The 

A. C 696 

Stitzer, A. B. (portrait) 553 

St. Louis Car Wheel Co 640 

United Railway Company of.. 

267, 293 

Stombaiigh" Guy Anchors. Instruc- 

tions for Installing *467 

Storage Battery, Bijur •3S4 

Installation, New York Cen- 
tral • 131 

Storekeeping, Purchasing and 

(Hinstorft) 29^ 

Street Railway Evolution in Massa- 
chusetts e296 

Association, Canadian 37 

Directory of 126 

and Highway Conflicts 12 

Pensions in America ezi,s 

Railways, Parcel Carrying on.. 249 

Street Sprinkling by 226 

Strengthening Traction Bridges 

(Tyrrell) 224 

Strike, The Interborough el48 

New York 147 

. The Result of a Recent 'SSS 

Stombaugh Guy. Anchors 632 

Stuart Automatic Block Signal *4B1 

Stub Tracks, TrafHc Problems Upon 

Loops and (Knowlton) .... 'lOU 
Sturtevant Co., The New Plant of 

the B. F 842 

Generating Set, New '67 

Progress Club, The ""^ 

25-KW. Generating Sets '4515 

Sub-Station, Glenside, B. R. T. Co.. •542 

at Marlboro, The Boston & 

Worcester, New 2io 

Sub-Stations and Fire Hazards, 

Portable e866 

Suburban Fares in Massachusetts.. eS60 

Trolley Service e419 

Subway, The Cambridge 41() 

and Elevated Railroad, The 

Philadelphia *617 

Superheated Steam and the Con- 
struction of Superheaters as 
Used in Power Plants (Koes- 

ter) •S57 

Superheater, The Foster •S94 

Superheaters in Washington Navy 

Yard, Foster '328 

Sweden, Electric State Railway Ex- 
periments in (Bergh) 109 

Single-Phase Locomotive for . •249 

Switch and Enclosed Fuse Cut-Out 

for Car Lighting. Combined. •782 

Timbers, Under Special Work, 

Long '6 

Switzerland, Some Interesting Fea- 
tures of Electric Railways in •343 
Sydney, Counter-Weight Tramway 

at (Guarlni) '277 

Symington Co., The T. H 675 

• ^. H. Co.. Products 630 

Syracuse & Eastern Railroad Co., 

Rochester 869 

Rapid Transit Co. Express Ser- 
vice 260 

& South Bay Railway Co., The •892 

Table, Pay Roll Hour Kxtendlnif.. 583 
Tubor-Bechyne (Austria) Intcrur- 

ban Line, The '475 

Tape for Electrical Usage 124 

Target Light, A Novel ArranKemenl 

for the 417 

Tariff and Mlieage Tables '330 

of the Municipal ,Street Hallway 

\i\ Cologne, Germany, The New 566 

Sheets of the Detroit UnlleU 

Hallway and Rapid Railway 

System •499 

Tariffs in lilrmlngham, Ala., Freight 316 

Tarkington, VV. U. (portrait) 47 

Taylor, A. Merritt tjiortralt) 555 

Edward (The Policy of More 

J-lberal Instruction for Motor- 
men) 735 

Technical Publications, Style for.... c360 

Publicity Association 308 

Telephone, lleljiing the Power 

House By eB60 

Tell tile Public Wlial You Have... e98 
Temperature Changes on Catenary 
Trolley Construction, The Af- 
fect of 208 

Tennessee .^issessment Bill 381 

"Jim Crow" Law In 296, 310 

Terminal of the Chicago & Joliel 
Electric Hallway Co., Archer 

Ave ^450 

Glenside Line and Willow Grove 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co •646 

Indianapolis Express ^340 

l^lans for London, Improved 

Tramway 446 

Station of tile Indianapolis 

Traction Co., 'I'he New ^33 

at Schenectady, New .... 277 

Test Commission, Heceut Work of 

the EI,ectric Hallway (Nor- 

risj 'Vi'i 

of 2,0UU-KVV. Turbine .' . •488 

of 4UU-KVV. VVestinghouse-Par- 

soiis Turbine ^498 

of the Railway System of the 

Scioto Valley Traction Co. 

(Caldwell) •795 

Testimonial to Mr. Brockway 285 

Texas Traction Co. Improvements 

and Changes, The Northern.. 871 

The "999" 196 

Tiieater Construction in Ji,lniira, 

Rapid 'ill 

Tlicrmit Rail Welding (Pellisier) . . •1)42 

Welding of Hail Joints (Cole). 244 

Third Rail Bonds on the Long 

Island R. R •119 

insulators *Z'i\ 

Through Route, A Long 803 

Ticket Accounting, Interurban 

(Pardee) •764 

Contract e25 

-for Rapid Railway System, New 

Type of Agent's ^421 

Tickets (Globe Ticket Co.) 631 

"Exchange" e5b0 

(Norveil) •278 

Some European Notes on (Nich- 

oU) 738 

Tie, The Avery Steel •514 

Possibilities eS68 

A Vitrifled Clay •SOO 

Ties — Life and Chemical Prepara- 
tion of — (M'Math) 47 

Objections to Steel 430 

Timber Dresser, A New *ZZ\ 

Treated with Preservatives, The 

Strength of 216 

Time Element in the Repair Shop, 

The e561 

Keeping and Pay Roll, Blank 

for •482 

Tingley, C. L. S. (portrait) 663 

C. L. S. (Summer Parks) ^563 

C. L. S. (The Cost of Carrying 

a Passenger) 793 

Tools, Modern Machine '227 

Topeka Railway Co ^787 

Torreon, Alex., New Cars for •66 

Track Cleaner, The Monarch (Ohio 

Brass Co.) 699 

Construction in Philadelphia, 

Joints and (NiehoUs-Voynow) ^644 

Department, Reports for ^223 

Drill, The Cyclone '899 

Records, Birmingham •469 

and Roadbed Construction, 

Life and Preservation of 

Cross-Ties (M'Math) 47 

Substructure, A New •ISb 

and Track Tools of the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Co.... •767 

Traction, Electric 349 

Situation, Chicago 

e41S, 405, 597, 806 

Trade Mark, Southwest -Missouri.. •417 

West Penn Railways' .... •465 

The "Albany Grease" •458 

Name Wanted 374 

Notes 603 

Trading, Municipal lAvebury) 501 

(Morse) 367 

Traffic Problems Upon Loops and 

Stub Tracks Uvnowlton) . . . 'TSS 

Interurban Passenger (Schles- 

inger) 103 

Population and 6 

at Rush Hours, Relieving Con- 
gested (M'Donald) 31 

Tramway at Sydney. <Jounter- 

Welght (Guurinl) '277 

Car Wheels (Banister) 221 

Overhead Kquiumenl Materials 

(Sayers) 16» 

Progresa In the United King- 
dom 146, 264, 444 

System, Exlenslon of the Lon- 
don United 130 

at ChcBlcrllcld. England... •213 

Terminal plans for London, Im- 
proved 446 

for West Fife, Electric (Mc- 

Cunn) 40 

Tramways of Amsterdam. Holland, 

The Electric (Guarinl) '17 

Dundee Broughly Ferry & Dis- 
trict Co., Ltd 326 

Exeter Corporation •470 

at Malta 347 

New South Wales 316 

at Smyrna 42 

System, Kilmarnock Electric... ^282 

The Amsterdam-Haarlem .. 'IS 

Transfer Again, The Wet 323 

Transportation Co., New York 16 

at Brooklyn Polytechnic, Course 

In Electric 452 

Department and the A. S. & I. 

R. A., The (Brown) 744 

Tranvlas de Salamanca ^69 

Tray Plate Battery Co 187 

Treatment of Kail Joints, The (Sim- 
mons) ^641 

Trolley Harp, The Liberty ^464 

-Line, Trans-Ohio •680 

Manager, The Steam Road as a elBO 

1,200 Miles by 418 

Operation Details, Some High 

Potential 429 

Outings, East Side 650 

Pole, New Corrugated ^602 

Service, Suburban e419 

Supply Co 660, »01 

Talk 446 

Topics 339' 

Trips, Dcrrah 396 

Wheel, The Amesbury '260, 3(8 

Wire Finder, A New •es 

Truck, Peckham Short Wheel Base. 266 
Trucks for Gasoline-Electric Mo- 
tor Car, New Type of ^394 

Turbine be Started In an Emergen- 
cy Quicker than a Reciprocat- 
ing Engine of the Same 

Power? Can a Steam (Mann). 382 

Blading of the Allls-Chalmers 

Steam ^899 

for the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., Allls-Chalmers Steam... •SSe 

Business Growing, The 508 

The Direct Current Steam e743 

Test of 2,000-Kw •488 

of 400 - Kw. Westinghouse- 

Parsons •498 

Turbines for Brooklyn Road, 

World's Largest 454 

Condensers for ^481 

in Japan, Curtis Steam 612 

Turner, Frederick L. (portrait) 739 

Twining, W. S. (portrait) 553 

Twin Terminal Rail Bonds •487 

Tyrrell, H. G. (Strengthening Trac- 
tion Bridges) ^224 

Type of Road Shall be Built? What e382 


Underfeed Stoker Co., The 679 

Underwood Typewriters 660 

Union Elevated Railroad of Chi- 
cago, Methods of Increasing 
the Capacity and Reducing the 

Noise Around the (Arnold). •ISS 
Terminal Railway Co., Cincin- 
nati, The 94 

Traction Co., of Kansas ^842 

United Copper Foundry Co 662 

Kingdom, Tramway Progress 

in the 264, 444, 504 

Railway Company of St. Lotus 267 

Railways Co. of St. Louis 293 

Railroads of San Francisco, 

Standard Type of Cars for 

City Service for ^290. 

States. Discipline in Europe and 

(Nicholi) 20c 

Metal & Manufacturing Co. 684 

Metallic Packing Co. (Mod- 

ern Packings) 626 

Utah Light & Railway Co.. The 

(Honnold) •726 

Vacation Tours, Summer 516 

Vacuum Car Cleaning System, A... •SSS 
Valve, The Anderson Patent Cush- 
ioned Non-Return 'ISO 

Automatic Exhaust Relief •664 

Combination Automatic Stop.. •360 

^Davis Combination Back Pres- 
sure and Relief ^64 

The Davis Turbine Relief '178 


Specialty Co., Golden-Anderson 329 

Value of a Name, The <^2Si 

Vancouver and Lulu Island Rail- 
way Property. Colum- 
bia Electric Railway Co. Ab- 
sorbs the • • • .JS? 

Van Dorn Co.. W. T 631, •661 

((Development of Automatic 

Couplers for Electric Cars).. 81 

Varnish, How to Obtain a Suitable 

Car (French) ;24 

Ventilation, Street Car ei44 

Verified Publicity, Value of e4iS 

VIngoe, M. (Paris .Metropolitan Kail- ^ 

way Co.) ,■•■„■••■,• 

Voynow, C. IJ. (Joints and Track 

Construction In Philadelphia) ^144 


Wabash & Northern Traction Co 888 

^Valley Contact, Ft. Wayne &.. 4o3 

Wampler. Frank (portrait) »63 

Warren & Jamestown Street Ry. . . . 864 

Car "^l 

Washburn Automatic Couplers . . . •389 

Couplers • • ■ °'° 

Washlngrton Navy Yard, Foster Su- 

perheaters in Ji^° 

Semi-Convertible Cars for '497 

Westinghouse Companies at the 

International Railway Exhi- 
bition .331 

Waste Press. A New '^46 

Water Circulation 690 

Power, An Available 786 

. . — ^Powers for Operation of Rail- 
roads, Pacific Coast 97 

Wattmeter, Type B Single Phase In- 
tegrating 'i^ 

Way Billing System, A Practical.. •841 

Weber Railway Joint, The 611 

Weeks, Arthur B. (Insulating 

Paints) •■'47 

(Suggestions for a Street 

Railway Bridge) 'BOe 

Welding, Electric Rail '648 

in Camden, N. J., Electric 625 

of Rail Joints, Electric 649 

Thermit Rail (Pellisier) ^642 

Welfare Work 627 

West, Arthur (Notes on the Design 
of Large Gas Engines with 
Special Reference to Railway 

Work) '700 

East, From the 516 

West Fife, Electric Tramway for 

(M'Cunn) *0 

Penn Railways Co. (Meeting an 

Emergency) (72 

Annual Banquet 70 

System 'ISJ 

Trade Mark •465 

Western Electric and D. & W. Fuse 

Cos 627 

Massachusetts Street Railway, 

The (Knowlton) *881 

Westinghouse Belted Type Rotating 

Field Alternators *454 

Companies, The 654 

at the International Rail- 
way Exhibition, Washington. 331 

Electrical Apparatus 320 

Managers' Meetings '901 

New York Changes 312 

Oflioes 858 

Parsons Turbine, Test of 400- 

Kw *•"' 

Railway Apparatus 629 

Motor, New ^778 

No. 92 A *CS 

Type Circuit Breaker for 

Direct Current Uses 'all 

Single-Phase System, New 

York, New Haven & Hartford 

Adopts 718 

Wharton, Jr., & Co., Inc., The Plant 

of Wm "657 

Exhibit, The 684 

Improved Switch t>25 

Wheeler, C. H., Condenser & Pump 

qq 330 

Wheel Grinding on the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway ^274 

Truing Brake Shoe. The 639 

The Sohoen Steel (Johnson)... •192 

Wheels in Liverpool, Steel Tired... 323 

Steel-Tired •326 

Tramway Car (Banister) .... 221 

Wear of Steel Tired — How to 

Eliminate Excessive Flange 
W^ear (Price) i 109 

White & Co., J. G 682 

City Advertising 680 

Chicago, Nearlng Comple- 
tion. The '246 

Elmer M. (portrait) 677 

J. H. (Publicity) 425 

Wilcutt, G. B. (portrait) 676 

Wilson, T. W. (portrait) 189 

(Latest Standards of Electric 

Cars In American Cities) ... 440 

(Suitable Cars for City and 

Suburban Service) 439 

Williams. C. H. (portrait) 82 

Williamsburg Bridge. Electrical 

Equipment of the '63 

Willow Grove Park, Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co '549 

Terminal. Glenside and, 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co '846 

Windsor & Tecumseh Electric Rail- 
way Co 125 

Wisconsin, Biennial Report of the 
Railroad Commissioners of 
the State ot 300 

Woodman's Consecutive Registering 

Ticket Punch ^724 

Wood Paving Blocks in Baltimore, 

Creo-Resinate Processed . . . '502 

Worman (Government Control of 
Electrical Development in 
Ontario) 385 

Wurts Ligiitning Arrester, Improved 

330, 514 

Yale & Towne Triplex Chain Blocks •837 
Y'ork County Railways Beneficial 

Association 86 

Pa.. Middleton Cars for ^42 

Street Railway Co., Park At- 
tractions for 209 

Young, P. S. portrait) 676 


Vol. XV 

JANUARY 15, 19()o 

No. 1 

Miscellaneous Equipment of the United Railroads 

of San Francisco. 

The miscellaneous equipment of many electric roads consists of 
old car bodies, trucks, motors, etc., that cannot be used for any other 
purpose. Any old thing is considered good enough for a freight, 
rock, or tower car. The inspection and care devoted to this class 
of equipment are usually very limited in extent. The natural result 
is that just when one of these cars is needed the most, it has a 
burned out motor, a truck out of order, or the body out of repair. 
Time, patience and worst of all, money, is lost. Furthermore this 
class of equipment usually docs not meet the exact requirements for 
which it is used. A great deal of money can be wasted in a remark- 
ably short time by not having the proper car to haul rails, sand, 
rock, ties, freight, etc. In this respect the United Railroads of San 
Francisco has taken a decided stand and that is that if first-class 
equipment is good for passenger cars, it is doubly so fur ils mis- 

red plush cushions, red plush curtains, lined with cream colored silk; 
red portieres, fancy bronze electroliers, Pullman car tables, Wilton 
carpet in middle section, and linoleum in open sections. The car 
is mounted on McGuire 39-A trucks and equipped with four G. E. 58 
motors, National Electric air brakes, and lever hand brakes. The 
gear ratio is 22:62 and a speed of 30 miles per hour is readily at- 
tained. This car is chartered to private parties, but only on pre- 
sentation of the best of references. It is also used by the officers of 
the company, on state occasions. It is considered quite the proper 
thing to charter this car for theater parties, serving a supper in 
the car after the theater. 

The "Hermosa" parlor car was built by the St. Louis Car Co. and 
is an older car than the "San Francisco," but has recently been 
overhauled and renovated so that it is virtually as good as new. 


cellaneous equipment. The inspection and care of miscellaneous 
equipment must be as good or better than for passenger cars. 

The miscellaneous equipment of the company consists of two 
kinds, viz. : Revenue and Non-Revenue cars. The Revenue' cars 
are those, outside of passenger cars, from which a direct revenue 
is derived. Among these are 2 parlor cars, 2 observation cars, 3 
funeral cars, i electric mail car, 2 cable mail cars, and 2 street 
sweepings cars. 

The parlor cars are the "San Francisco" and the "Hermosa."' 
The San Francisco is a closed car 38 ft. over bumpers, and is di- 
vided into three compartments. The middle compartment is 19 ft. 
long, and might be termed the parlor. The end compartments con- 
tain a buflfet, ice chest, coat hooks, motorman's cab, etc., and are 
also used for smoking rooms. The outside of the car is painted a 
Brewster green, with gold striping and lettering. The interior is 
finished in natural oak, and is furnished with stained chairs, 

This car has one large center section and a motorman's cab on 
each end. It is painted Tuscan red, with gold striping and lettering. 
The interior is finished in cherry ; with terra cotta colored velour 
curtains and cushions, rattan chairs, moss green Wilton carpet, 
fancy sideboard, etc. An ice chest is provided for on one platform. 
The equipment consists of four G. E. 58 motors, Brill 27-G trucks, 
hand and track lever brakes. An advertisement that appeared in 
"Transit Tidings" gives rates and general information. The car 
is used for sightseeing, threatre parties, etc 

The observation cars are named the "California" and the "Golden 

Both were built in the company's shops. The California is 42 ft. 
over bumpers ; it has monitor roof and drop platforms. It contains 
twelve 38-in. cross rattan seats on each side, and a 24-in. isle in the 
center. It is finished in ash in its natural color, veneered ceiling, 
etc., and is painted .t Tuscan red with gold Uriping. It is cqnir^ird 


[Vol. XV, .\\i. i 

I'arloi" Car .\J> crtiscuicut. 

The Parlor Cai "llermosa." 
Handsomely upholstered. Beautifully furnished, seating 30 per- 
sons. May be chartered as a party car, at the following rates : 
Within city liinits. 
During the day, .... 5:2 50 per hour. 

Minimum charge, - $10.00. 

Evenings, 7 p. m. to i a. ni., ... $12.00 

This Coinpany is prepared to furnish other cars at reasonable rates. 

United Railroads of San Francisco, 
Room 822 Rialto Building, 
New Montgomery and Mission Sts., G. F. Chapman, 

San Francisco, Cal. General Manager. 

with four G. L. j8 motors, Peckham 14-B-3-S special trucks. National 
Electric Go's, air brakes, Wood patent gates, etc. 

The "Golden Gate'' is of rather an odd design. It is 40 ft. long 
and 10 ft. wide. The seats run londitudinally and the two center 
rows are placed higher than the side seats, and there are five en- 
trances on each side. There is also a narrow aisle between the 
two center rows. This car will seat 80 people. It is painted cream 
color with gold striping. The screens and gates arc bronze colored. 
It is equipped with Brill 27-G trucks, four G. E. 1000 motors. Na- 
tional Electric Go's, air brakes, track brakes, etc. The accompanying 
advertisements show the uses of these cars. The fare for a round 
trip is 25 cents. Passengers are taken only at starting point. 

Of the funeral cars one was built at the company's shops; one 
was bought; and one was changed over from a new passenger 
car. An engraving of the last is shown. This car is 38 ft. long, 
has a motorman's cab on each end, a compartment for the casket 
and flowers, a mourner's compartment, and a compartment for 
others attending the funeral. This car is painted Brewster green 
with gold striping. The interior is finished in mahogany. The 

Observation Car Advertisement. 

"Golden Gate." 
Observation Cars in charge of competent guides leave Market, 
Post and Montgomery Streets, and Market and Second Streets, at 
10 A. M. and 2 P. M. daily. Sundays included ; returning at i :30 
P. M. and 5:30 P. M. 
Sec Union .Square, City Hall, 

Lick Monument, Mechanics Pavilion, 

.St. Ignatius Church and College, 
New Post Oftkc, U. S. Mint, Southern Pacific Hospital, 
Mission Dolores, Affiliated Colleges, 

Cliff House, Ocean Beach, Etc., Etc. 
Distance, Round Trip, 20 Miles. 

lioard one of these cars and see San Francisco. 
The only trip of its kind. 

Passing every principal point of interest. 
Competent Guides in Charge. 
Particularly Designed For Tourists. 
.\n instructive, pleasant ride aboard a comfortable and 
well-equipped car. 
Distance, Round Trip, 20 miles. 

taken on at any point, thus reducing the expenses of funerals con- 

In explaining the use of funeral cars it is necessary to explain 
tlie local conditions. Burials are not permitted within the city 
limits. Consequently all the cemeteries are situated outside of 
the city about 11 miles from the business center, in the adjoining 
county, alongside of one of the company's main lines. Spur tracks 
have been laid within the boundaries of most of them connectiuj; 


curtains, cushions, draperies, etc., are of olive green velour. The 
carpet is a dark green Wilton. All trimmings are silver plated. 
The equipment consists of McGuire 39-A trucks, four G. E. 58 
motors, National Electric Go's, air brakes, etc. The car which 
was built by the company is larger than this and somewhat more 
elaborate in its furnishings. 

Funerals are taken on at only three points in the city, making 
it necessary to use hearses and carriages to these points. It seems 
to be only a matter of time, however, before funerals will be 

with the company's main line. The wagon road leading to the 
cemeteries is very dusty in the dry season, and almost 
impassable on account of mud in the rainy season. Con- 
sequently people prefer to travel in a commodious, well 
appointed car, which takes theiri to their destination in 45 
minutes, instead of driving through mud or dust for sever'ad 
hours. The minimum charge for a funeral car is $12.50. For 
large funerals additional special cars are run at a reasonable 
figure. The expense for cars is considerably less than for car- 

Jan. 15, I9<J5. 



riages. Tlie following "ad" 
these cars : 

is used ill soliciting patronage for 


Elegantly eqnippcd cars for funeral purposes, direct to all ceme- 
teries in San Mateo Connty, fnrnislied at reasonable rates. Quick 
service, privacy and courtesy assured. Cars start from the fol- 
lowing points : Ferry terminus, i8lh and Guerrero Streets, and 
,30lh Street and San Jose Avenue. 

Arrangements may be made with undertaker. 

Another source of revenue is from Uncle Sam, and for this 
purpose the company operates three mail cars, one is electric and 
two cable. These cars arc fitted up as per the Post-Office De- 
partment regulations with racks, mail bag hooks, lamps, shelves, 
etc. The electric mail car C is mounted on a Peckham No. 9 
truck, with two G. E. 1000 motors, and track and wheel brakes. 
The cable cars have double trucks. These cars have a regular 
time schedule, collecting and delivering mail bags at certain sub- 
station post-offices and the main offices at stated periods. 

Last but not least among the revenue cars are the street sweep- 
ing cars. These cars carry the street sweepings from the city 
diunps to certain sections of Golden Gate Park, where the sweepr 


ings are used for filling up low land. The sweepings are handled 
by teams from the streets to the dumps by the City Street Clean- 
ing Department. The tracks for the cars are under the dumps, 
and the cars are thus loaded with comparatively little effort. 
From three to seven trips are made every day. The boxes in 
which the sweeping are carried each hold 8 cu. yd. By using top 
hoards II cu. yd. can be carried. The bo-xes are fastened by 

means of heavy castings to shafts running lengthwise under the 
middle. At the end of the shafts, between the cab and the box, 
a one-third section of a gear wheel is keyed. This section of a 
gear meshes in a pinion keyed to a parallel shaft running into 
the cab. In the cab a worm and gear arc attached to this second 
shaft. LSy means of a crank and shaft at right angles to this 
the worm gear wheel is turned. This turns the intermediate 
shaft with the pinion, which meshes in the section of the gear, and 


thus turning the bo.x with the sweepings partly over. These cars 
are 40 ft. over bumpers. They are mounted on extra heavy 
Brill 27-G trucks, and have four G. E. 1000 motors. National 
Electric air brakes and track brakes. The air compressors are 
carried in the cabs in order to protect them from dust and dirt. 

The Non-Revenue Cars owned by the United Railroads are I oil 
tank car, 2 trolley tower cars, i store-room freight car, 7 track 
department freight cars, i oil sprinkling car, 6 wrecking cars, I sand 
car, and i motorman's instruction car. 

The oil tank car is used to carry fuel oil from the main storage 
tank into which oil is run from steam railroad oil tank cars, to 
the auxiliary storage tanks at the various power houses. This 
work was formerly done with wagon tanks. As there are six 
power houses to be supplied with oil the cost of handling was 
considerable. This car takes the place of four wagon tanks. 

The tank has a capacity of 4400 gallons. The oil is pumped from 
the tank into the auxiliary station tanks by means of a Quimby 
screw pump, direct connected to a G. E. 800 motor. The car 
has extra heavy Brill 27-G trucks, four G. E. 1000 motors and 
air and track brakes. 

The trolley tower cars are used for general line repair and 
construction work. The tower can be raised and lowered by 
means of drum and cable. The table can be moved over the ad- 
jacent track. The cars have Peckham No. 9 trucks, with two G. 
E. 800 motors, and track and wheel brakes. They carry 3 com- 




[Vol. XV, No, i. 

plete line of line repair parts, trolley and span wire, a full com- 
plement of lineman's tools, forge for heating soldering irons, etc. 
The store-room freight car is the busiest car on the system. 
As all car work is done at the car houses, it is necessary to 
carry all supplies from the store-room and shops to the car- 
houses. As shown in the engraving there is a closed section in 
the middle. In this are carried armatures, etc. Shelves are ar- 
ranged in this section so that glass and other fragile articles 
can be handled without danger of being crushed by other ar- 
ticles. Wheels, oil barrels, castings, etc., are carried on the open 

and equipped. On one job of track construction some old single 
truck cars with W. P. $0 motors, and passenger car bodies, were 
fitted up as freiglit cars and were used for hauling crushed rock, etc. 
The ma.ximum load that could be carried was 6 tons. At that it was 
nothing unusual to have the cars in the barn two or three times a 
day for repairs. The job had to be hurried; trackmen were idle 
sometimes on account of cars breaking down; five cars, with five 
crews to operate them, could not deliver material fast enough. 
When two of the special cars were put in service, the five old cars 
were thrown aside ; 40 cu. yd. of crushed rock or sand was de- 


section, from which they can be quickly unloaded. This car has 
a Peckham single truck and two G. E. 800 motors. 

The track department uses seven cars for hauling material. 
These cars, as can be seen from the illustrations, are arranged 
to carry rails, poles, sand, rock, paving blocks, special work, or 
anything else in the line of track material. These cars are 40 ft. 
long. They are equipped with Peckham extra heavy 14-B-3-S 
trucks, four G. E. 58 motors, air brakes, etc. By leaving the side 

livered on every trip of these cars ; the trips were made in less 
time and at only two-fifths of the previous cost. 

Some of the suburban roads are very dusty, and it was thought 
advisable to sprinkle them with oil. A single truck oil tank car 
which was no longer needed for this purpose was fitted up as 
shown in the accompanying illustration. A pipe runs from the 
bottom of the tank to the rear end of the car. A T is attached 
to it and pipes run to the edges of the car body. Here elbows 


wings down, poles, rails, or special work can be hauled; 60 ft. 
rails are readily handled. By putting up the side wings and 
putting in the ends, 10 cu. yd. of rock or sand can be hauled in 
each bo.x, or 20 cu. yd. to the car. Thirty tons have been carried 
without any strain on the equipment. These cars illustrate how 
money can be saved by having miscellaneous cars properly built 

and T's are again fastened and pieces of perforated pipe are 
screwed into the T on each side. In order to sprinkle, the perfor- 
ated pipe is pulled over so that it is at right angles to the rail 
on each side. Directly over the rail for about four inches there 
are no perforations. The perforations are i in. apart and J4 
in. in diameter. By opening the valve in the pipe near the tank, 

Jan. is, ipoSl 


and running the car at the rate of about 3 or 4 miles per hour 
a heavy coat of oil is left on the, extending 2 ft. outside of 
the rails. 

Each electrical car house is provided willi a wrecking car. 
These were originally passenger cars, and logcllier with sand 

Avoidahic CauHcs of Central Station rircs. 


on. TANK CAR. 

and instruction cars are the only passenger cars used for 
miscellaneous work. The seats have been taken out on both open 
and closed sections. The cars are equipped with ladders, timbers, 
blocks, chains, tow ropes, draw bars, replacers, ratchet jacks, 
lanterns, crow bars, sledges, wrenches, pliers, and tools and small 
repair parts of all descriptions. They have been found to be of 
great value in reducing delays occasioned by broken down wagons, 

The instruction car is a passenger car from which the seats 
have been taken. A complete air brake outfit with levers, etc., is 

Defective apparatus is not always the cause of central station 
fires; they arc often due to the manner in which the controlling 
apparatus has been installed. Rules should be made governing Ibis 
matter, just as the wiring for lights, motors, etc., is controlled by the 

Low potential transformers when u.<cd by individual concerns arc 
ordered enclosed in a vault. Even with transformers of high po- 
tential, this precaution is not followed, in some stations. Special 
rules should always govern the installing of such apparatus. Oil- 
cooled and insulated high potential transformers arc often placed in 
any convenient location in a fire-proof building, which, when put 
lo the test, proves not to have been fire-proof. This sometimes 
results from the fact that the insulation on the cables transmits the 
lire to other compartments, spreading devastation. Great advance- 
ment has been made of late years along this line; but costly plants 
installed before late improvements were brought out frequently 
sufTer loss from fires breaking out in most unexpected places, and 
causing no little expense and anxiety. 

The air-cooled transformers arc equally liable to injury and burn- 
outs under continual overload, or when the attendant neglects to 
start the air blower until hours after the load has been put on. 
Under such conditions fires will frequently break out. Were such 
transformers installed in a building apart from the main portion of 
the plant, the damage could be limited to that locality and easily 

Roth oil-cooled and air-cooled transformers are in some instances 
placed in a small subway, in which all approach to a fire would be 
cut off at the stairway. All the apparatus contained in the subway 
is therefore liable to loss. These might be transformers for rotary 
converters supplying current for a suburban line; in this event, 


set up in the car, with wiring and apparatus exposed. Controll- 
ers, circuit breakers, etc., are also set up in this car, and so ar- 
ranged that they can be taken apart and examined. This car 
is taken from car-house to car-house for the purpose of having 
car men become familiar with the apparatus on cars. 

The Elmira (N. Y.) Water, Light & Railroad Co. is constructing 
an ice palace and winter resort at Rorick's Glen, on the company's 
lines, and will arrange for a large skating rink. The only charge 
that will be made will be the fare tlvit is charged on the street cars. 

should a burn-out occur, the electric line would be totally disabled. 
Should this take place during a snow storm, the results can be 
easily foreseen. 

Bar conductors run in tile duct from switchboards to the dis- 
tributing boards and transformers reduce the fire risk. , The pro- 
miscuous placing of high potential fuses in vaults and subways. 
often within a few inches of oil pipes and other cables and inflam- 
mable material, is another source of fires. When such fuses blow, 
great heat is generated ; and in the passage of the arc. an oil pipt 
has been known to have been pierced; the oil then ignited and dio 
great damage. Such fuses can be done away with, and circuit- 


[Vol. XV, No. i. 

breakers substituted. But these, too, must be kept in order, and so 
located that when in need of repair, they will not throw out melted 
copper or burnt carbon where it can ignite adjacent material. This 
relates also to high tension breakers on lines from 10,000 to 20,000 

Sometimes it occurs tliat circuit-breakers are confined to low ceil- 
inged rooms. It may be found that the arc cannot be ruptured by 
the present throw of the breaker arm. The result is that the arm 
of the circuit-breaker is lengthened ; and probably the next time the 
breaker opens the arc will set fire to the wood-work above it. If 
there are iron girders in tlie vicinity, the high potential current is 
liable to arc to them. The barriers should be of marble. 

Loose contacts in alternating current breakers occasionally be- 
come overheated and expand so as to prevent the breaker opening 
on short circuit. If the attendant does not kill the load on that 
feeder, worse things may follow elsewhere. If the feeder is not 
controlled by a circuit-breaker, it will be necessary to open the field 
current of the battery supplying that feeder or set of feeders. 

It is a mistake to use rubber covered wire in an air cooling 
chamber below the transformers; for the fire that is liable to be 
started would be spread rapidly by the air from the blowers. The 
first cost would be greater, but it would very soon pay for itself, 
should proper protection for all apparatus as far as possible be made, 
as well as constant study for safety at all times. This applies also 
to the safety of operators. 

Not all mistakes are centered, however, in transformers or their 
compartments ; for dynamos have also some weaknesses. The vi- 
bration in alternating current conductors in a generator is equally 
liable to cause the impairing of insulation and produce a short 
circuit. Short circuits cause "kicks" in unsupported parts of conduc- 
tors, which weaken the insulation, and eventually breakdowns oc- 
cur. There have been accidents about generators for which a solu- 
tion was never found, no one having apparently been able to explain 
why certain peculiar conditions existed. All stations have had 
these experiences, where the missing link has remained a mystery. 

The bunching of feeder cables through long subways is liable to 
impart troubles to other cables. The action of a short circuit on a 
feeder supplied with alternating current is now well known ; tlie 
cables are thrown bodily from their place. Lightning arresters are 
a fruitful source of fires; some more so than others. A fire in a 
large Canadian power house resulting in water-soaking of its large 
generators, started from its lightning arresters. Overloaded rotary 
converters will in time burn out. These machines will endure more 
abuse, apparently, than other generators. 

Conditions are sometimes such that attendants become confused, 
otherwise much damage might be averted. Men who have passed a 
rigid examination before being put in charge of these machines 
have, in time of trouble, lost their heads so completely as only to 
add to the destruction by hasty and misdirected acts. 

Much of the trouble experienced with rotary converters has 
been eliminated by the late construction of their controlling ap- 
paratus. Working a station to its full capacity is not without its 
bad results. An overheated armature or burnt out coils usually 
result. When a lighting transformer is overloaded, and the fuses 
let go occasionally, much to the annoyance of the offices, an over- 
zealous electrician may increase the size of the fuse. The fire 
which may follow is apt to be very destructive. 

Again, a case is recalled where the electrician had a defective 
circuit-breaker, which he plugged to prevent its opening, depending 
upon temporary fuses. About 500 h. p. at 2,300 volts was used. 
Very soon after plugging the breaker, an overload occurred, and 
a fuse let go. The arc jumped across to the other phase, and the 
resultant short circuit totally destroyed the entire switchboard. The 
short circuit was but a drop in the bucket to the power back of it; 
and it was only when the central power station was notified by phone 
to open the feeder that the attendants there were aware of anything 
serious having taken place. 

Moisture is a frequent cause of trouble in power plants, where it 
creeps in accidentally. Short circuits in concentric cables with a 
pressure of 2,200 volts result in great damage. Overloaded switches, 
which from poor contact get sufficiently heated to ignite a match, 
are sources of danger if not discovered in time to prevent a fire. 
Switches so operated that they enter only partially at times, are 
sources of danger, when the load put upon them is too great for the 
contact made. The result is most disastrous. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that many of the most common 
causes of central station fires are avoidable at the expense of a little 
precaution at the time of installation, and of subsequent watcliful- 

ness and care. 

— — ; — ♦-•-♦ 

Lon^ Switch Timbers Under Special Work. 

Special work laid in permanent pavement must of necessity be 
made as much of a unit as possible in order that the pavement 
may give the best possible wear. 

It ii the practice of a large road in the East to lay long chestnut 

^i-L SWITCH T/MBERi - 7 '«• 9" 

■^ ./*.vy- j7- ^n' j^ 

switch timbers under special work as shown in the accompanying 
sketch. These timbers are of course bedded in concrete where 
brick pavement is laid. The use of long timbers under special work 
has greatly reduced the cost of maintaining line and surface. 

Population and Traffic. 

The Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Co. was the first 
line to enter Indianapolis, the 10 miles between Indianapolis and 
Greenwood being opened in iSgg. When the road was extended 
south to Franklin, lo miles farther, the total population served was 
increased 150 per cent and the receipts were increased in almost 
exactly the same ratio. In September, 1903, the road was extended 
10 miles farther south to Columbus, the population again being in- 
creased about 150 per cent. The last year has shown a correspond- 
ing increase in gross receipts. 

Pipiiii^ and Power Station Systems. III.* 


Pipinj; Systems — Continued. 

Ill order lo make the station operation secure against all con- 
tingencies it may be arranged to liave eacli battery of boilers dis- 
liiict by itself. Each battery will have its own economizer, its 
own by-pass flue, stack and fan engine, the same engine driving 
lintli llic blast fan and slack fan with a cutting in arrangement 

the battery of boilers is out of use and after the brick work has 
cooled down. It is wholly useless lo invest money in economizers 
and not to make most liberal provision for cleaning them. They 
arc sometimes allowed to fill up with deposits inside and outside 
so that they will not raise the temperature of the water more than 
20° to 30°, while if they are cleaned both inside and out they can 
and have in practice raised the temperature of the water from 50° 

Cross /^^/ C^f^^c/rr^Si"/r/fy^ *- ~^ 

^ arrm »4^ l^r77% ff/ 

.'Jt^C ^ ,7V 

^ «T7T>< rMi TTm M ^/p^sJiy^^ 


'U22 A ■ • ■ 



\ tV/.'-'J Cr^B rTTTH If 

Iiotli fur llic air blast and llic main flue, as shown in Fig. .11. By 
speeding up these engines two of them should havfi sufficient capac- 
ity for three batteries of boilers. After a careful consideration it 
may be decided to use the plan shown in Fig. 12, making the fan 
engines capable of taking care of three batteries of boilers each by 
speeding them up. This would make somewhat less machinery 
lo care for and would allow either fan engine to be shut down and 
would make it pos5iI)Ie to run all of the present installation or 

to 270°, a total of 220°. In order to cool the economizers 
sufficiently to permit careful and thorough cleaning no gases should 
be allowed lo pass on the outside of any of the economizer wafls 
while the cooling and cleaning is in progress. It may occur to the 
engineer that he can save in space and in first cost of installation 
by placing the main flue to the stack between the boiler and build- 
ing wall and place the economizer on top of this, boxed in so to 
speak, without any possible chance to cool them off. Where else 

>/.•!»}»!!>•>}•}} J, • J, J,, I, ,,,,1,,„,,1,>J11J J J^>>>>)^^/^^>^^^>^>^^>^!l!!lllllllfr//^///J J Ji^ZZZ. 

^1 azsz^szz^^ 


fZ^-^— t 1 ■ ^ 



M o>}n &hi v\\',^ ^/ 

three-quarters of the future installation. This would necessitate 
the use of a second fan engine and stack in order to insure con- 
tinuous operation of the present three-unit installation. 

By placing economizers in separate groups as shown it becomes 
a very simple operation to clean them as this can be done when 

•Copyright. 1904, by KeiiHeld Piibli.«liing Co. 

in the plant can he save from lo to 15 per cent in the cost of fuel by - 
doing better engineering? The saving in this detail alone will in 
five years' pay the entire cost for engineering of the power station. 
The cross connecting flue can be of light iron and left uncovered 
except in cases of emergency, when one of the fan engines would 
be out of service. The radiation of heat would be confined to the 
fan casing and the stack. There are many interesting details in 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

connection with the boiler and economizer settings, smoke flues, 
air pipes, etc., but as they are somewhat foreign to the piping sys- 
tem these details will not be furtlier discussed. 

Assume that the arrangement shown in Fig. 12 has been adopted 
for the station in question. There are the two fan engines to 
provide for and the piping system and also the stoker rams. The 
next question that arises is, what shall be done for boiler feed 
pumps? Electrically driven feed pumps are not satisfactory except 
when the motors can be run within a very limited range of speed 
If the station were very large four electrically driven pumps to- 
gether with a steam pump could be used, the latter being used 
with any or all of the electrically driven pumps to take care of 
any demand less than the capacity of oue motor driven pump; one 
of the electrically driven pumps could be shut down when the 
slowing down of the steam pump still gave more water than was 
required. For a plant of the size in question, however, the addi- 

ScCM/oyr/z^ ^ 

^i/jf/i.^/j^^r /'^so ^f^/. V 



FIG. 13. 

tional maintenance of using electrically driven feed pumps is not 
justified. There is also needed a line of pipe to which to attach 
the water tube cleaner turbine, and this must be supplied from 
some other than the feed pump. This is imperative, for water 
must not be drawn from the feed main for any purpose whatever 
except to feed such boilers as are under pressure. This require- 
ment must never be lost sight of in laying out a station system 
having an economizer or closed live steam heater between the 
pumps and the boilers. Not only should all other service be kept 
off the feed main, but the latter should at all times be under full 
pressure. The moment that a hose line or a connection into an 
empty boiler is opened from the feed line the pressure immediately 
drops in proportion to the size of the opening, possibly 10 or 15 lb. 
The temperature of the water in a live steam heater or an econ- 
omizer is sufficiently high to generate steam when the pressure is 
lowered, and this causes a serious water hammer in the economizer, 
heater or pipe lines. For the same reason the blow-oflf from an 
economizer should be handled according to an established method 
which will be mentioned later. Broken economizer sections and 
leaky joints are often the results of mistreatment. 

In arranging for feed pumps two will be required in any case, 
and while one is used for boiler feeding, the other can be used for 
filling in boilers, running turbines, etc. In addition to these two 
lines of water service it will be necessary to have a low pressure 
system operating, say on 25 lb. pressure, which can be used for 
cooling engine journals, wetting down ashes, for the plumbing 
fixtures, washing floors, for the make-up water, for the open heater 
and other similar services. In addition to this "house service" 
there should be a fire service system the pump for which should be 
able to maintain 100 lb. pressure running full speed. These four 
services must be available at all times, although it is not necessary 
nor desirable to keep the fire service pressure on all the time. The 
house service or low pressure lines may be taken oflF the fire system, 
using reducing valves and reliefs, and even if there be a reducing 
valve in the line no loss in economy of operations will be effected 
as long as the fire system is under the same pressure, say 25 lb. 
Whenever the fire system pressure is raised the pressure reducing 
valve and relief will protect the line against any careless manipula- 
tion of valves. 

There are then various combinations of conditions all of which 
should be fully met by the system employed. The following are 
the different conditions : 

(i) Feed main on. 

Tube cleaner main on high pressure, 
House service and fire main on low service, 
With pump on each line. 

(2) Feed main on. 

House service low pressure, cold water, 

Fire main higher pressure, for outside sprinkling. 

(3) Feed main on. 
House service on, 
Two pumps in service. 

(4) Feed main on. 

House service on through reducing valves, 

Fire main on for fire, 

With three pumps on, two pumping into fire main. 

(5) Feed pump on. 

House service on through reducing valve, 
Any of three pumps in service. 

The third condition would be the regular operating one, leaving 
one pump in reserve at all times. The boiler is so important that 
with three pumps in the plant it would be policy to arrange all of 
them so they could feed boilers, making it possible to operate under 
condition five. It is possible that two of the three pumps may be 
out of condition at the same time. The two boiler feed pumps 
would be of the same pattern and size with compound cylinders 
suitable for boiler feeding, and they should be outside packed. 

The fire pump should be of special pattern to fill its various 
duties. Probably a soo-gallon pump would have ample capacity 
for fire protection, and owing to its high speed it would necessar- 
ily be of the regular piston type. The cylinder ratios should be 
such that the regular fire pump can be used as a feed pump to 
deliver a small amount of water such as would be needed for 
boiler feeding. This pump would be regularly used, as a 2S-lb. 
pressure pump and in order to economize steam it would be neces- 
sary to compound it, possibly six to one, and use it as a compound 
pump for the low pressure work only. By operating the port 
changing slide valve the pump would be immediately changed to 
two high pressure cylinders for fire service or boiler feeding. 

In many ways the gravity storage tank is very desirable, as it pro- 
vides a storage for water while changing over the pumps and it 
also helps to maintain a steady pressure of water. If gravity 
tank water is to be used for cooling engine journals, it will neces- 
sitate the use of a much larger amount of water than otherwise, 
due to the tank becoming heated. If the tank be of metal and 
located near the roof, much trouble will be experienced from its 
sweating and, in order to avoid dripping, it will be necessary to 
use a water-tight pan under it. In order to maintain a steady 
pressure with a small amount of storage, it would be preferable 
to use a small closed expansion tank in the basement. 

The three pumps would ordinarily use different water for the 

A'^Sl^^^/? /^^^^ ^V.-5",V 

FIG. 14. 

suctions, the boiler feed pump using hot water from tlie heater and 
the other pumps using cold water. The pumps must therefore have 
their suctions so piped that any one of the three can use the heater 
water or intake water. 

Before laying out the piping for this pumping system it is 
necessary to consider what to do in regard to the heater. Shall 
one or two heaters be used? Before attempting to determine this 
question, it is necessary to consider how essential the heater is 
in securing continuous operation. There are condensing plants 
using economizers and electrically driven auxiliaries that take 
water from the hot well and feed directly into the economizers 
without having any heater at all. Now if the economizers can 
operate continuously without a heater, why must we provide a 
reserve heater for the two hours or so that it takes to clean them 
out? The only directly appreciable loss is the heat discharged 
from the exhaust pipe while cleaning; this is a very insignificant 
loss considering the long intervals between cleanings. Another 

Jan. 15, 1905.] 


question in connection with tlic use of two heaters is how to take 
:i uniform amount of water from each heater when using one feed 
pump This can be arranged by means of floats and other un- 
rclial)Ie devices, but there docs not appear to be any practicable 
method except by the use of two feed pumps working separately, 
each with a separate heater. This detail should not be lost sight 
of in determining the Iieaters. 

There must also be considered whether a closed or an open 
heater shall be used. 'I'lie only advantage of the closed heater 
is that the oil in the exhaust steam docs not mingle in any way 
with the feed water. But is this sufficient to outweigh the ad- 
vantages of an open heater for the service in question? In the 
first place, the open heater is made of cast iron instead of plate 
steel, making it able to stand the chemical action within it for 
a longer time, .\nothcr feature of the open heater is that it is 
not subjected to severe stresses, due to the boiler pressure, as is the 
case with a closed healer. The closed heater is far more difficult 
to clean and, in case of a condensing plant, but little benefit would 
be derived from it, as the closed heater would raise the temperature 
of the water only about one quarter as much as the open heater. 
If sufficient exhaust steam is delivered to an open heater to raise 

^J-St/^//A' /'SiO '/^^//v 

FIG. 15. 

the temperature of the water 75 degrees, the same amount in a 
closed heater would raise it only about 17 degrees, correspond- 
ing to a loss of nearly 6 per cent of the coal consumption. For 
a non-condensing plant the closed heater deserves careful con- 
sideration, but it is quite out of the question for a condensing 
plant, as the only exhaust steam available for the heaters is thai 
from the auxiliaries. The open heater should be amply large, not 
so much for the purposes of a heater, but to permit possible chemi- 
cal treatment, precipitation and to provide a large filter bed. 
Therefore one open heater is chosen for the station luider con- 

There are other features still to be considered before laying out 
the pump piping. Shall a water meter be used and, if so, where 
shall it be located? Also how shall water be taken from the hot 
well and delivered to the heater? Water could be supplied to the 
heater by the fire pump while it is being used on the house service, 
but, by doing this, water would be delivered to the heater from the 
hot well at possibly 60 degrees instead of go degrees, a loss of 
3 per cent. If using go tons of coal per day at $2 per ton, this 
would cause a yearly loss of about $1,000. It is essential therefore 
to save the 30 per cent of heat, even though it becomes necessary 
to use another pump, but this is objectionable, as it makes another 
machine to care for, watch and regulate. 

A simple solution of this question is to attach to the plungers 
of the feed pump, in such a way that they can be readily detached, 
the pistons of the low pressure heater supply pump. The advantage 
of this arrangement is that better economy is secured, there is 
one less steam end to look after and there is no liability of shortage 
nor waste of heater water. The amount of water delivered to the 
heater will be the same as that taken from it. Therefore it is de- 
cided to use a double water end feed pump arranged so that the 
lieater supply pump can be quickly disconnected in case of acci- 
dent, and during a repair water would be taken from the house 
service line by means of the fire pump. 

Ne.xt comes the water meter. This should be so arranged with 
respect to the piping that the total water fed to any or all of the 
boilers can be measured, whether fed through the economizers or 
with the economizers cut out. The meter should also permit 
the measurement of the water fed to one. two or any number of 
boilers desired, with the water either passing through the econ- 
omizers or fed direct. The meter should also be arranged with a 

by-pass so that it can ordinarily be out of service. Fig. 13 shows 
one system of feed water pipes with meter, the hydraulic tube 
cleaner line being also, in this case, an auxiliary feed main. This 
system is especially suited to plants that have one economizer to 
serve one side of the plant. It will be noted that the feed water 
can be run through the economizers and any one or more of the 
boilers fed through the meter, the boilers not on the meter being 
fed through the regular feed main. The only condition that could 
be improved is in the case of feeding with the economizer cut 
out. It will be noted that when metering cold feed water, even if only 
for one boiler, all the other boilers would have to take cold feed 
water also. The system shown in Fig. 13 requires no extra piping 
for the meter other than the meter connections themselves. When 
cleaning the boiler tubes the meter is shut off as well as all feeds 
to the boilers, and the regular feed main is used for boiler feed- 
ing. The test usually made with economizers is to meter the water 
for all boilers, first with the economizers on and before cleaning 
them, second with the economizers off and third with the econ- 
omizers on after cleaning them. This test is to determine how much 
can be saved by reason of cleaning them, or, in other words, to de- 
termine how often it pays to clean economizers, how well to 
clean them, etc. 

Another arrangement of piping can be made, as shown in Fig. 
14, which will provide for all conditions and which will permit 
metering cold water fed to one boiler and feeding through the 
economizers for all the other boilers. Fig. 15 shows the regular 
method of operation with the meter out of service and the hose 
main ready for use. The feed system in this illustration is shown 
in full lines, and the cleaner system is dotted. 
(To be continued.) 

Experiments on Concrete and Iron. 

In the course of the construction of the East Boston tunnel the 
engineers of the Boston Transit Commission made some interesting 
experiments to determine how rusting of iron was affected by con- 
crete. The results are reported in the Commission's Tenth .Annual 
Report, as follows : 

To Indicate Whether Iron Rusts When Imbedded in Concrete. 

Nine strips of sheet iron (2 in. x 6 in.) were cleaned till their 
surfaces were bright and free from rust. Then they were imbedded 
in concrete, molded into the form of a hollow cylinder, the outside 
dimensions of which were 14 in. x 20 in., the walls being 3 in. thick. 
This cylinder, when hardened, was kept filled with water, and wa.s 
placed in the tunnel. At first the water percolated through the con- 
crete very readily, but the amount of percolation gradually dimin- 
ished so that at the end of about two months the cylinder became 
practically watertight. At the end of two years the sheet iron strips 
were removed from the concrete and examined. They were found to 
be free from any rust, and in as bright condition as when placed in 
the concrete. The concrete was made in the proportions of i barrel 
of Portland cement, 9 cu. ft. of stone dust, and 11 cu. ft. of broken 

To Indicate Whether Steel Imperfectly Cleaned Is Preserved from 
Further Rusting by Imbedding the Same In Concrete. 

A square plate (4 x 4 x J4 in.), which had become badly rusted, was 
cleaned by filing till its general surface was bright, but the rust 
still remained in the numerous small pits. This plate was then sur- 
rounded by about i;< in. of concrete, molded in the shape of a square 
block. The concrete was proportioned as follows : 1 barrel of port- 
land cement, 9 cu. ft. of stone dust, 1 1 cu. ft. of broken stone. 

The concrete block, when hardened, was placed in water for three 
or four days, then taken out and dried in air for three or four days. 
This process of first wetting and then drying was continued for two 
years, and then the plate was removed from the concrete and ex- 
amined. The portion of the plate that was bright had remained 
unchanged. There was apparently no increase of rust in the small 
pits, but in some of them the color had changed from the originally 
reddish brown to a yellow. Professor Norton, of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, judges this to be merely a change in the 
composition of the old rust, and not a formation of the new rust. 
Two other pieces of steel treated in the same way g?.ve the same 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

The Bo.ston Elevated Construction Car. 

In connection with the construction car mentioned by Mr. H. 
M. Steward, roadmaster of the Elevated Division of the Boston 
Elevated Ry., in his recent paper before the New England Street 
Railway Club, the following additional particulars are of interest : 

The construction car consists of a flat car mounted upon two 
Baldwin trucks with 33-in. steel tired wheels. It is 46 ft. loj^in. 
long over drawbars, and is divided into two sections, comprising 
an open platform at each end and a closed house for the storage 
of track maintenance equipment. The front of the working plat- 
form is shown in the accompanying illustration. It carries a der- 
rick equipped with a lo-ft. and 20-ft. boom, the lifting capacity of 
the derrick being 2,000 lb., at a radius of 20 ft. The boom is 
made of long leaf Georgia pine and the derrick is so mounted 
upon the car platform as to enable the boom, hoisting mechanism 
and operating platform to be freely turned to meet the require- 
ments of the work in the Sub\vay and upon the elevated structure. 
The derrick is operated by two No. 32 pneumatic portable winches, 
built by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., the winches being so 
placed that the operating levers come on the opposite sides of the 
mast. The derrick is controlled by one man, who uses both hands 
in working the levers as he stands upon the operating platform. 
Two turnbuckles are ordinarily used to hold the derrick in a for- 
ward position. These extend from the top of the mast to the sides 
of the car, and are easily taken oflf when necessary. The operating 
platform is further secured from turning by a chain and pin 
which fastens it to the car platform. 

In the operation of the construction car a flat car is usually run 
in front of it to receive the rails, ties, etc., which are picked up 
by the derrick in making repairs to the track. The two cars con- 
stitute a work train and are propelled by four G. E. 73 motors 
mounted on the trucks of the construction car. These motors are 
rated at 7S-h. p. each on the hour run basis of 75 degrees C. tem- 
perature rise at full load, and they are controlled by either of two 
G. E. L 4 standard controllers, one being mounted at each end of 
the housed part of the car. A commutating switch which throws 
all four motors in series for running at a speed of 4 or s miles 
per hour is installed in the interior of the car. This switch also 
throws them into two series-parallel pairs. The car is 8 ft. 854 in- 
wide over all, and is used only on the elevated division. It is 

construction car. The flat car also has automatic brakos, so that 
both cars are braked. 

A tool box containing sledges, hammers, wrenches and other 
track tools is set on one side of the construction car's open plat- 
form behind the derrick, and on the opposite side is an oil and waste 

The housed portion of the car is about 30 ft. long. It con- 
tains a large assortment of tools and supplies. Longitudinal scats 

VIEW OF ii> n.ku. 


are provided on each side for the track crew ; the interior is 
lighted by eight i6-c. p. lamps, and heated by four Consolidated 
car heaters suspended from the roof. A slate switch box is 
mounted on one wall. This contains Noark enclosed fuses for the 
main power circuit and for the compressor motor, heating and 
lighting circuits ; a double throw main knife switch for connect- 
ing the car wiring to either the trolley or the third rail ; and a 


equipped with the National Electric Co's. automatic air brakes. 
There are three motor-driven compressors of 4-h. p. each, oper- 
ating at sso volts and 1,100 r. p. m. These supply the air for 
the operation of the brakes and the winches, drills, grinders, etc. 
The flat car in front carries rails, frogs, bolts, third-rail insulators, 
spikes, ties and other supplies. It is of the same length as the 

main switch for the power circuit. On the outside of the box 
are the snap switches for the compressor, heating and lighting 
control. Snow brushes of the company's standard steel spring 
construction are mounted on the trucks adjacent to the third rail 
shoes, and the roof is equipped with two trolleys. 
Underneath the seats in the car are various wrenches, grippers. 

Jan. 15, lyos.] 



/A/ ^4VO/u-a or ^o -o' 


picks, bolts, washers, ropes, chains, etc. One of the motor-driven 
compressors is mounted inside llie car also. On the walls are a 
medicine cabinet equipped with emergency bandages, antiseptics 
and other relief appliances, and racks holding lantern globes, fibre 
insulating joints used in the signal rail, brushes, hack saws, in- 
candescent lamps, lignum-vitae blocks, monkey and Stillson wrenches, 
adzes, a.xes, a track level and gage, spike pullers and air hose. 
The derrick is supplied with air through a i-in. hose which con- 
nects it with the reservoirs of the compressor system. 

Suspended from the roof are two emery grinders for use on 
the rails, equipped with flexible shafts which are driven by an 
air motor on the car; cages of incandescent lamps in banks of 5, 

cross-cut saws and a "bug" or portable trolley pole for connecting 
with the trolley underneath the elevated structure. On the floor 
is a large assortment of spike bars, hand jacks, wrenches, special 
track bars, tie clamps, spades, brooms, rail drills, boards, etc. 
Extra fuses arc carried on a shelf, and there are boxes of bolts, 
nuts, washers and other odds and ends, likely to be of use in the 
work of repair. A sand pail, metal waste can and a Badger 
chemical fire extinguisher arc also supplied to the construction car. 
Despite the great variety of equipment upon this car is appears 
roomy and convenient. It was designed and equipped by the Ele- 
vated Division, the construction of the car body being efTected at 
the Bartlett St. shops of the company. 




[Vol. XV, No. i. 

Street Railway and Highway Conflicts. 

An interesting paper on street railway and highway conflicts 
was recently presented by Mr. Bentley W. Warren, of Boston, at 
the meeting of the Good Roads Association in that city. Mr. 
Warren's prominent connection with the legal side of street rail- 
way work in New England enabled him to speak with authority 
upon the broad relations existing between the street railways, town 
authorities, and the commonwealth. He began by pointing out that 
two parties are always necessary to every quarrel, and that every 
dispute is due either to the ignorance of one or both parties to it, 
or else to a wish by one party to take an improper advantage of the 
other party. Conflicts between street railway companies and pub- 
lic ofiicials must be attributed either to the ignorance of the parties 
concerned or to the improper intention of the street railway com- 
pany. Mr. Warren stated that in his experience controversies of 
this nature have rarely been due to a wish on the part of the street 
railway company to evade the performance of a lawfully imposed 
duty, or to take advantage of the official representatives of the 
public. Of course, exceptional cases occur in which the foregoing 
does not apply, but even in these exceptional cases the unseemly 
and often disgraceful features involving disorder, violence, childish 
waste of money and inevitably great discomfort and inconvenience 
to the public, for whose safety and convenience both the public 
officials and the corporations exist, might be absolutely avoided if 
the public officers who were parties to it were properly informed of 
the law and its ample provisions for prompt and effectual regula- 
tion of any corporation which cither wilfully or negligently fails to 
obey the law. 

In general the cause of these conflicts is ignorance of some essen- 
tial condition, and it is no reflection upon public officials that this 
ignorance more frequently exists upon their side than upon that of 
the railway officials. The latter have but one professional interest 
to study — street railways, and the facts and law pertaining to them ; 
while the public officials, whether they be aldermen, selectmen, su- 
perintendents of streets or supervisors of highways, have duties and 
responsibilities covering a wide range of subjects, requiring tech- 
nical and legal information of varied character, and upon many 
subjects, of which the relation of street railways to the highways is 
only one, and that, too, one not requiring regular, but only occa- 
sional, attention. Again, the street railway officials are usually 
men of long experience in the business, to the mastery of which 
they have devoted many years, while on the other hand, public 
officials under our system of government are frequently changed, 
so that a street railway question may be presented to such an official 
only once during his term of office, and there is no opportunity 
for acquisition by him of a fund of knowledge and experience to 
enable him to pass quickly and intelligently upon the phases of any 
dispute which may arise. 

Mr. Warren stated that he proposed to approach the question 
rather with a view to determining the reasons for these frequent 
clashes, which reflect only discredit upon all the parties to them, 
than to attempt any particular description of the particular contro- 
versies for which the public has suflFered in the past. He did this 
with the hope that if a general understanding could be gained of 
the difficulties under which the street railway business is conducted, 
and also of the relations which ought to exist between those re- 
sponsible for its proper conduct and those responsible for the gen- 
eral oversight of the highways, nnich needless ill-feeling and quar- 
reling might be avoided. 

The ignorance referred to is of two sorts. The first is extremely 
simple, and would in itself relieve the public of much annoyance 
and discomfort if it were removed. Ordinarily when a controversy 
arises, it is due to the wish or order of the constituted authorities 
that a street railway company should do some particular thing 
with reference to the highway which the company refuses to do. 
Thereupon the offended officials endeavor to enforce compliance by 
a physical obstruction of the railway, or an interruption of its op- 
eration, sometimes without any reference to lawful authority for 
so doing, and sometimes by invoking the authority given to such 
officials by law, but intended to meet an entirely different situation. 
In all such cases, the chief sufferers are those members of the public 
dependent upon the operation of the railways for getting to and 
from their homes. The only question really involved in any such 
case is the legality of the requirement which the officials are en- 
deavoring to enforce in an irregular and unlawful manner. In no 

case, probably, is there the least necessity for resort to force or for 
inconveniencing the public ; but in their ignorance of the law gov- 
erning such situations, these officials, sworn to the faithful per- 
formance of their duties, unwittingly and ignorantly expose the 
public to. a real hardship. Under the revised laws as they now 
exist, both the supreme and superior courts have equity jurisdiction 
to compel the performance, and to restram the violation, of all 
laws which govern street railway companies, and of all orders, 
rules and regulations made in accordance with the provisions of 
law. In every controversy, therefore, it is possible for the public 
official to apply at once to a justice of either of these courts for an 
order compelling the street railway company to comply with a re- 
quirement about which the controversy exists, and that order will 
be issued by the court in every case in which the requirement is a 
lawful one, and certainly no one could expect or desire compliance 
with an unlawful requirement. By pursuing this method pointed 
out by the statutes themselves, full obedience can be exacted from 
the most recalcitrant street railway company, and the most obstinate 
street railway official, of every obligation to which it is subject, 
and this in a prompt, orderly and complete manner, without hard- 
ship or inconvenience to any member of the public desiring to use 
either the facilities furnished by the street railway, or those exist- 
ing in the highway itself. Recent examples of the enforcement 
of this remedy can be found in the decisions of the Supreme Court 
in Newcomb vs. Norfolk Western St. Ry. Co., 179 Mass. 449, and 
Gardner vs. Templeton St. Ry. Co., 184 Mass. 294. 

Most of these controversies might be avoided if there were a 
more general knowledge and appreciation of the legal nature of 
highways and of the relation of street railway companies to them 
and to the officers having jurisdiction over them, and responsible 
for their condition. 

The ownership of the land embraced within a highway belongs 
ordinarily, and according to many legal authorities always, even 
where a deed of the land has been made to a city or town, to the 
owners of the land abutting upon the highway, the only title to the 
land in and under the highway possessed by the public being an 
easement in the nature of a right to use it for' highway purposes. 
The title of this easement is not in the city or town in which the 
highway may happen to lie, but is in the whole public of the state, 
which is represented by the legislature. This easement includes not 
only the right to use the highway for all ordinary methods of travel, 
represented by foot passengers, equestrians, drivers of carriages 
and wagons for merchandise, but also covers the use of highways 
by street railways and by motor carriages, and the right to use the 
soil under the highway for steam, water, gas and sewer pipes, elec- 
tric light, power, telephone and telegraph wires, and may include 
some other uses besides those mentioned. All these uses are sanc- 
tioned by the courts upon the theory that they are in aid of the 
public easement for which the highway was originally taken and 
laid out, and the owner of the land in which the easement was 
originally taken is conclusively presumed by the court, in his origi- 
nal damages, to have received full compensation for all the pos- 
sible uses to which the land may be put consistently with its use as 
a highway. Railroads operated by steam, because of the great speed 
at which the cars are operated, and elevated railways, because of 
the obstruction to light and air occasioned by the elevated struc- 
ture, have been held not to have been included in the original ease- 
ment, and, therefore, not to be authorized in the highways except 
upon the payment of additional damages. The question of the 
legality of a street railway in a highway was repeatedly passed upon 
by the Supreme Court during the period that such railways were 
operated by horse power, the case usually cited being that of 
.Attorney General vs. Metropolitan R. R. Co., 125 Mass, 515. 

It was again considered by the court after the introduction of 
electricity, and the use of the highway for electric cars was upheld 
by the Supreme Court in Howe vs. West End St. Ry. Co., 167 
Mass. 46, decided in 1896, and the use of a private freight railroad 
operated by horses in a public highway was sustained by the Su- 
preme Court in the case of White vs. Blanchard Brothers, 178 
Mass. 363. 

Mr. Warren stated that the latest case of which he had knowl- 
edge re-viewing and re-affirming all the previous cases is that of 
Eustis vs. Milton St. Ry. Co., 183 Mass. 586. 

In Massachusetts, and probably in all jurisdictions governed by 
the common law, the control and ownership of the public easement 
in the highway is vested in the whole public, acting through its 

Jan. is, 1905J 



representatives, the legislature. The legislature may exercise its 
control directly, or may delegate it to subordinate bodies and agents 
responsible to itself, and it may change tliese agencies at pleasure. 
Nothing is clearer in the judicial decisions in Massachusetts than 
that a city or town has no ownership in the higluv.iys witliin its 
limits. For convenience, the legislature has in almost all instances 
delegated the control, both of bridges and highways, to inferior 
governmental agencies, but this delegation carries with it no title 
to the property controlled, and no guaranty that the agency will 
not be changed. For a long period the favorite agencies for laying 
out highways were county commissioners an<l boards of aldermen 
and selectmen, while the almost universal agency for the mainte- 
nance and repair of the existing highways were the cities and towns 
themselves, acting through their appropriate officers; but that the 
powers which have been given to the cities and towns by the legis- 
lature are in no sense a contract and do not become vested rights 
as against the legislature was distinctly affirmed in Prince vs. 
Crocker, 166 Mass. 347, p. 359. 

In recent years, the creation of the Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission is a striking exami)lc of the legislative power to change 
the control of highways, and this already very important commis- 
sion, with its jurisdiction and control over the many miles of state 
highways in Massachusetts, is likely in the not remote future to be 
the chosen agency representing the legislature in the control and 
maintenance of all highways not purely of local extent. Again, the 
Metropolitan Park Commission, with its control of the many miles 
of parkw.ays built under its direction, is another example of the 
legislative power in respect to highways. Between these state com- 
missions and the street railway companies, however, conflicts arc 
gratifyingly rare. By reason of their extended jurisdiction and fre- 
quent occasion for dealing with the street railways, as well as from 
their relatively permanent character and infrequent change of mem- 
bership, together with their right to the advice of the Attorney 
General on legal questions arising in the performance of their 
duties, such controversies, or the rare occasions on which they 
arise, are easily adjusted; or, if a real difference of opinion exists, 
they are referred to the courts for solution. 

The chief trouble exists in those highways in which street rail- 
ways have been constructed where the control of the highways is 
vested in cities and towns, or their officers. As was well said by 
Chief Justice Shaw in the leading case of Commonwealth vs. Tem- 
ple, 14 Gray, 69, decided in 1859: 

"It is very important that the rights and duties of all persons in 
the community, having any relations with them (street railways) 
should be distinctly known and understood, in order to accomplish 
all the benefits and as far as practicable avoid the inconveniences 
arising from their use. This is important to proprietors and gran- 
tees of the franchise, who expend their capital in providing a pub- 
lic accommodation, on the faith of enjoying, with reasonable cer- 
tainty the compensation in tolls and fares, which the law assures 
to them ; to all mayors, aldermen, selectmen, commissioners or sur- 
veyors especially appointed by law for the care and superintendence 
of streets and highways; to all persons for whose accommodation 
in the carriage of their persons and property these ways are espe- 
cially designed ; and to all persons having occasion to use the ways 
llirough or across which these horse railroad cars may have occa- 
sion to pass." 

A street railway company derives its right to existence and its 
right to exercise its franchise from the legislature itself. It has no 
relation to a city or town through which its railway runs, except 
such as may have been created by the legislature ; and it owes no 
duty and is under no liability to any city or town except such as 
has been imposed by the legislature; nor, on the other hand, has a 
city or town in its municipal capacity any authority over a street 
railway in any case, nor have its officers any such authority except 
where the same has been specifically delegated to those officers by 
the legislature. 

The first street railway in Massachusetts was built about 1853, 
and in the decision already referred to. Commonwealth vs. Temple, 
it was stated that 

"The accommodation of travelers, of all who have occasion to use 
them, at certain rates of fare, is the leading object and public benefit- 
for which these special modes of using the highway are granted, 
and not the profit of the proprietors." The latter "is a mere mode of 
compensating them for their outlay of capital in providing and keep- 
ing up this public easement." 

This statement of the real object of street railways, as enunciated 
by Massachusetts' greatest chief justice, has been recognized and 
adhered to in the commonwealth almost without variation since the 
earliest street railway charter was granted. Statute after statute 
has recognized and enforced the two propositions that a street rail- 
way company on the one hand should furnish proper accommoda- 
tion lo travelers, and that its profits, on the other hand, should be 
limited lo a mere reasonable compensation for furnishing this 
accommodation. As a result, these companies have been held very 
strictly to limiting their rates of fare to such amounts only as 
would, if the companies had sufficient business, realize a reasonable 
profit. Whenever the profits have shown a tendency to become ex- 
cessive or even generous the fares have been cither compulsorily re- 
duced by legislative action, or voluntarily reduced by the companies 
through fear of such action. This legislative policy, while ap- 
parently having nothing to do with highway conflicts, is really in- 
timately connected with them. Most of these conflicts arise from 
efforts to compel a company to perform some work upon the high- 
way. .Such work necessarily involves expense. Being deprived of 
surplus income, and in fact enjoying only at best a very limited in- 
come, the street railway company, like every individual similarly 
situated, is obliged to scrutinize carefully every proposed expense, 
if it would at the end of the year show any balance of profit. If, as 
is the case in many other states, its profits were unlimited, or if it 
were permitted to conceal its profits by the issue of fictitious capi- 
talization — a proceeding absolutely prohibited in Massachusetts — the 
company could afford to be generous because in receipt of a gen- 
erous income. 

Although it is apparent that the mere right to build and operate 
the railway in a highway did not in itself create any relation what- 
ever between the corporation and the city or town in which the 
highway was located, that relation was created, and the interests of 
the two were speedily brought in conflict by certain legislation im- 
posing certain duties upon such companies with respect to the high- 

There have been for many years two legislative provisions of 
great importance to the subject in hand, touching the relation of 
municipalities to highways. While the legislature might have it- 
self assumed both the duty and expense of maintaining highways, 
it very early saw fit to place both upon municipalities, and enacted 
the following provisions (Revised Laws, Chap. 51, Sees. 1 and 10) : 

"Highways, townways, causeways and bridges shall, unless other- 
wise provided, be kept in repair at the expense of the city or town 
in which they are situated, so that they may be reasonably safe and 
convenient for travelers, with their horses, teams and carriages at 
all seasons," and 

"The surveyors and road commissioners shall cause whatever ob- 
structs such ways, or endangers, hinders or incommodes persons 
traveling thereon to he removed, and shall forthwith cause snow to 
be removed from such ways or to be so trodden down as to make tliem 
reasonably safe and convenient." 

When, however, the legislature began granting street railway 
charters, it otherwise provided, in certain respects, for maintenance 
of highways. Without such other provision it- is clear that the 
street railway company would have had nothing to do in respect 
to the highway, and it was because of these other provisions that 
conflicts speedily and frequently arose. These other provisions 
varied from time to time, sometimes enlarging and sometimes di- 
minishing the highway obligations of the street railways, but they 
finally crystallized into two statutes : 

Public Statutes, chapter 113, section 32.— ".A street railway com- 
pany shall keep in repair to the satisfaction of the superintendent 
of streets, street commissioner, road commissioners or surveyors of 
highways, the paving, upper planking or other surface material of 
the portions of streets, roads and bridges occupied by its tracks, 
and if such tracks occupy unpaved streets or roads, shall in addi- 
tion so keep in repair (18) eighteen inches on each side of the 
portion occupied by its tracks." 

This provision modified the first provision of the general law 
imposing the duty of highway repair upon cities and towns. The 
other provision follows ; 

Public Statutes, chapter 113, section 27. — "The board of alder- 
men or selectmen may from time to time establish such regulations 
as to the rate of speed, mode of use of the tracks and removal of 
snow and ice therefrom within their city or town, as the interest 
and convenience of the public may require." 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

This provision again modified the other provision of the general 
law relative to the removing of ob.stnictions, and particularly snow, 
from the public ways. The obvious reason for the imposition of the 
former highway duty upon street railway companies was that they 
used horses, which, traveling always in a beaten track, would much 
more seriously injure the surface of the highway than would a 
greater number of horses scattered over the entire breadth of the 

Mr. Warren stated that t!ie only judicial decision he could recall 
upon the statute of interest in this connection was one that the 
space occupied by the tracks meant only the space between the two 
rails of each track, and not the space between the two tracks or 
outside of either track, and that the requirement was confined to 
the surface material, and did not involve responsibility for an open- 
ing in the street into which a traveler had fallen. Although con- 
flicts were numerous, and, as pointed out in the Report of the Spe- 
cial Street Railway Commission in iSgS, frequently presented the 
absurd and wasteful spectacle, for example, of two bodies of men. 
one employed by the corporation, and the other by a public official, 
busily engaged, the one in shoveling snow from the tracks, and 
the other in shovelling it back onto the tracks, both to the injury 
of travelers, there were but few judicial decisions under these 
statutes. In the case of Union Railways vs. Cambridge, II Allen 
287, the snow question was settled by the decision that the board 
of aldermen could entirely prohibit the removal of snow and ice 
from the tracks. Mr. Warren then stated as his opinion that the 
absence of judicial decisions upon these statutes as a basis was due 
to the existence of another statute, which enabled a board of alder- 
men or selectmen to revoke a street railway location and order the 
tracks out of a street without any appeal to any other board or 
court. At all events, these statutes imposed upon street railway 
companies some duty to maintain and repair a part of the surface 
of the highway in which the track was located; leaving, under the 
general law, the duty of keeping in repair the balance of the high- 
way, upon the city or town; and also, that the municipal authorities 
had free control in the matter of removing snow from the tracks, 
e*en to the extent of refusing to permit such removal at all, thus 
suspending the operation of the railway until the snow was removed 
by natural causes. 

Thus the law stood in 1897. At this time the mileage of street 
railways operated in the state had increased, in the thirty years 
from 1866 to 1896, from 107 to 1,291 ; the capital investment from 
$5,257,740 to $61,117,714, and the gross receipts from $1,707,447 to 
$14,900,941. The car mileage run had increased from 4,952,248 to 
53,613,685. In this year the increase in the number and extent of 
street railways, and in their importance to the traveling public, 
which w-as becoming more and more dependent upon this method of 
travel, the relations between the municipalities and the street rail- 
ways became the subject of serious legislative consideration. A spe- 
cial committee of three disinterested and prominent citizens was 
appointed to consider the whole question and report to the legisla- 
ture. This committee made a very full investigation of street rail- 
way problems, both in this country and Europe, and submitted to 
the General Court of 1898 a valuable and exhaustive report printed 
as House Document No. 475. This report took up in detail the 
relations between municipalities and street railways, and particu- 
larly the subject of highway conflicts. A draft bill designed to 
obviate, as far as possible, occasion for further disputes, accom- 
panied the report. The committee laid down two propositions as 
of the greatest importance : 

a. That a divided control of the highways, and consequently 
divided responsibility for their condition, was illogical and bad, and 
that both the control and responsibility should reside in one body; 
and that body should be the city or town in which the highway 

b. That public convenience absolutely required the uninterrupted 
operation of street railways, and that it was quite as important that 
a street railway track should be broken out and cleared of snow as 
it was that a sidewalk should be. With various amendments this 
bill was enacted as chapter 578 of the acts of the year 1898. 

While this statute made many changes in the street railway law, 
the important ones, as concerns highway conflicts, were, like the rec- 
ommendations of the committee itself, 

1. Undivided control of, and responsibility for, the condition of 

2. The imposition of a special graded excise tax, amounting sub- 

stantially, however, to 2 per cent of the gross earnings of all the 
street railways in the state. 

3. The distribution of this excise tax, and also of the franchise 
or corporation tax paid by the street railway companies, among the 
cities and towns within which the street railway tracks were located, 
in proportion to the miles of track in each city or town. 

4. A requirement that all money received by any city or town 
from this distribution of the street railway tax should be applied 
to the construction, repair and maintenance of the public ways, and 
removal of snow therefrom within such cities and towns. 

5. An enlargement of the equity jurisdiction of the courts to en- 
force compliance with the laws. (This was added by the legisla- 

The public generally is ignorant of the present status of the 
street railway resulting from this legislation of 1898. Not only 
did the statute provide that street railways shall not be required to 
keep any portion of the surface material of streets in repair, but it 
also expressly repealed section 32 of chapter 113 of the Public 
Statutes, which had previously required such repair work from street 
railways. The general law was left in effect, that cities and towns 
should keep the streets in repair. 

The bill as recommended by the committee further provided that 
street railway companies should clear snow from their tracks in 
such manner as the superintendent of streets, or other official exer- 
cising like powers, should approve; but that they should not be re- 
quired to remove from the streets the snow cleared from their 
tracks. The provision about removing snow was struck out of the 
bill in the legislature. The statute, however, further expressly re- 
pealed that part of section 27 of chapter 113 of the public statutes 
which authorizes aldermen and selectmen to make regulations as 
to removal of snow and ice. 

Since the passage of this statute of 1898 the importance of street 
railways to the traveling public has been immensely increased. 
The miles of track operated have grown from 1,291 in 1896 to 2,670 
in 1903. The capital investment has increased from $61,117,714 to 
$122,666,365. The gross receipts have increased from $14,900,941 to 
$25,540,811. The amount paid in taxes in 1896 was $523,546. This 
amount had grown in 1903 to $1,725,312, or more than three times 
that paid seven years earlier ; while the amount paid in dividends 
had increased from $1,802,847 to $3,586,248, or not quite twice as 

Briefly re-stated, the plan of this change in legislation was de- 
signed to prevent thereafter the performance of highway work by 
two different parties, and to place all such work in the control of 
the municipality whose general duty it had been to do this work. 
In the other highways, and also in the highways occupied by street 
railway tracks except for the limited space where the street railway 
tracks lay, it had, however, always been claimed, and probably with 
some justice, that the presence of a street railway track in the high- 
way, or at any event, in the wrought portion of the highway, caused 
a more rapid deterioration and consequently a more frequent need 
of repair than was true of a highway without such tracks in it. 
The new legislation recognized this claim, just as the old legislation 
had recognized it by imposing highway work upon the street railway 
companies; but instead of continuing the duty of such highway work, 
it substituted therefor a new excise tax ; which, as appears from the 
report of the commission, was carefully estimated to be at best the 
money equivalent of ihe highway work actually performed by the 
companies prior to this legislation. The legislature even went fur- 
ther, and provided also that the entire corporation tax paid by the 
companies should be distributed to the cities and towns, and that the 
receipts from both taxes should be used only for highway purposes 
and for the removal of snow. The financial result of this legislation 
to the companies has been that while their gross receipts have in- 
creased only about 66 per cent, the amount paid by them in taxes 
has increased over 200 per cent since the passage of the statute, and 
they paid in 1903 in taxes, all of which went to the cities and towns 
in which the railways were operated, half as much as the stock- 
holders received in dividends upon the $68,500,000 of capital stock 
invested in the business. 

That the conflicts still continue is in large measure due to a fail- 
ure on the part of the representatives of the public to appreciate the 
changed relations existing between themselves and the companies. 
The companies, too, are more insistent upon their alleged rights and 
exemptions in view of the great increase in their taxes. They claim 
not only that it is unjust and illegal that they should be expected to 

Jan. 15, 1905.] 



liolli pirfunii llio wiiiU I'jinicrly iti:iiun;d and also lo pay the tax 
wliicli llic legislature imposed as a substitute for the requirement to 
do lliat work; but also that with the low fares in force and the ad- 
ditional accommodations furnished by the companies, it is utterly 
impossible for them not to insist upon their rights, if they are to 
avoid ill many cases a suspension of dividends, and in some cases 
even more serious financial trouble. 

Some of the conflicts which have arisen since 1898 have been 
passed upon by the Supreme Court in decisions which should go 
far to prevent trouble in the future. It has been held that there is 
no longer any obligation upon a street railway company to main- 
tain any part of the surface material of a highway by virtue of any 
requirement contained in a grant of location, unless that grant hap- 
pened to be the first one ever made to the company in the particular 
city or town. Mr. Warren then stated that these decisions make tlie 
law perfectly clear as regards so-called extension locations at any 
time granted lo companies which were in existence before 1898, 
and said that there could, in his opinion, be little question but that 
they also decide that any requirement in a location granted to a com- 
pany organized since 1898, that the company shall maintain any part 
of the surface material of a street is void. The decisions do, how- 
ever, leave unsettled the requirement to maintain some part of the 
surface of a street imposed in an original grant of location, before 
the 1898 law went into effect. 

There has been no final decision as to the liability for the removal 
of snow under the new statute, but opinion seems to be that the most 
that a company can be required to do is to clear its tracks of snovv', 
so as to be able to operate its railway, and that it shall so far as 
practicable level the snow cleared from its tracks over the adjacent 
portions of the highway. A great deal of misunderstanding exists 
among some people because of the diversity of practice existing in 
Boston and its suburbs in which the Boston Elevated operates, 
and in otiicr places in the state. The fact that in Boston the rail- 
way company does keep in repair its portion of the streets, and 
docs itself remove from the streets a large quantity of snow, has 
often led officials in other cities and towns to demand that the street 
railway companies shall pursue the same course. A study of the 
statute shows, however, that this claim is unwarranted. The changes 
cITccted by it do not apply to the Boston Elevated or to lines operated 
by it until the end of the 2S-year period named in the Elevated char- 
ter as the time during which no new burdens shall be imposed 
upon it, and it was expressly provided that the change in the law 
should not apply to that company until the end of the 25 years. 

Conllicts still arise, and may continue to arise, as long as new 
street railways are built, growing out of the questions relative to 
construction. It is dilTicult to avoid these as long as the grants 
of location are drawn with the present indefiniteness and careless- 
ness of requirement which generally characterizes them. It is well 
to avoid such general phrases as, that this or the other work "shall 
be done to the satisfaction" of somebody, and, if on the other hand, 
the persons promoting a street railway enterprise would refuse to 
accept any grant of location unless its requirements were made thus 
specific and definite. But even in these instances much trouble would 
be avoided if the party to the conflict feeling itself aggrieved would 
apply to the courts for relief. 

Every conflict between city and town officials and a street rail- 
way company tends to hasten the day when municipal authorities 
will have no jurisdiction whatever over street railways. With the 
great growth of this system of travel and the greatly increased 
public dependence upon it, there has always been a marked tendency 
to recognize the fact that street railways are no longer local affairs, 
but that their regular and uninterrupted operation is essential to 
the public's whole comfort and convenience, and that anything which 
interrupts this operation, even under the color of a legal right, is a 
public hardship. If necessary, problems of the foregoing character 
should be determined by some tribunal so situated that it can take 
a broad view of the circumstances. 

Mr. Warren then discussed the general trend of legislation of late 
toward placing the State Railroad Commission in an authoritative 
position in connection with street railway problems of great public 
importance. Matters of grade crossing, fenders, wheel guards, 
heating of cars, furnishing additional accommodations for passengers, 
acquiring real estate for park purposes, leases, consolidations and 
the use of foreign tracks were all within the control of this board 
even before the legislation of 1898. Great authority with respect 
to locations was granted by the legislation of 189S, and recently the 

board has been granted exclusive jurisdiction on the subject of 
the vestibuling of cars, determining when a street railway may be 
opened for public use, approval of local speed regulations, loca- 
tions on private rights of way and the regulation of fares. The 
accommodation of the traveling public, uninterrupted operation and 
the greatest public safety have apparently been in the minds of 
legislators as these changes in control have been made. These rail- 
ways arc of too much importance to the public lo permit any 
crippling of service by reason of local conflicts. If the result of such 
conflicts is lo be an interruption of travel it is safe to predict that 
the legislature will spccdiy transfer to some state commission the 
remaining jurisdiction still retained by local authorities. 

Last year the street railway tax in Massachusetts amounted to 
3'/. per cent of the total amount of money raised by local taxation 
in the commonwealth. The latter sum was $46,990,749. Legislation 
is needed by which some part of this tax may be made directly 
applicable to the maintenance of state highways, which arc increas- 
ing notably in importance. 

Mr. Warren concluded by stating that it is safe to assume that 
when the public understands, it will approve the scheme of leaving the 
entire physical control and maintenance of the highways to the 
public officials, and that when these officials realize that the street 
railways are paying a million and three-quarters of dollars annually 
toward this maintenance, they will see that the money is devoted to 
the purposes for which, under the law, it is paid, and that they will 
find that ample funds have been provided for any highway expense 
necessitated by street railways. At any event it is to be hoped that 
the remedy now afforded by the statutes will put an end to efforts 
on the part of either the street railways or public officials to decide 
these questions of taking the law into their own hands, assaulting 
each other's employees, tearing up rails, or obstructing cither the 
highway or that part of it represented by the regular operation of 
street cars. 

The Geneva Traction Co. 

The Geneva Traction Co. has been organized under the laws of the 
state of Indiana for the purpose of constructing and operating an 
electric railway from Marion, Ind., to Celina, O., through Montpclier 
and Geneva, Ind., passing through the heart of the Indiana and Ohio 
oil belt for the entire distance, 52^ miles. Franchises and right of 
way have been secured over the entire route, and the engineers are 
now working out the details of construction and equipment. The 
road will handle both freight and passenger business, will be equipped 
with 55-ft. cars, single phase. The power house will contain water 
tube boilers and direct connected turbine engines. The power house, 
car barns and machine shops will be in one building, with the ma- 
chine shop located in the center, so that the engine room crane can 
be used to handle material to the machine shop from either the 
power station or the car barn. The building will be of cement block 
construction with steel truss roof, and will be located at Geneva. 
Ind. Chestnut poles will be used in the line construction, except in 
cities where iron poles will be substituted, and 70-lb. standard T- 
rails will be used in the track construction. 

The officers of the company are: President, Senator Silas W. 
Male ; vice-president, James H. Hardison ; secretary, .\ndrcw G. 
Briggs; treasurer, Charles D. Porter, all of Geneva; chief counsel. 
Dudley M. Shively, South Bend ; general manager, William J. Hes- 
ter, Geneva; assistant general manager, Hugh H. Hesford, Buchan- 
an, Mich. ; civil engineer, Henderson McClellan, South Bend, and 
electrical engineer, James H. Forbush, Columbus, O. The ofRces of 
the company are at Geneva, Ind. 


It is reported that the Baltimore & Ohio will make an electric 
line out of the Cleveland, Wooster & Muskingum Valley road or at 
least a part of it. 

The Western Ohio Railway Co. and the Dayton & Troy Electric 
Railway Co. have issued a very convenient time card in connection 
with their limited service between Dayton and Lima. On one 
side of the card is a map of the lines while on the other is the 
time card. This fast service, which has recently been established, 
includes four limited trains daily each way between Dayton and 
Lima, making the run of 80 miles in 150 minutes, without change 
of cars. This is considered the fastest trolley service in the world. 



[Vou XV, No. I. 

Two New Pleasure Resorts. 


The International Construction Co., with headquarters at noi 
Herman Building, Milwaukee, Wis., is now constructing a pleasure 
resort, which will be known as "Wonderland," located at Oakland 
Ave. and the city limits of Milwaukee, where the company has a 
tract of IS acres. This is about 4 miles from the city hall, an 18- 
minute ride on the electric cars. About one-third of the site is 
thickly wooded and from this wood a double row of maple trees,- 
planted some 30 years ago, extends down to the river front, mak- 
ing a most beautiful shaded avenue. The cost of this resort will be 
$140,000 and the attractions will include the scenic railway, which 
was on the Pike at the St. Louis fair; shoot the chutes; tl>ing 
swings built by the Amusement Construction Co., such as illustrated 
in the "Review" for December, page 982; an electric tower; the Old 
Mill ; a Cagney miniature railway ; Chilkoot Pass, otherwise known 
as the bump-the-bumps, which was illustrated in the "Review" for 
September; a laughing gallery; a fairy theater; mystic maze; flying 
horses; dancing pavilion; belter skelter and down and out. Several 
of these attractions, among which are Chilkoot Pass, belter skelter 
and down and out, are free to patrons, the idea being that when a 
crowd gets warmed up by indulging in the exercise which these 
devices promote, it will be in better spirit to patronize the pay 

One of the new attractions is the Fairy Theater, and it is a most 
ingenious one. The stage and all stage settings are constructed on 
a large scale, tables, chairs and all furniture being five or six times 
as large as they would be made for ordinary use. The performers 
in the theater are children. The audience looks into lenses which 
are placed in a curved partition separating the stage from the au- 
ditorium, the effect of which is to reduce the exaggerated stage 
properties to their normal size and the effect of the children when 
correspondingly reduced is quite startling. 

Music and outdoor vaudeville acts will be special features. Mr. 
Richard Kann, who is known to our readers as the author of the 
article on "Some New Ideas in the Pleasure Resort Business" in 
the September "Review," is president of the International Construc- 
tion Co., and Mr. Sherburn M. Becker is vice-president. 

Mr. Kann is also president of the Park Construction Co., which 
is erecting a $200,000 "Wonderland" midway between Minneapolis 
and St. Paul on the route of the electric interurban line now build- 
ing by the Twin City Rapid Transit Co. between those points. It 
should be mentioned that this new line will be the third interurban 
road of the Twin City company connecting the Twin Cities. At Min- 
neapolis "Wonderland" baby incubators and the Santiago Naval 
Show will be among the attractions. 

Additions to Purdue Railroad Museum. 

Negotiations have been completed whereby Purdue University is 
to receive from the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.. 
through the courtesy of Mr. Samuel Higgins, general manager, the 
historic locomotive "Daniel Nason". A few years ago the Univer- 
sity interested itself in securing from railways samples of such 
classes of locomotives as are now being superseded by machines 
of more modern construction, its purpose being to preserve as mu- 
seum exhibits types of design which were in danger of becoming ex- 
tinct. As a result of this plan, a number of valuable relics are al- 
ready upon its grounds. From the beginning of this movement, an 
effort has been made to secure a representative of a type which 
was common throughout New England thirty years ago, namely, an 
8-wheeled engine having cylinders inside the frames connecting 
with the crank axle. This effort has now been crowned with suc- 
cess. The "Daniel Nason" is said to have been built in 1858. It 
was exhibited in Chicago in 1893 and has since been held as a relic 
at Roxbury, Mass. The engine weighs about 25 tons, is complete 
with its tender, and will be shipped to the University at Lafayette, 
Ind., upon its own wheels. 

The University is also to become the custodian, on behalf of the 
same railway, for a stage-coach passenger car which is said to have 
been placed in service in 1835. It consists of the body of a stage- 
coach su.spended over a simple railway truck by means of thorough 
braces. It will seat inside and on its top about twenty persons. 

Editor "Review" : In connection with the proposed combination 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Harvard Uni- 
versity, the following authoritative statement of foreign opinion 
(translated from the Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure 
of Sept. 24, 1904,) is of interest: 

".■\t a meeting of the Union of German Engineers, held at Munich 
September 12th, with the participation of thirty eminent representa- 
tives of technological schools and universities, as well as of other 
schools and of industries, the following resolutions were adopted : 

"l. It is not advisable, so far as can be foreseen, to attempt to 
meet the need of new technological schools by the addition of tech- 
nological faculties to universities, but rather by the establishment of 
independent institutions ; for the technological schools would be 
hindered in their independent development by attaching them to uni- 
versities. This separation should not, however, impede the welcome 
development of intellectual good-will between the two institutions. 
The attachment to universities would also in no way involve econo- 
mics of consequence. 
. "2. The Union of Gennan Engineers stands now, as before, by 
its expression of 1886, as follows : We declare that the German engi- 
neers have the same needs and will be subjected to the same judg- 
ment as to their general culture as the representatives of other pro- 
fessions based on higher scientific education. 

"In this view we rejoice as the conviction more and more gains 
ground that a considerably greater significance is to be attributed 
than before to mathematical and natural science as a means of cul- 
ture. Knowledge of these branches is becoming more and more an 
indespensable constituent of general education. The predominantly 
linguistic education now received by the majority of our gymnasium 
graduates does not satisfy the demands which must be made on the 
leading classes of our people, in particular, in respect to the in- 
creasing significance of economic questions." 

Tech Graduate. 

New York Transportation Co. 

In connection with the election of Mr. Richard W. Meade as pres- 
ident of the New York Transportation Co., it should be of interest 
to our readers to knov/ what field this company covers. 

The business of the New York Transportation Co. is primarily 
that of reiithig, storing and repairing electric vehicles of all kinds, 
of which it owns between five and six hundred. Its main station is 
at 49th St. and Eighth Ave., and it has additional stations at 66di 
St. and Third Ave, 64 Vesey St., New York City, and 19 Downing 
St., Newport, R. I., containing in all a floor space in New Yor!-- 
City of 201,600 square feet, and in Newport 20,000 square feet. It is 
the largest concern of its kind in existence and has been the principal 
pioneer in the development of electric automobile livery service. 

The Transportation company also controls the Fifth .'\ venue Coach 
Co., which possesses franchises of considerable value on Fifth Ave. 
and other important streets of New York, and the Park Carriage 
Co., which has an exclusive franchise for operating vehicles in the 
parks and parkways of the Borough of Manhattan. In other words, 
it controls all the fi.xed route transportation facilities in the Borough 
of Manhattan other than those of the railroads. 

Important Contracts in San Francisco. 

The Crocker-Wheeler Co., through its Pacific Coast managers, the 
Abner Doble Co. of San Francisco, has secured a contract from the 
California Gas & Electric Corporation for three 4000-kw., 2S-cycle, 
three-phase, 13,200-volt revolving field alternators, to be driven by 
6ooo-h. p. gas engines built by the Snow Engine Co. These gen- 
erators are the largest in capacity in the world driven by gas engines, 
and will furnish power for operating all the street railways in San 
Francisco and vicinity. The installation of these three engine-driven 
generating units in San Francisco will mark an important step for 
the transmission company, as they will operate in parallel with the 
water power plants of the company and thus serve as an important 
reserve plant for the entire system. One of the units will be used ex- 
clusively for handling the peak load on the railway lines. 

The Electric Tramways of Amsterdam, Holland. 


Ill the cily of Aiiistcnlaiii is an iiilcrcsiiiin Irannvay wliicli was 
liiiilt liy the Allgciiiciiic Elckliicitacis Gesellschaft and the .Siemens 
& I lalsUe Co. Tlicse tramways cover alioiit 30 miles of route and are 

of 1,000 h. p. each directly connected to a dynamo. Two of the 
engines drive continuous current generators for the tramways. Two 
are coupled lo three-phase high tension alternators for lighting and 


partly single and partly double track. The cars were built by Raab, of 
Prague, which concern also supplied the trucks, which have given 
entire satisfaction. All the cars are single deck and trailers arc 
extensively used. The motor cars are equipped with motors made by 
the Union Electric Co., of Berlin. The Siemens pattern of bow 
trolley is used exclusively. 

The track is laid with grooved rails and has no ballast, but is 
merely supported on a bed of sand. No concrete or grouting is 
used for the reason that the soil is so yielding that a bed of concrete 
would be liable to break owing to the elasticity of the soil under- 
neath. It has been found with this construction that the cars run 
very smoothly even at high speed. 

I'he new power station which furnishes current for lighting 
as well as for tramways presents some unusual features. The build- 
ing is of brick and ample space has been left for additional machinery 
as may be necessary. There are 10 high tension feeders leading from 
the station to the transforming sub-stations which number about 50. 
.At these sub-stations the current is reduced to 220 volts before being 
delivered to the consumers. 

The boiler house contains 12 boilers, each of which is double, one 
being placed above the other. The lower boiler is of the cylindrical 
type and the upper one is of the water-tube pattern. Superheaters 
are fitted behind these boilers. The flames and gases from the fur- 
nace after passing the cylindrical boiler pass up to the water-tube 
boiler above and finally pass to the superheater before being led to 
the chimney. The steam produced in both sections of the boiler is 
led to a drum to which the steam pipe connects. Hand firing is em- 
ployed in this station. 

The engine room contains five cross compound horizontal engines 

the other engine to both a continuous current and an alternating cur- 
rent generator, either of which or both may be used at once as a 




(Vui.. XV, No. I. 

reserve for the railway or the lighting system. The engines for 
the continuous current machines were built by Stork & Co., and those 
for the alternators were made by the Netherlands Co. and are of 
the Sulzer design. .Ml the engines run at 105 r. p. m. with steam 
at 140 lb. pressure and 270° F. superheat. The engines are pro- 

voltage necessary for electric lighting is well secured. All the gener- 
ators are of the Allgemeine Elektricitaets Gcsellschaft type. The 
continuous current machines generate at 600 volts pressure and this 
is fed direct to the trolley wires. 

.\ storage battery is connected in parallel with the railway dyna- 


vided willi stuffing bo.xcs loose enough in the cylinder covers to allow 
a certain amount of play and the air pumps for the condensers are 
operated by a connection from the tail-rod of one of the pistons. 
The engines which drive the alternators have a small motor con- 
nected to the governor and the motor can be actuated from the 
switchboard so as to help the governor in maintaining a uniform 
speed whether the load is light or heavy. In this way the steady 

mos and this battery carries all the load after one o'clock in the 
morning when the only current required is for lighting the station 
and driving the tools in the repair shops. The three-phase alter- 
nators generate current at 3,000 volts and 50 periods per second. 

It should also be noticed here that the new electric railway which 
runs from Amsterdam to Haarlem runs over a part of the tramway 
lines in both Amsterdam and Haarlem. 

The Amsterdam- Haarlem Tramways System. 

About five years ago there was constructed in the city of Haarlem, 
by a local Dutch company, an electric tramway system, the first in 
Holland. This system included a belt line about the city, with two 
suburban branches, one running north to Bloemendal and another 
west about 5 miles to Zandvoort. Haarlem itself is a city of 65,000 

inhabitants and the distance between the city limits of Haarlem and 
Amsterdam is 10 miles. Several years ago a concession was granted 
for an interurban line, but the route was rather roundabout, and 
finally the Holland Steam Railway Co. secured control of the enter- 
prise and prevented the construction of the line. In 1901, however, 
Messrs. Anderhagen & Neumeyer, of .Amsterdam, took the prelini- 



Jan. is, 1905.] 



inary steps towards securing a new concession over the direct govern- 
ment high road connecting the two cities and running parallel with 
the steam railroad. In addition to this concession for the use of 
the government high road, the company secured private right of way 
for two miles from the government road to the city limits of .Amsler- 

the through running of cars, and this was done principally at the 
expense of the concessionaires, who also agreed to pay 40 per cent 
of the fares which the town would have charged within the city 
limits, on the basis of its own rates, also to repay the actual cost, 
plus 10 per cent, expended by the corporation in the maintenance of 




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dam, which included a strip of land for the whole distance wide 
enough to permit of a row of building lots on each side of the roail. 
On this section the tramway is built in the center of the road, with 
a paved driveway on each side, and outside of this driveway the usual 
footpaths and building lots are arranged. Running powers were then 
secured over the tramways of Amsterdam, then in process of 
conversion for electric operation, for a distance of about one mile 
from the city limits to the center of the office and retail business 

track, and further to pay for tlie power within the city. An agree- 
ment was then secured with the corporation of Haarlem permit- 
ting tlie construction of about V/i miles of fines within the city to 
give the company a satisfactory terminus at its eastern end; this 
concession is also for a period of 50 years. 

When all these concession arrangements were completed, the 
matter was presented to an American syndicate, headed by Afr. H. 
J. Pierce, of BufiFalo. who organized the Netherlands Tramway Co.. 


districts of Amsterdam. The gage of the Amsterdam city lines 
being standard and that of the new concession being one meter, it 
was necessary to lay a tliird rail for the greater part of the distance, 
where the routes are common. This was made more expensive by 
the fact that a large swing bridge had to be constructed to permit 

of New Jersey. The Electric Railway Co. of Amsterdam, a 
Dutch corporation, was also organized to take over the con- 
cessions and build the line, all the shares of this company be- 
ing subscribed and fully paid for in cash by the American syndicate. 
In order to secure satisfactory terminal facilities in Haarlem and 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

- ■-^".^£^.-.-.^7-^^ .*??•— 4-- 


O iO^ 




through running arrangements between Amsterdam and Zandvoort, 
the local Haarlem companj-, which is known as the First Netherlands 
Electric Tramwftys fabhreviated F. N. E. '1'.], was purchased out- 
right. Contracts were then entered into on Jan. i, 1903, with J. G. 
White & Co., Ltd., of London, for the complete design and con- 
struction of the road, and operation of the completed system was 
commenced in October, 1904. 

Over the greater portion of the route in Amsterdam the line fol- 
lowed the existing tram line of the municipality and on such portions 

the third rail was laid. The bridge which is located at the city 
limits of Amsterdam is what is generally known as the bascule type 
of swing bridge designed and built by the Haarlem Machine Co. The 
general details of this bridge are as follows: 12 meters span, 12 
meters wide, 876 piles to the foundations, 176 cubic meters of other 
timber, 1,250 cubic meters of brickwork, 100 cubic meter', of granite 
and 220 tons of steel. From the bridge the line runs over its private 
right of way the length of which is 2,444 meters. The cross section 
of this part of the route is 22 meters from building line to build- 


I— =-~^'0 -i- 


Jan. 15, I9(J5.| 



ing line, with a cciiliT si rip S luctcis wide for the tracks and center 
pole conslrnclion. At the village of Sloterdykc the line joins the 
government high road, on the north side of which road runs a canal, 
except through llalfwcg, and on the south side is a ditch. The land 

is of a hoggy, peaty nature, and is used wholly for grazing purposes. 


The paving of the high road was practically rclaid the entire length, 
to the stipulated datum level of Amsterdam. In this work there 
were used 43.500 piles, 4,600 cubic meters of timber, creosoted and 
uucreosoled ; 160 tons of iron for tie rods, 5,000 tons of basalt for 
slopes, 75,200 cubic meters sand filling, 31,600 square meters brick 
paving, 9,600 cubic meters dredging, 1,700 meters of fencing and 74 
gateways and approaches to farms and houses. 

The permanent way along the government high road and along 
the private right of way is standard railway construction, 70-lb. T- 
rails of A. S. C. E. section, being used. The rails rest on ties which 
are spaced 76 cm. center to center, except at the joints, where they 
are at 50 cm. The joints are staggered. The ties are creosoted Nor- 
way pine, 23x11.5 cm., the upper edges being beveled. The rails 
are fastened to the ties by screw bolts and doubled concealed bonds 
are placed at each joint. The length of route along the canal is 
13,417 meters. At the village of Halfweg the line crosses two canals, 
over whicli bridges were built, one of four spans of 15 meters each, 
and the other of two spans of the same length. Through the village 
of Halfweg there are two sections of single line, which are controlled 
by an automatic electric signaling device of the Siemens-Schuckert 
Co. The terminus of the line in Haarlem coincides with the ter- 
minus of the Zandvoort line. The construction in Haarlem is all 
.grooved girder rail of 84-lb. section, resting on ties spaced 74 cm. 
center to center, except at the joints, where they are 56 cm. In 
Haarlem it was necessary to reconstruct a swing bridge and to en- 
tirely rebuild three other bridges, as well as to construct a new 
bridge for the entrance into the city. 


riu- iiDWLT liousc is situated in a central position at Halfweg, being 
located on the banks of the Ringvaart Canal, which affords cheap 
facilities for transportation of supplies, and also an abundance of 
water for feed to boilers and jet condensation. Owing to the nature 
of the country and the poor condition of ground at the site of 
the power station, an elaborate arrangement of piling was necessary, 
the entire site being covered with piles 46 ft. long by g^ in. diameter, 
placed 4 ft. I in. apart, each pile being estimated to carry 4 tons. 
The buildings are of brick, substantially built and neatly finished 
with stone trimmings. The ground area occupied by the power sta- 
tion site is about 0,150 sq. ft. with sufficient ground for future exten- 
sions. A wharf 26 ft. 3 in. wide was erected, immediately adjoin- 
ing which is the boiler lionse, 88 ft. 7 in. by 52 ft. 6 in. in size. .\ 

division wall separates the Ijoilcr and engine room ami situated at 
the end of the boiler room is a coal storage room, with storage capac- 
ity for 400 tons. Good light is obtained throughout the entire build- 
ing by large glass windows with iron frames and ample door space 
is provided for bringing machinery into the building. 

The main engine plant consists of three Bcllis pat- 
ent self-lubricating, Ihrcc-crank, triple-expansion en- 
gines, each of 430 b. h. p , at economical cut-off, and 
having a steam consumption of 13!^ 111. with super- 
healed and 17 lb. with saturated steam, with 26 in. 
vacuum. The speed is 375 r. p. m. The cylinders 
arc 12, 17 and 26 x 13-in. stroke, steam inlet 4^ in. 
aiirl the exhaust 11 in. in diameter. The fomidalions 
arc built of concrete, engine centers being 14 ft. 9 
in. apart, and the flooring consists of tiles bedded 
in concrete and supported on two layers of brick 
The boiler house contains six I.^ncashirc steel boil- 
ers, manufactured by Stork of Hengelo, Holland, 
encased in heavy brickwork walls with foundations 
of brick work. The heating surface of each lx)iler 
is 926 st|. ft., the grate area 35 ?q. ft. and the steam 
pressure 160 lb. per sq. in. Directly behind the boil- 
ers are the superheaters, of which there are six, 
manufactured by Stork, of Hengelo, which are ar- 
ranged to work at a temperature of 500° F. By 
means of flue doors, the superheaters can be cut out 
and engines worked by saturated steam. The heat- 
ing surface of each superheater is 330 sq. ft.; each 
superheater consists of 10 rowi of coils, the ends of 
which terminate in two cast steel headers, the coils 
being hound by steel straps bolted together. The 
steam enters the one header, passes through the 
lubes and discharges at the other. Fixed to the 
discharge steel header are a safety 1 alvc, a blow- 
oflf cock, and two small holes for testing purposes. 

The generators, made by the Societe Anonyme Westinghouse, Lc 
Havre, are three in number, coupled to the engine shafts. The 
output of each compound 6-pole machine is 300 kw. at 525 to 575 
volts when running at a speed of 375 r. p. m. The generator is 
supported on a cast iron frame, which also supports the outward 
bearing, the whole being secured by four foundation bolts. The 
switchboard consists of five panels, three generating and two feeder 
panels, and is situated on the floor at the end of the engine room. 


The panels are of marble fitted to a steel frame and have the usual 
standard forms of instruments, switches, etc The cables from each 
of the generators are led into a trench, which runs along the ends 
of the generators and terminates behind the switchboard. 

.\ lo-ton traveling crane spans the engine room at a height of 
15 ft. The hoisting and traveling, both longitudinally and trans- 



[Vch.. W, No. 


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Jan. 15. t</>5- 



vcrscly, arc worUed by means nf hand chains from the engine room 
lloor. A round brick chimney is sitnatod free from Ihc building at 
one end of the Imilcr house and is 131 ft. binli by 5 ft. 5 in. in 

The condensing plant for the main engine was manufactured by the 
Nederlandsche Fabrick, Amsterdam, and consists of three jet 
condensers, pumps of vertical type and cylinders supported on a cast 
iron frame. The feed water to the boilers is taken from the canal 
.iiiil nitcrcil, the filtering medium consisting of sand and clinkers. 
A vertical exhaust feed water tube_healer made by the Wheeler 
Condenser & Engineering Co. is placed directly behind tlic feed 
pumps, of which there arc two sets, each capable of delivering 
2,400 gallons per hour against 300 lb. per sq. in. 

All steam piping was made by Seiffert & Co., of Berlin, and is 
extra heavy throuRhont and arranged by closing valves in the main 
header, to permit the operation of this plant as three independent 
units. The diameter of the main header, which is made of cast 
steel, is 8 in , while the diameter of the pipe from the main header 
to the engine is 4l< in. The feed water piping to the boilers is 
arranged in duplicate, the diameter of the suction pipe being 3 in., 
the discharge from pumps 2 in., mains 3 in. and branches to check 
valves 2H ill- I'rom each of the three engines an exhaust pipe is 
carried across the engine room into the boiler room, where the three 
pipes connect leading to the atmosphere; a branch pipe is then taken 
from the engine into an independent jet condenser. The diameter 
nf the exhaust pipe from the engine to condensers is II in. and to 
almosphcrc 16 in. The auxiliary steam piping is worked with sat- 
urated steam taken from the branches off the main steam pipe and 
is designed on the loop system, while in the auxiliary exhaust piping 
the exhaust from each of the three condensers joins into a main pipe 
and runs to a point where it meets a main exhaust pipe from the 
three feed pumps to the heater. Valves are placed in the piping so 
that any unit can be isolated when required. 


The 34 cars were made by La Mettalurgiciue at Nivelles, Belgium. 
Ihey are divided into two compartments, the larger for seating 22 
passengers, and the other 12. The smaller compartment is for smok- 
ing. The cars are vestibuled. Besides the hand brakes, the cars are 
(■(juipped with Christensen air brakes supplied by K. W. Blackwell & 
Co., Ltd., London. Air pumps are worked by an electric motor auto- 
matically regulated. The trucks were also furnished by La Metal- 
lurgique. The special feature of these trucks is that the swing 
hangers are pivoted on the outside of the truck frame. This per- 
mits a maximum distance between the supports of the spring plank 
and a maximum distance center to center of the swinghangers. The 
result of this construction has been most satisfactory. The trucks 
are very easy riding, even at the higher speeds of 35 to 40 miles per 

The motors are 50 h. p. furnished by the Union Elektricitats Gesell- 
schaft, now incorporated with the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesell- 

A new car-shed was constructed in Haarlem. The pit construction 
in the car-shed tracks was made with cast-iron columns, which carry 
the rail directly. These columns at the other end have flanged bases, 
resting on the pile foundations. 

Overhead Work. 

The overhead equipment is on the bow system, with a pressure of 
500 to 575 volts. The poles are of the lattice girder type, of three 
different weights, 250 kg., 317 kg. and 590 kg. The first two are 
constructed of two channel sections bolted together and the last with 
angles. The poles are provided with heel plates and set two meters 
in concrete. Bracket arms consist of two channel sections, bolted 
together. Bracket arm construction is used throughout, except in 
Haarlem, and the poles carry both the feeder cables and telephone 
wires. Feeder cables consist of two bare copper conductors, each 
194 sq. mm. section. The trolley wire is 68 sq. mm. in section. On' 
that part of the route from Haarlem to Zandvoort, bow contact is 
made with two wires simultaneously. The trolley wire is zig-zagged. 
in order to equalize the wear on the bow. The height of the wire 
from the ground varies in Amsterdam, on the government road, and 
on the E. N. E. T. section ; this variation in height caused at first 
considerable trouble with the bows, but at present the bow base is 
so arranged as to keep an equal tension on the bow at the respective 
heights. The wire is screwed and held up by mechanical clips. 

which, with the l)ow, gives noiseless running. Tlic whole ovcrlicad 
construction impresses one with a sense of lightness, without loss of 

Theodore I*, liailcy- 

In the appointment of Mr. Theodore P. Bailey as vice-president 
rid general manager of the L. E, Meyers Co., Chicago, the com- 
pany has secured one of the most 
ible and widely known men in the 
r.iilway and lighting business. To 
iccept this appointment Mr. Bai- 
cy resigned the position of assist- 
int manager of the western office 
if the General Electric Company, 
with which concern he has been 
associated for more than twenty 
years. Mr. Bailey began his busi- 
ness career in 18S2 as an employe 
of the Van Depocle Electric Light 
Co. Shortly after entering the 
services of this company he was 
elected secretary of it, which po- 
sition he held until 1884. He then 
left this company to become sell- 
ing agent for the arc lighting ap- 
paratus of the Thomson-Houston Co., and in 1887 was made man- 
ager of its railway department in the west, which territory covered 
the entire United States west of Chicago. At the time of the con- 
solidation of this company and the organization of the General 
Electric Co., in 1892, Mr. Bailey continued in charge of the rail- 
way department of the company, later assuming the additional duties 
as assistant manager of the western office. 


The Chicago Consolidation. 

I'he latest development in Chicago Union Traction matters is the 
reported consolidation of the Chicago City Railway Co. and the 
Chicago Union Traction Co., which has been brought to a successful 
conclusion in New York City by a syndicate headed by J. P. Morgan 
& Co., and composed chiefly of J. P. Morgan, H. B. Hollins & Co., 
Marshall Field, John J. Mitchell, the Armour interests, and John 
A. Spoor. On January nth, the following advertisement appeared 
in the Chicago newspapers, which tends to confirm the report: 
"To All Stockholders of the Chicago City Railway Co. : 

"In behalf of Messrs. J. P. Morgan & Co., as syndicate managers, 
the undersigned hereby offer to purchase any and all shares of stock 
of the Chicago City Railway Co., at the price of $200 per share, 
provided that not less than 90,001 shares, constituting a majority 
of the' total outstanding capital stock, shall have been delivered under 
this offer. 

"All stockholders desiring to accept this offer will deliver cer- 
rificates for their stock, duly endorsed in blank for transfer, to the 
Illinois Trust and Savings Bank, in the City of Chicago, 111., on or 
before the 15th day of February. 1905, and in exchange therefor will 
receive a certificate entitling the depositor on or before the 31st 
day of March, 1905, to receive payment at the rate of $200 per share 
for the stock therein specified, if by that date the majority of such 
stock shall have been so delivered or accepted, and otherwise to re- 
ceive a stock certificate for the same number of shares represented 
by such certificate." 

The above was signed by Marshall Field, John J. Mitchell and P. 
A. Valentine. I he only exception to the purchase of all the stock 
is that these three gentlemen have agreed to retain their holdings 
and become the active Chicago clement in the merger. .\5 soon as 
the syndicate is assured of the control of the Chicago Citj- Railway 
Co., negotiations with the city will be opened and for this purpose 
it is possible that a protective committee of Chicago City, Union 
Traction, and underlying interests will be formed to deal with the 
council committee on local transportation relative to franchise mat- 
ters. Buying of City Railway stock and West Chicago Street R. R. 
. consolidated bonds absorbed the larger part of the interest in the 
I local stock market during the last few days. City Railway ad\-ancing 
■■ ^ to $108 on January 12th, 



[Vol, XV, No. i. 








45-47 Plymouth Place. Chicago, III. 

Cable Address: ' 'Winfield. ' ' Lone Distance Telephone, Harrison 754. 

New York— 39 Cortlandt Street. Cleveland — 30a Electric Building. 

London -Byron House, 83 Fleet St. 


Austria, Vienna— Lehmann & Wentzel, Karntnerstrasse. 

France, Paris — Boyveau & Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Ruede la Banque. 

Italy, Milan— Ulrico Hoepli, Librairia Delia Real Casa. 

New South V/alcs, Sydney— Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 

Queensland iSouth), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 

Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited, Queen Street. 

Address alt Commtiitications and Remittances to Kenfietd Publishing Co., Chicago, III. 


We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
eng'ae'ed in any branch uf street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked coi>ies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pcrtainini; either to companies or officers. 


If you contemplate the purchase of any supplies or material, we can save 
you much lime and trouble. Drop a line to The Kkview, stating what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
beat dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing" such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicag'o Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post OfBce at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 

Vol. XV 

JANUARY 15, 1905 

No. 1 


Miscellaneous EqiiipmeiUs of the United Railroads of San Fran- 

ciscol. Illustrated i 

Avoidable Causes of Central Station Fires. By .•\rtluir B. Weeks. 5 

Long Switch Timbers under Special Work 6 

Piping & Tower Station Systems — III. By Wm. L. Morris 7 

The Boston Elevated Construction Car. Illustrated .' 10 

Street Railway and Highway Conflicts 11 

The Electric Tramways of Amsterdam. Illustrated. By E. Guar- 

ini 17 

The Amsterdam-Haarlem Tramways System. Illustrated 18 

The Chicago Consolidation 23 

Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co. Illustrated 27 

Relieving Congested Traffic at Rush Hours. By D. McDonald. .. .31 
The New Terminal Station of the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Co. Illustrated .3.? 

Canadian Street Railway Association 37 

Interchange of Freight Between Steam and Electric Roads 38 

Ohio Interurban Railway Association 40 

Middletown Cars for York, Pa. Illustrated 42 

Cost of Electric Railway Power Production and Transmission in 

the State of Indiana. By Albert S. Richey 43 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line. Illustrated 45 

Track and Roadbed Construction and Maintenance, with Partic- 
ular Reference to the Life and Chemical Preservation of 

Cross-Ties. By Thos. B. McMath 47 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 49 

December Meeting New England Street Railway Club 53 

Indiana Electric Railway Association 57 

The Construction and Maintenance of Cars and Equipment. By 

L. M. Clark 58 

Personal 60 

Electrical Equipment of the Williamsburg Bridge. Illustrated. .. .63 


The annual index for the "Review" for iy04. is included iu tlie 
January, 1905, number and should not be ovcrlookcil in preparing 
the files for binding. 


Last month we had the pleasure of recording the organization of 
the Indiana Electric Railway Association, and this month there is 
yet another in the field. The Canadian Street Railway Association 
was organized at Montreal, Dec. 20, 1904. One point on which the 
new association is deserving of especial commendation is that it 
has provided itself with an ample taxing power, so that it will not 
be prevented from carrying out its work by lack of funds. Not 
only are the dues comparatively high, but there is granted to the 
executive committee the power to levy assessments on members, 
prorated according to gross receipts. 


The tunnel connecting Boston with East Boston, which was be- 
gun by the Boston Transit Commission in May, 1900, was opened 
to traffic by the Boston Elevated Ry. Dec. 30, 1904. The cost of 
this work w'as about $3,300,000. As an indication of what may be 
expected in the way of traffic it is interesting to note that nearly 
13.000,000 passengers traveled between Boston and East Boston by 
the ferries in 1903. Upwards of half an hour is required in the 
journey from Maverick Sq. to Court St. by ferry and surface cars 
The tunnel time is si.x minutes, a toll of one cent being collected 
by the Elevated road for the city of Boston in addition to the regu- 
lar s-cent fare, .^s the ferries also charge a one-cent toll, this 
immense reduction in time is secured without additional expense 
to the passenger. The added efficiency which the East Boston 
tunnel confers upon the elevated system as a whole is bound to be 
considerable, and it is safe to say that the citizens of Boston will 
probably never have cause to regret the carrying out of this notable 
and permanent triumph of transportation engineering. 


At the December meeting of the Western Railway Club, Mv 
Slason Thompson presented a paper on ".American and British 
Reports of Railway Accidents," which is a most interesting discus 
sion of the way in which facts are distorted and used to inflanu' 
public opinion against railroad corporations. Mr. Thompson's paper 
is open to one adverse criticism which it is feared will detract tn 
some extent from the value it should have. -This objection is the 
use of somewhat intemperate language in characterizing the mo 
lives attributed to the Interstate Commerce Commission in publisb 
ing garbled or incomplete extracts of official documents and drawing 
conclusions unjustified by the premises. While the Interstati' 
Commerce Commission apparently deserves all the bad things said 
about its action and motives, we believe that Mr. Thompson's argu> 
nicnt would have been stronger if he contented himself with stating 
the facts. 

It is said that the statistics of railroad accidents "are given out 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission no less than seven times 
a year, with what Grover Cleveland would call 'ghoulish glee. 
to fill the public mind with horror over the harrowing totals of every 
description of frightful or trivial railway accident." The fact that 
in England in 1901 for the first time on record not a single passenger 
was killed in a train accident "has been rolled as a sweet morse' 
through the disingenuous reports of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission" and served to divert attention from the totals for the 
Board of Trade Report, which should be compared with corre- 
sponding statistics for America. 

The Board of Trade report for 1901, the year in which no pass- 
enger was killed in a train accident, states that the number of 
personal accidents reported to the Board of Trade by the several 
railway companies of Great Britain during the 12 months amounted 
to 1,277 persons killed and 18,735 injured. If these figures are 
multiplied by 10. which represents the difference in risk by reason 
of the greater mileage, tonnage and number of employes in America, 
the result of 12,770 killed and 187,350 injured; this is the gross 
total to be compared with .^merican figures. The American figure? 
for the year ended June 30, 1903, were 9,480 killed and 76,553 in- 

Mr. riionipson points out that in Great Britain statictics of rail- 

Jan. 15, iyo5- 



way accidents arc collcclcd In locale tlie cause and responsibility 
and wlicre possible to prescribe and enforce the remedy, while in 
America lliesc statistics are collected, tabnlatcd and published ts 
establish a preconceived theory and shift the responsibility to the 
absence of some safety device and convict American railway man- 
aKiTS nf a Rrccd which shows shocking disregard of human life. 


Al its last meeting llie Ohio Interurhan Railway Association 
agreed upon a form of interline coupon licUet which is rccommendc.l 
10 members of the association. The description of the ticket ami 
Ihc form of contract are given on another page. The avowed ob- 
ject of printing and selling such tickets is to benefit the passenger 
l.y enabling him to buy one ticket that will carry him through to his 
destination, instead of having to buy three or four, or half a dozen 
separate tickets, one for each road; and also to benefit the com- 
panies by getting the passenger to decide to make the whole of his 
journey over electric lines, collecting the money for the whole trip, 
and conserving the patron for friends instead of possible rivals. 
U is therefore proper to examine the contract with a view to judg- 
ing how well the ticket will accomplish its objects; in doing this it 
is quite as important to consider how the cc-mpanies act, as well as 
how the passengers may, from the text of the ticket contract, prop- 
erly infer they are going to act. And divergences between acts and 
words justify some adverse criticisms. 

The one-way coupon ticket is intended to be on its face limited, 
while the rate charged for it is (according to the present general 
practice) the sum of the local rates on the various roads over which 
the ticket reads. The law is well settled that a railroad ticket sold 
at full rates is good until it is used, and there is no reason to 
suppose that this principle would be overthrown were a case 
against an electric line to be carried up to the court of last resort. 
Moreover, it is the present practice of nearly all, if not all, the elec- 
tric lines selling these tickets not only to redeem one-way tickets 
if presented after the time limit has expired, but they instruct their 
conductors to accept the tickets when presented on the cars, even 
if the limit has expired. What could be more absurd than to issue 
written instructions (the ticket itself) for conductors to do cer- 
tain things and then issue oral instructions to violate the written 
ones? What course is better calculated to invite trouble in event 
the conductor is either stupid or ill-tempered? A dead-letter law 
is always bad because it engenders contempt of other laws. Pas- 
sengers will not be long in learning that the limited ticket rule is a 
bluff, and naturally have the right to presume that other rules of 
the company are intended for bluffs also. The same is true of em- 

The only argument we have heard in favor of limited tickets is 
that it brings them into the auditor's office sooner and facilitates 
accounting. This does not seem to be a sufficient reason, because 
the outstanding ticket liability always exists, and whether it be a 
trifle larger can make little difference, especially as the company has 
the money received for the ticket; and even more especially as the 
company is in fact willing to redeem the ticket whenever presented. 

The requirement in the limit clause that if limited the ticket must 
be "used to destination before midnight of the date indicated," is 
an unusual one and we believe that it is invalid; because a pas- 
senger in planning his journey has a right to rely upon the railway 
running cars on the scheduled time which it does not always do. 
and it is unreasonable to make the passenger suffer loss from de- 
lays which are the fault or misfortune of the company and easily 
may cause him to exceed the time limit. As the ticket is subject 
to the stop-over regulations of the roads over which it reads, and 
these will naturally vary the "used to destination" limit will oflFer 
opportunity for much confusion. 

The limitation of baggage liability to $50 for a whole ticket and 
$25 for a half-ticket is also of doubtful value, as the company can 
not hope to evade paying for all the baggage which, in view of the 
circumstances and of his condition in life, the passenger has rea- 
sonable need to take with him. provided it be lost through negli- 
gence of the company's servants. 

These criticisms apply in a lesser degree to the contract on the 
round trip tickets (which is practically identical as to the condi- 
tions) because round trip tickets are usually sold at a reduced rate, 
and there consequently is some consideration for the restrictions 
imposed upon the passenger. Yet even in the case of round trip 
tickets it is the general practice to redeem them regardless of the 
time limit, and the dead-letter law argument is equally valid. 

Wc are heartily in sympathy with Ihc efforts of the a-««r.ri:,tion 
and of the men acting as its committee, to secure tl ^'i 

(ion of ticket forms and the wide use of interline 11 '"^' 

wc believe they will benefit both railways and passengers. 

Patrons will appreciate the convenience of interline tickets jnM 
as they Ho the interchangeable coupon lK)ok<; of Ihc O. I. R. A. 
form. But the appreciation will be in spite of and not because of 
llic restriclions, and it seems to us that the companies concerned 
would do well to place before the passenger a statement of the more 
liberal ideas, which wc know their managers have, and which their 
practice demonstrates. 


A Mi.iiiy street railways have embarked, directly or indi 
reclly, in the amusement business, believing that the pleasure re- 
sorts would be a source of profit in themselves or that regardless 
of the direct return, the street railway traffic would lie so in- 
creased that the general result would be profitable. The testimony 
of those street railway men who have had experience with pleasure 
resorts is almost unanimous to the effect that the parks have liccn 
good investments. Varying conditions have caused different com- 
panies to equip their resorts in correspondingly different ways, and 
quite a few unsuccessful experiments have been tried; these fail- 
ures, however, are as a rule attributed to faulty applications of the 
park idea, raiher than to the idea itself. 

Those who have parks, and especially those who are expecting 
to operate parks for the first time this season, will be interested in 
some of the deductions of Mr. Richard Kann, from his experience 
in the amusement business. As illustrating the tendency of the 
inexperienced man to over-estimate the possible receipts he states 
that at the White City, New Haven, Conn., a number of street 
railway men who were inspecting the resort ventured to guess at 
the gross receipts from 21,000 people, when the admission fee was 
10 cents and there were 10 amusement devices charging 10 cents 
each, and placed the total at $13,000 per day or 65 cents per capita. 
This guess was nearly 300 per cent too high. 

The amount spent at Coney Island, New York, is given as 24 
cents per capita; for other resorts the average expenditure is 
stated to be 18 cents per capita. The endeavor of the amusement 
manager is to increase this average expenditure, and a multitude of 
plans have been tried. 

Band music was one of the first means used to put the crowd in 
a lively humor, and one resort has spent over $40,000 for music 
in a single season. The gate receipts were increased but the 
patronage of the amusement devices fell off, because the band con- 
cert held the crowd. Vaudeville had the same effect. 

Sensational vaudeville "acts," such as high diving, tight rope. 
and other short but thrilling performances, were found to have the 
desired effect. Such acts in full view of the entire crowd, at in- 
tervals of half an hour, each one requiring only a few minutes, 
keep the crowd moving about the grounds, hold it till late in the 
afternoon or evening, but do not keep it so occupied that there is 
neither time nor inclination to visit the pay shows in the intervals 
between the sensational free performances. To promote good na- 
ture on the part of patrons and get them into the proper frame of 
mind to spend their dimes such free amusements as the Spiral 
Slide, the Hclter Skelter, the Bumps, etc.. are found to be very 

It is Mr. Kann's idea that in 1905 most of the large resorts will 
have a carefully selected band (not a band that will keep a crowd 
enthralled for forty minutes at a time, but one that will play 
popular music and make the crowd hum), a scries of vaudeville 
acts so sensational that they will easily advertise (and very short 
in their performance) given at intervals of thirty minutes, properly 
bulletined, so that the crowd may know when to expect them, and 
a number of free attractions designed to make people laugh. 

Also that there will be a reduction in the price of the big attrac- 
tions within the grounds, because it has been found that 2S-cent 
attractions must be produced on a tremendous scale to be profitable, 
inasmuch as the 2S-cent performance, no matter what it may be. 
must not be over 25 minutes in length. If longer time is required it 
will interfere with the earning capacity of the other devices in the 
park. Last season many of the 25-cent attractions in the large 
resorts were reduced to to and 15 cents and made shorter for that 
reason. The theory is that as the average person will spend from 
18 to 24 cents, the correct policy is to get this 18 or 24 cents as soon 
as possible. A Scenic Railway will earn it in four minutes and 
twenty seconds, an Old Mill in six minutes, a Shoot the (Thutes in 



[Vol. XV, No. 

one minute, while the Johnstown Flood, the Galveston Flood, the 
Fall of Pompeii, or a vaudeville performance, requires thirty 


The custom of taking account of stock as one passes into a new 
year is one which is worth while in matters of engineering no less 
than in personal affairs, and as the transportation world swings into 
line for another twelve months of progress, it is fitting to glance for 
a moment at both the present status and future prospects of the 
railway motor. 

The civilized world has realized its dependence upon the railway 
motor more in the year which has just closed than ever before. It is 
a fortunate thing that this appreciation has come about through the 
extension of rapid transit facilities and possibilities, rather than 
through costly interruption of service. Telephone experts, electric 
lighting engineers and other specialists have always enjoyed the 
opportunity of picturing the inconvenience and discomfort which the 
cutting off of their circuits would cause the communities served by 
them; but it is safe to say that few persons realize the paralysis and 
stagnation of business which would ensue if the electric railways of 
any great American city should stop operation. The year 1904 takes 
its place among its predecessors as one more period in which the 
railway motor successfully performed its huge daily task of carry- 
ing countless thousands of passengers quickly, comfortably and 
cheaply between their homes and their places of business in the great 
ebb and flow of urban life. Many of these passengers had no alterna- 
tive transportation facilities, and many others deserted the old steam 
routes for the less expensive, cleaner and more convenient trolley 

Two events of great significance mark the departed year as an 
epoch of unusual progress. These are the commercial development 
of the series alternating current motor, and successful completion of 
the largest and most powerful direct current locomotive ever built. 
That the future has great things in store for each, no one can gain- 
say, but it is also true that much confusion of mind exists as to the 
prospective development of these two radically different types of 
motor. The general characteristics of both these alternating current 
and direct current engineering triumphs are familiar, but the relative 
disadvantages of each have thus far been less widely appreciated. 

It is always the case that when any new type of equipment is 
placed upon the market, plenty of enthusiasts will be found predict- 
ing the passing into oblivion of every preceding type of apparatus. 
Seldom are such predictions completely fulfilled. The telephone was 
going to relegate the telegraph to the junk pile; the bicycle was going 
to put the trolley car out of business, and last but not least, the wire- 
less telegraph is going to depreciate ocean cable securities ! Prophets 
have not been wanting to declare that the commercial design of the 
alternating current series motor has given the cnup-de-grace to every 
direct current motor underneath a car. and that the completion of the 
first electric locomotive for the New York Central suburban service 
is the advance signal for the end of the steam locomotive. 

Too much enthusiasm in this direction is as bid as too little. What 
is needed in every case is a broad-minded analysis of the situation 
which considers impartially both the advantages and disadvantages 
of every available motive power on the market. From the standpoint 
of the electric railway expert there is perhaps too much conservatism 
in steam railroad circles in the matter of adopting electricity for 
suburban service, but with the New York Central and Pennsylvania 
terminal work as the entering wedges, the local passenger business 
need not be despaired of. The next five or ten years will doubtless 
witness tremendous electrical development in the handling of heavy 
suburban traffic in and near our larger cities. Chicago and Boston 
are bound to follow close upon New York's experience, with their 
enormous suburban business. 

Turning to the two latest types of railway motors as exemplified 
in the alternating current and direct current development of 1904. 
it seems probable that the tried and trusted direct current series 
motor of city service need not fear the advance of its later brethren 
for some time to come. The perfection to which the direct current 
machine has been brought after years of hard earned experience 
under adverse conditions of load, track, voltage, weather, slush, mud, 
water and handling makes it difficult to point out wherein anv im- 
provement in design can be effected, in connection with the latest 
types of direct current series railway motors now on the market. 

Weight has been cut down in terms of output ; efiiciency has been 
increased ; heating and ventilation liave received the attention born 
of past failures, and sparking at the commutator has been pretty well 
eliminated. It is certainly no small advantage that the alternating 
current motor has proved to operate with direct current as well as 
any direct current machine that the manufacturers have produced, 
but this fact is not sufficient to cancel direct current motor contracts 
for urban equipment. A car fitted with both alternating current and 
direct current control is naturally more expensive to build and main- 
tain than one in w'hich almost the last available square inch is not 
occupied by equipment, although this is perhaps a minor considera- 
tion. For combined alternating current and direct current running, 
however, the series alternating current motor is well adapted to meet 
the conditions of a mixed city and suburban service, and it is here 
that the new machine is tnost likely to score, rather than in purely 
urban operation. 

For suburban or even intcrurban service demanding not too great 
powers in the motor rating, the great economy in the first cost of the 
overhead system and notable saving in the cost of rotary converter 
transformations and attendance hold a bright future before the alter- 
■ nating current motor. The increased weight of the alternating cur- 
rent equipment as compared with the direct current cannot be urged 
as a vita! objection, since this increased efficiency of the system due 
to the elitnination of the rotary converter is about offset by the addi- 
tion in weight. Particularly is the alternating current motor adapt- 
able to cross country lines through sparsely settled territory, as it is 
in these long stretches that the full force of copper economy and 
the absence of substation attendance charges is most directly brought 

Thus far, it has been difficult to design alternating current series 
motors much above 75 or 100 h. p. in capacity. The 4 ft. 8^ in. 
gage is a special bar to progress in this direction, and it has not been 
possible as yet to design gcarless alternating current motors with the 
armatures mounted directly upon the axles. It has recently been 
pointed out that if it were possible to construct gearless alternating 
current motors of the same general arrangement as those upon tlie 
New York Central No. .6000 type of direct current locomotive, it 
would be found that the maximum coefficient of traction available 
would work out not far from 15 per cent of the weight upon the 
drivers, as compared with 25 to 30 per cent with direct current 
motors. This is due to the pulsating torque of the single phase 
motor, which if transmitted directly to the drivers is only half the 
maximum. With a geared alternating current motor the situation 
can be improved to the extent of utilizing about 80 per cent of the 
torque of the direct current motor for the same weight upon the driv- 
ing wheels. This is a serious matter in general railroad service, 
where both the wheel base and weight upon drivers are limited. 
.\Ithough a multiple unit system of alternating current control is 
feasible, the cost of two alternating current units of the same capacity 
as a direct current locomotive is at present prohibitive. Higher volt- 
ages than 600 to 700 are not advisable upon the third rail and the 
difficulties of trolley insulation and taking off large currents wi*b 
trolley wheels mount up as voltages and powers increase. 

Apparently the direct current locomotive has the best of the situa- 
tion at present, for heavy suburban train service. It is therefore 
reasonable to expect that for some time to come the alternating cur- 
rent motor w-ill find it difficult to compete with this formidable rival 
in the electrical equipment of steam roads. We are at an interesting 
stage in the development of rapid transit systems. Three points have 
become well established, viz : 

That the direct current series motor holds the urban field ; that 
the alternating current series motor will prove extremely useful in 
the suburban and intcrurban sphere ; and lastly, that the direct cur- 
rent locomotive at present is the better in the suburban train service 
of steam railroads. 

Finally, the foreging comments are printed with no intention to 
disparage the brilliant development carried out by both alternating 
current and direct current designers within the past two or three 
years. Rather is it intended to point out some of the limitations 
which must be considered in making a wise choice of rapid transit 
equipment and to add a word of caution against accepting the idea 
that any single type of equipment is the key to every problem of rail- 
way motive power. The grand prize of the locomotive designer will 
be won when the heavy long distance freight and passenger traffic 
of the steam railways is captured by electrical methods. 

Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co. 

The recently completed electric railway Ijetwccn Lima and Van 
Wert, Ohio, is interesting as an exani|)le of rooc! construction work 
rapidly executed, and also as an indication of the continncd vitality 
of the intcrurban electric railway in the central west where it has 
heen most extensively developed. This line closely parallels the 
Pennsylvania railroad throughout its entire length and was built 
to give the towns along its route the better local passenger service 
wliich is much needed. When completed to Ft. Wayne it will make 

to give tauKcnls of from 8 to 12 miles in length. Curves are all de- 
signed for a speed of 40 miles per hour. The section between New 
Haven and Ft. Wayne will have a grade of about 2^^ per cent but 
for a short ilistancc only. From Lima to Monrocville the route is 
close beside the Pittsburg. Ft. Wayne & Chicago K. R. right of way. 
The territory served comprises sections of Allen County, Indiana, 
and Van Wert and Allen Counties, Ohio, districts already well 
settled, and which are being further rapidly developed. The Ohio 


possible a through service to Logansport, more than half-way across 
the state. 

The Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co. was organized 
.\ug. 4, 1902, to build an electric railway from Ft. Wayne, Ind., to 
Lima, Ohio, a distance of 63.2 miles. In both Ft. Wayne and Lima 
entrance is over the tracks of the local street railways; at Ft. 
Wayne the urban section is 2.2 miles ; at Lima, 1.8 miles. This 
leaves for the interurban line proper 59.2 miles, of which the section 
between Van Wert and Lima, 26.5 miles, is now open for traffic The 
section from Van Wert to Ft. Wayne will be 
completed in 1905. n'fL'-^t^^^' * 

At Ft. Wayne the interurban company pays 2j^ 
cents per passenger for use of the city tracks, while 
at Lima it pays 22>2 cents per car-mile to the Lima 
Electric Railway & Light Co., this being estimated, 
from experience on the Western Ohio Ry., as the 
equivalent of 2^/2 cents per passenger. For the 
towns of New Haven. Monroeville, Van Wert and 
Delphos the interurban company secured 35-year 
franchises on very favorable terms. Through the 
villa.nes of Besaiicon, Zulu, Tillman, Di.xon, Convoy, 
Middlepoint and Elida it purchased a private right 
of way. Outside of towns and villages the company 
has its own right of way with a minimum width of 
40 ft., the location being chosen with a view to high 
speed operation. 

The country traversed is level except that short 
section between Ft. Wayne and New Haven which 
is slightly rolling. This favorable topography has 
enabled the grades between Lima and New Haven 
to be kept under i per cent without excessive con- 
struction cost, and the right of way was so chosen as 

counties include rich oil fields which not only insure prosperity for 
rural land owners, but provide both passenger and freight business 
for the railway. Over one hundred manufacturing concerns, many 
of them large ones, have their headquarters in the terminal cities 
and the towns on the route ; aside from these the oil wells, stone 
quarries and grain elevators in the territory are numerous. 

At Lima the road interchanges business with the Western Ohio 
Ry., and when completed to Ft. Wayne will have similar arrange- 
ments with the Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. 




[Vol. XV, No. i. 

The population tributary lo tlic line is as follows : 

Allen County, Indiana: 

Ft. Wayne 57,ooo 

New Haven i,2co 

Monroeville i .000 

Rural population along line 8,000 



Van Wert County, Ohio : 

Convoy 1,100 

Van Wert 9.000 

Middlepoint 1,500 

Delphos 2,300 

Rural population aloni; line 8,200 


.Mien County, Oliic 





■ • • 550 


Rural ]mpulalinn along line SiOOO 


-! ■ .^.^o 

Grand Total 

Average, including terminal cities. . 
Average, excluding terminal cities. 

1 30.650 



An estimate of the gross earnings based upon results on other 
Ohio and Indiana inlerurban lines, and taking into consideration the 
relative populations available, shows an income of $4,500 per mile 
may be e.xpected. 

The work of construction of the section east of Van Wert has 
been carried out very rapidly. The directors on June 20. 1904, voted 
to build from Lima to Delphos, and work was commenced July acth. 
The contract for grading, track laying and all overhead work was 
let to G. A. Ilogue, of Indianapolis, and he completed the 15 miles 
within 60 days. Cars have been in regular operation since October 
1st on this section. 

The construction of the section between Delphos and Van Wert 
was authorized Sept. 28, 1904, and the work began October 15th, 

lilt lU-OUL luUI.ES .\T WORK. 

the contractor being Mr. Hogue. This section of i3'4 miles was 
completed late in December and the first car was operated between 
Lima and Van Wert on December 31st. the opening of the line being 
appropriately celebrated by the citizens of Van Wert and Lima who 
now have available a satisfactory local transportation service — 
something not heretofore enjoyed. 

Roadbed Construction. 

The road, as slated, is built for the most part on a private right- 
of-way, not less than 40 ft. wide, which has been purchased out- 
right at a cost of $75,000. 

The track is of 70-lb. A. S. C. E. section steel T-rail, with six 
hole splice bars at joints. Cedar ties 8 ft. long are laid 2 ft. between 
centers. At each rail joint on tangents are two white oak ties, and 
on all curves and switches oak instead of cedar ties are used. 

The road is ballasted from Lima to Delphos with crushed stone, 
and stone ballast will be used for the entire line. 

All bridges are built of steel on concrete abutments, there being 
fourteen of them between Lima and Ft. Wayne, excluding those 
for steam railroad crossings and of which there are two — at Delphos 
and Monroeville, respectively. All bridges are designed for a roll- 
ing load consisting of a train with 20,000 lb. per axle, on a 6 ft. 6 in. 
wheel base, 26 ft. center to center of trucks, and a dead load of 
cSoo lb. per lineal foot, with an impact of 80 per cent. 

•All culverts between three and twelve feet openings are of the 


(Shaded area indicates territory tributary to the line.) 

Jan. 15, 1905.1 




concrete arch type, and tliose of less than three feet are of exir.i 
heavy vitrified clay sewer pipe, reinforced by a concrete jacket. 

The bridge proper at the overhead crossing with the Pennsyl- 
vania tracks is a steel truss through bridge of 125-ft. span, crossiuR 
the Cy6-it. right of way of the railroad at an angle of 41 degrees. 
Tho bridge rests on concrete abutments high enough to give 22^ ft. 
clearance measured above the rails of the Penn.sylvania tracks. 


The approaches are trestles, the bents of which are 16 ft. center to 
center. On each side of the bridge the inclined section of the 
approach is straight witli a uniform grade of y/2 per cent to points 
within i~5 and 225 ft., respectively, of the bridge; between the in- 
clined sections and the bridge are curves, the i7S-ft. curve on the 
north side being 18 deg. and the 22S-ft. curve on the south side 20 

This structure was built by the LaFayette Engineering Co'. 

Between Van Wert and Ft. Wayne the grade is ready for track 
laying, all bridges and culverts are in place and the riglit of way 
is fenced on both sides. 

Overhead Equipment. 

The poles are of cedar 7 in. at the top, and from 45 to 50 ft. 
high. Extra heavy yellow pine cross arms and galvanized braces 
are used. Provision has been made for two three-phase high ten- 
sion transmission lines with all necessary feeders and telephone 
lines, as shown in the line drawing. 

I he transnnsM'in Inic consibls oi one ihrcc-phasc high tension 
line of No. 2 hard drawn copper, carried on I»ckc 40,000-volt por- 
celain insulators supported on steel pins, while the feeder line is 
of No. 0000 medium hanl drawn copper ; this low potential feeder 
extends the entire length of the line. 

The trolley wire is No. 000 round hard drawn copper and is car- 
ried on 9-ft. "Richmond" flexible brackets, with Ohio Brass hangers 
and clamps. The trolley is tapped to the feeder every 1,000 ft. A 


telephone circuit of No. 12 copper is carried on one of the cross 
arms on glass insulators. 

Span wire construction is used in villages where necessary, and 
in these instances 5-16 in. double galvanized standard span wire 
was used. 


There are two sub-stations on the Lima-Van Wert section, one 
at Elida and the other at Middlepoint. The Elida sub-station is 
completed. It is equipped with one G. E. 6-pole 300-kw. rotary 
converter, which was put into service about December loth. The 
Middlepoint sub-station will be completed this month. Pending the 




[Vol. XV, No. i. 


ccnipletioii of the station, however, current for the operation of 
cars into Van Wert is furnished from the Elicia sub-station, the 
feeders provided having ample capacity for this service. 

The first equipment in the Middlepoint sub-station will be a West- 
inghouse 300-k\v. rotary. 

.'\s the sub-stations are both located in villages, they have been 
designed for passenger and freight stations as well as electrical 
distribution stations. These stations are built with concrete 
foundations for both building and machinery, and the walls are of 
brick with natural cement mortar. The roofs are of tile, manu- 
factured by the National Roofing Tile Co. Space has been pro- 
vided in each for an additional 300-kw. rotary, also arrangements 

WM>MMM'.\i i '.'/.('.ii','/: 

have been made for the operation of a portable sub-station car in 

conjunction with either of the stations. 

A very interesting feature of the sub-station buildings is the con- 
struction of the weatlier traps tlirough which the high tension wires 
enter the building. There is a separate hood for each wire, con- 
sisting of side and front walls, a sloping roof, and a support for the 
insulator which support connects the side walls at the rear; all of 
this is of reinforced concrete molded in one piece. The hood is 
24 in. wide, 34 in. deep and 36^'^ in. high at the rear and 21 in. high 
at the front. Steel rods bent to a U-shape for the side walls and 
roof and for the front and side walls, and steel rods bent to an 
L-shape for the front wall and roof provide a reinforcement in both 
directions of each side of the hood. These rods are ]4 in. in diam- 
eter and are spaced about 6 in. apart. 

Inside are molded corbels to support the slate slab forming the bot- 
tom of the hood. Through this slab extends a porcelain sleeve 
through which the wire enters. The insulator in the station side of 
tlie hood is supported on an iron pin. 

The steel-concrete hood weighs from 800 to 1,000 lb. and is built 
into the wall of the building as any other special shape would be, 
and further supported by pilasters or columns. At Elida columns 
are used and at Middlepoint, pilasters. 

The details of this hood were perfected by Mr. W, H. Roney, and 
he has applied for a patent on the design. 

In both sub-stations columns for supporting floor beams, where the 
loading requires intermediate supports, have been made of drain tile 
of 14-in. outside diameter filled with concrete. 


Current is to be secured from the Western Ohio Railway Co. 
from the power house at St. Mary's, O. ; the contract with the 
Western Ohio is for the term of five-years. 

Rolling Stock. 

The cars which are being operated over the road at present are 
the property of the Lima Electric Railway & Light Co. and the 
Western Ohio Railway Co. An order has been placed for three 
interurban combination passenger and baggage cars with the Cin- 
cinnati Car Co. which will be delivered soon. These cars are to be 
of the most modern type. They are double-vestibuled and finished 



in mahogany, with smoking compartment and toilet rooms, water 
coolers and Peter Smith hot water heaters. Each coach is to be 
equipped with a telephone set. They are built after designs espe- 
cially adapted for high speed interurban service. The length of 
the car over corner posts is to be 44 ft. 4 in., while the extreme 
length over buffers is 55 ft. The extreme width of the car is 8 ft. 
6y!; in. and the height from under the sill to the top of the roof is 
9 ft. The interior finishings will be attractive and comfortable 
throughout. The appointments of the regular passenger and smok- 
ing compartments, of course, differ somewhat ; in the former the 
seats are to be of the Hale & Kilburn walk-over type, upholstered 
in green plush, with high backs and head rolls. 

The trucks are of the Taylor extra heavy, M. C. B., swing 
bolster type, with triple elliptic springs. The axles are S^ in. with 
steel-tired wheels. Westinghouse straight-air brakes are provided 
with a motor driven compressor for each equipment. Each car has 
four Westinghouse No. 56 motors. 

The officers of the Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co. are: 
President, James Murdock, president Merchants National Bank, 
LaFayette, Ind. ; vice-president, D. J. Cable, Lima, O.; secretary 
and treasurer, J. D. S. Neely, Lima. 

The line between Van Wert and Lima has been built by the 

Jan. is, 1905.) 



Oliio & Iiitliaii.T Construction Co., of wliich H. C. Paul is president, 
L. G. Ncdy, .secretary and general ni.inaKcr, and C. D. Kmmons, 
supcrinlciulcnl of construction. Mr. Kminons is manager of tlie 
!■"(. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. The general contractor 
fnr thi- track and overhead lines was G. A. llogne. of Indianapoli.s, 
:iii<I I III- cnntractor for (he sub-stations W. II. Roney, of Chicago. 

ity of fifty or sixty passengers (seated or standing; will be re 
required to carry this rush conveniently? 

Scvcniy-fivc thousand divided by fifty equals thirteen hundred 

The answer seems easy and if companies could alTord (in our 
day of cheap fares and transfers) to furnish that number of cars, to 




. <f-^' 


'f/'/rprrot^i. J/WCT-zg , 

r- /S -J 



' =^:?' 





The half-tone engravings used herewith are from photographs 
hy J. B. lIofT, of Delphos, O. 

Relieving Congested Traffic at Hours.* 


All that has been said or written in regard to other difficult prob- 
lems of a like nature such as congestion of traffic in London, the 
difficulties of getting quickly through the center of Paris on a gala 
day, the irritating slowness of a horse car or cable ride through 
Broadway, up to recent date, the tedious features of all the best 
plans or remedies that have been already tried to prevent over- 
crowding in all public places or vehicles: all this verbal and written 
information would be a fitting preamble to convey to the ordinary 
reader a faint idea of tlie difficulty of the problem that we are en- 
deavoring to solve. 

We are requested to deal with a question that is difficult of solu- 
tion and to enter immediately into the practical discussion of this 
question we must cite certain figures concerning the growth of 
street railway business that tend to show how quickly the existing 
rush hour conditions have been thrust upon us and the practical 
catering that street railway companies all over this continent have 
furnished in the last ten years, to meet the requirements of traffic. 

Statistics prove that from 1892 to 1903 tlie mileage of street rail- 
ways on this continent has increased from about 8,000 to 25,000 
miles, which means, practically, on account of transforming electric, 
that since 1S90, which was about the birth year of electric traction 
on a large scale, 25,000 miles of track were laid at a cost of $2,150,- 
000,000 and that these street railway companies are now carrying an 
average of 5,000,000,000 passengers per annum. Why should it not 
be overcrowded ? 

These ten cipher figures to which the world has been unaccus- 
tomed in the way of increased traffic lead us to believe that street 
railway companies have not spared their efforts to cater to public 
comfort, especially when we stop to consider that this phenomenal 
work has been done by 850 companies, and that perhaps less than 
100 companies of this number have to deal with the overcrowding 
problem which we are now discussing. 

If we take the existing conditions in towns of three or four hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants we find that the working population may 
be one-half that number and again that a quarter of the number 
(100,000 people) usually work in the business or downtown section 
of the city, which section is generally limited to a square of about 
one mile in length and a quarter or a third of a mile in width. 
Seventy-five thousand persons of this 100,000 would like to get home 
quickly and all want to board cars in ten or fifteen minutes at six 
o'clock. The question naturally arises how many cars with a capac- 

•Rcad before the Canadian Street Railway Association. Monueal. 
r>cc. 20. 1904. 

be used for fifteen or twenty minutes per day this remedy would 
seem excellent. 

It must not be forgotten that these thirteen hundred cars are only 
the rolling stock necessary to provide the desired accommodation for 
down town passengers and that at the same hour the rest of the 
system must be provided for, which might possibly mean one hun- 
dred or two hundred cars more, to provide the same roomy service. 
But, as already stated, the settling of the question would be easy, 
though impracticable financially for the company, if we did not 
have to contend with a still greater difficulty, which is "Time." 

This "Time" difficulty comes from the natural desire of every- 
body to rush home at the same hour, which is easier to imagine 
than to cure. Hence the 1,300 cars referred to must be rushed 
through the business center of the city in ten or fifteen minutes, and 
this is where the plan becomes impossible. 

The business center of the city is generally provided with two 
streets at most where this traffic must be taken on; that is to say, 
two lines going east and two lines going west or north or south, as 
llie case may be. 

The closest headway that may be run by cars, at 5 or 6 miles an 
hour speed, is about 20 seconds ; hence we must find a means of 
running 1,300 cars over four tracks in 15 minutes, or 900 seconds; 
that is to say, we must run 325 cars over each track in 900 seconds, 
which means that the interval between cars must be less than three 
seconds. This is a material impossibility and if each car must have 
a headway of 20 seconds we arrive at a total time space of 
(325 x 20 equals 6,500 seconds equals 108 minutes) or i hour and 
40 minutes to let the procession go by. 

It is evident from these figures that the possibility of relieving 
congestion with an unlimited number of cars, even if it were ap- 
proved as a commercial venture, cannot be done without sacrificing 
time and speed, which would probably aggregate a larger general 
loss than that above mentioned and also give rise to greater recrim- 
ination that the disagreeable, quicker ride that passengers must 
endure under present conditions. 

There is a maximum in all measurements and the limit of cars 
that a city street may accommodate is pretty nearly covered by tlie 
service that most companies are at present giving in the heart of 
busy cities. 

The European plan of numbering and limiting passengers, which 
by the way is generally disregarded in most European countries in 
Sunday and holiday rushes (for they do business calmly and amuse 
themselves rapidly) the European plan would not suit our speedier 

It would not avail us much to get a roomy seat in a blockade, 
and most of our countrymen would prefer to get there standing. 

The "no seat, no fare," plan would certainly cause an irresistible 
desire with most people to prefer standing room. 

The limiting of the number of passengers would be a good move 
in favor of the companies, as it would reduce the actual loss caused 
by missing fares, but it yet remains to be seen what public favor 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

such a limitation would meet with in this busy country. The first 
passenger to be refused admittance in such a case takes it very 
bitterly and if he happens to be accompanied and there is only room 
for one he is forced to give way to another passenger who should 
have waited. Again, if a car is filled at this corner a would-be 
passenger must wait, whilst another patron a block further on, 
who arrived later, on account of somebody getting off, will be 
served first. All these little intricacies which appear trivial when 
not in force, are exceedingly aggravating in practice and to Cana- 
dians or Americans, who arc constitutionally in a hurry, become in- 
tolerable. Consequently we are forced to the following conclusions: 

1. That congestion at rush hours cannot be avoided. 

2. That it may be possible to relieve the crush by the addition of 
a reasonable number of cars to a limit where speed must not be 

3. That with a view to further increasing the ma.ximum number 
of cars that may be run without loss of time, most cities should 
consider the advisability of increasing the speed and giving clearer 
right of way to allow space for more cars and thereby aflford 
greater and better accommodation to the public. 

4. We are inclined to think that when the London business man, 
whether riding in a hansom or seated on the wet or dry top of an 
omnibus will be able to ride directly to his office in the business 
center, without having to worry about the blockade that he is 
treated to daily; when the Parisian count or citizen may be able to 
drive from the Opera to the Louvre on a busy afternoon, a dis- 
tance of a quarter of a mile, without going ten blocks out of his 
way; when the devout church goer or the impassioned theater 
patron can attend service or play without having to share in the 
final disagreeable crush which is an integral part of all such meet- 
ings; when the camel will go easily through the eye of the needle 
without ruffling its silken sides ; when a large city and a madden- 
ing throng will cease to be synonymous, then may it be that the 
"No seat, no fare missionary," the "Car passenger rights association 
crusaders" and a small percentage of street car patrons who live 
eternally in the winter of discontent, may realize their very im- 
probable dreams and then we may all rejoice that the rush liour 
crush and congestion will have totally disappeared. 

*->-*■ • 

Allis-Chaliiiers Appointments. 

Mr. A. O. Stranahan has been appointed manager of the power 
department of the Allis-Chalmers Co., Milwaukee, and will have 
charge of the sales of reciprocating engines, gas engines, and steam 
turbines. Mr. Stranahan has been, for the past three or four years, 
in charge of the engine business of the British Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Co., and in that work has met with marked suc- 
cess, lie has given much attention to gas engine developments, par- 
ticularly with regard to producer and blast furnace gas develop- 
ments which are very much farther advanced in Europe than in the 
United States. 

Mr. H. Schifflin has recently been made assistant manager of 
the mining and crushing machinery department of the company, witli 
headquarters in the New York Life Building, Chicago. Mr. Schif- 
flin has been in the employ of the Allis-Chalmers Co. or some of its 
constituent companies continuously during the last 18 years. 

Mr. W. L. Loveland, the newly appointed head of the Mining and 
Crushing Machinery Department of the Allis-Chalmers Company, 
is widely kno^vn among mining men, and few men have the good 
fortune to be so well liked. He has at conunand all the benefits 
which come from both a technical and practical training, and his 
acquaintance extends from city men to those who operate plants in 
the wilds of the mining countries. 

Mr. J. U. Jones of Dallas, Texas, one of the best known salesmen 
in the southwest, has joined the staff of the Allis-Chalmers Co. 
of Milwaukee, and will hereafter represent the company and its 
widely varied products in Texas and its tributary territory. 

a slight gap at Atlantic Ave., substantially completed from the 
terminus in East Boston to Washington St. in Boston proper, and on 
July i6th of that year the Governor of Massachusetts accompanied 
by members of the Commission and others walked through the tun- 
nel from Maverick square to the Old State House. Since that time 
the completion of section B, section C, section E (the Old State 
House section), and section F (Court St.), has been effected. The 
tunnel, which is double-tracked, is 1.4 miles in length, of which 2,700 
ft. is under the harbor waters. The tunnel was built by the city of 
Boston, which has leased it for 25 years, dating from 1897, to the 
Boston Elevated Railway Co. Mr. H. A. Carson was chief engineer, 
and the members of the Boston Transit Commission are : George G. 
Crocker, Charles H. Dalton, Thomas J. Gargan, George F. Swain 
and Horace G. Allen. 


Chimney vs. Mechanical Draft. 

-•V chimney with natural draft will have a draft dependent upon its 
height, the power of which will not vary,, except upon the rise or 
fall of the internal temperature. It has, therefore, no sucking power; 
in fact, the term suction in this connection is a falacy. The chim- 
ney acts because the external air is heavier than the internal, and 
thus presses into the chimney by the only available opening, viz., 
that at the bottom, the furnace front. The pressure or intensity 
of the draft fixes the amount of fuel it is possible to burn on a 
given area of grate. It therefore becomes necessary, when it is de- 
sired to increase the steaming capacity of a boiler by increasing its 
coal consumption, to increase the intensity of the draft, and the 
only way in chimney draft is to increase the temperature of the 
gases passing up it, or increase the height of the chimney. The 
first method, of course, means a large amount of waste, and is a very 
uneconomical arrangement ; the second is expensive and unusual. 
.\ chimney stack 150 ft. high will burn from 15 lb. to 20 lb. of coal 
per sq. ft. of grate area per hour under normal conditions, but in 
wet or foggy weather it will be very much less than this, as the 
wet air is lighter than the dry, and thus produces less pressure at 
the furnace (the weight of water vapour is about half that of air). 
A fair average of temperature in the furnace is 2,400° F., and that 
of the escaping gases at the chimney, without economizers, Goo° F. 
This means that one-quarter of the total heat generated js sent up 
the chimney to waste. Thus, on a 2,000 h. p. plant, almost 500 h. p. 
is going up the chimney per hour, and the coal bill necessary to sus- 
tain this will come to a big figure in the year. 

It is not the author's contention, but it has become a well ascer- 
tained fact, that it is cheaper and better in every way to provide 
the necessary supply of air for burning fuel in steam boilers by 
mechanical means, and to take as much heat out of the hot gases 
after they have ceased to be in contact with the boiler itself before 
they are turned out into the atmosphere, than to do it in the older 
way by utilizing a portion of the heat generated to create the neces- 
sary supply of air. This is the primary reason for using a mechani- 
cal means of moving the air. The heat previously necessary to create 
the draft by means of a chimney may now be employed usefully in 
iither directions. — The Engineering Review (London). 

Opening of East Boston Tunnel. 

The submarine tunnel connecting Boston and East Boston, which 
was begun in May, igoo, has been completed and on Dec. 30, 1903, 
was opened to the public and dedicated to its use without formality. 
.-Vt the date of the annual report of the Boston Transit Commission 
for the year ended June 30, 1903, it had been, with the exception of 

Nahant & Lynn Street Railway Co. 

The selectmen of the town of Nahant, Mass., have granted a 
franchise for the location of a street railway connecting Lynn and 
Nahant. This line will be about four miles long. The bulk of the 
travel will be in the summer months, Nahant being a summer resort. 
It is expected that by means of transfer system with the Boston & 
Northern for which amicable arrangements are thought will be 
made, that the trade will be largely increased by travel from 
Swampscott, Saugus, Peabody, Salem, Wakefield, Revere and Bos- 
ton. It is estimated that ^^4 of a million passengers will be car- 
ried the first year, entirely superseding all other modes of trans- 
portation. The accommodation in the past has been by the old 
fashioned barge lines. 

The organization of the new company, which is called the Nahant 
& Lynn Street Railway Co., has been brought about by Walter H. 
Southwick, 38 Exchange St., Lynn, Mass., who is now working 
on the details of cost of construction and equipment. 

The franchise has not as yet been accepted, but it is thought 
likely that it will be, and that efl^orts will be made to have the cars 
in operation by June i, 1905. 

The New Terminal Station of the Indianapolis Traction & 

Terminal (]o. 

It is not rcali/.cd by lliu public in ycnural, nor pcrliaps even by 
Ibnsc most iiilercslcd in elcclric railways, tbat the scene of most 
active development in tliis field has in the recent past been moving 
westward and is nmv in Imliana. Indianapolis, the capital of that 
state, is now one of the great internrban electric railway centers, and 
the roads now operated by the seven companies having that city for 
a lerminiis aggregate 515.8 miles. Connecting with two of these 
seven roads are the lines of five otlicr internrban companies, with 
an aggregate of 173.3 miles of track in operation, bringing the total 
of electric railway systems over which throngh cars might be run 
to Indianapolis np to 669.1 miles. Large as these figures now appear, 
ihey will soon be increased by the completion of the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction Co.'s line from Rushville to Cincinnati and the 
building between Plainfield and Brazil of a line which will complete 
an electric railway between Indianapolis and Terre Haute. 

A staleniont in detail of the lines in operation is as follows: 

Company. Miles. 

I. Indiana Traction Co ■. 206.0 

Connecting with — 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co 78.2 

Indiana Northern Traction Co 20.0 

Kolsomo, Marion & Western T raction Co 9.5 

Muncie, Hartford & Ft. Wayne Railway Co 41,8 

_>. Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co 63.0 

Connecting with — 

Richmond Street & Internrban Ry. Co ig.3 

Dayton & Western Traction Co. (in Indiana) 4.5 

3. Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. : 

.Shclbyville Division 29.0 

Rushville Division (to be opened January) 

4. Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Co 41.5 

5. Indianapolis & Martinsville Rapid Transit Co 30,0 

6. Indianapolis Coal Traction Co. (Plainfield Line) 14.0 

7. Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co 92.3 

Total 689.1 

Of which Indianapolis is the terminal of 515.8 miles. 

One of the great points of advantage which electric internrban 
roads have had in coinpeting with the older steam lines for local 
passenger traffic has been the fact tbat in the cities the electric rail- 
ways traverse the principal business streets, making it possible for 
patrons to board the cars at the points most convenient for them. 
The multiplication of internrban lines entering the principal inter- 
nrban centers made it desirable to facilitate interchange of traffic 
between the different companies by having a common meeting place 
for cars at some central point near which could be located a waiting 
station for passengers. Naturally this resulted in providing a loop 
in the down-town district for the use of all electric lines entering 
the city, a plan more convenient than for each company to have its 
own terminal, but one which was susceptible of great improvement. 
The next .step was to provide a station into which cars could be run 
so that passengers taking them could be protected in inclement 

The erection of a terminal station for the electric railways enter- 
ing Indianapolis was the idea of Mr. Hugh J. McGowan, then pres- 
ident of the Indianapolis Street Railway Co. and now of its lessee, 
llio Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., and he was not content 
until the plan had been brought to successful completion in a most 
adinirably designed union station — the first to furnish adequate facil- 
ities for internrban passengers and the only building of its kind that 
can be compared in size, in architectural appearance, or in complete- 
ness of appointment, with the terminal buildings provided by the 
steam railroads of the country. This building, erected at a cost of 
nearly a million dollars, is a monument not onlv to the business 

sagacity of Mr, McGowan, but to his public spirit as well, for the 
concentration of electric railway interests which this building makes 
possible and desirable is already seen to have had its cfTcct in pro- 
moting their further rapid development, with conse(|uent increased 
prosperity for the city and state. 

The railway terminal was only one feature of Mr. McGowan's 
I<lan. With the station proper was to be a modern office structure 
to be designed with the avowed purpose of making the building the 
business center of the electrical industry in the central west. 

Similarly the terminal station is only one, though the latest to be 
consummated, of the many plans proposed by Mr. McGowan for the 


betterment of the electric railway service in Indianapolis, and suc- 
cessfully carried out by him since he became the head of the city 
system in 1899. In this work Mr. McGowan has been extremely 
fortunate in having associated with him the most influential electric 
railway financiers and experienced ni^nagers in the country, includ- 
ing Messrs. Randal Morgan and Thomas Dolan, of Philadelphia, and 
W. Kesley Shoepf, of Cincinnati, as well as the leading business men 
of Indianapolis and Indiana. 

Mr. Morgan is probably the most prominent traction man in the 
country, being identified with many undertakings of great magni- 
tude in this field besides the United Gas & Improvement Co., of 
which he is president. Mr. Dolan, Mr. Schoepf. president and gen- 
eral manager of the Cincinnati Traction Co. ; Mr. A. W. Brady, 
president of the Indiana Union Traction Co., and Mr. James Mur- 
dock, president of the Merchants National Bank, La Fayette ; are 
others of commanding position who are members of the directory of 
the Traction & Terminal Company. Mr. Morgan, Mr. Dolan, Mr. 
McGowan and Mr. Schoepf are closely identified with the Indiana 
Union Traction Co. and with the Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Trac- 
tion Co. 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 


It will be remembered that it was in i8gg that the present man- 
agement assumed control of the Indianapolis Street Railway prop- 
erty. At that time there was a very bitter fight between the old 
Citizens Street Ry. and the city regarding the renewal of the fran- 
chise, the right of the company to charge S-cent fares, and the 
transfer privileges that should be extended. The hostile public sen- 
timent which had been engendered by this controversy resulted in the 
passage by the legislature of a 3-cent fare law, a law authorizing a 
competing company, and also a law requiring the old company to sell 
its property at the expiration of its franchise. When the new man- 
agement took charge, the first thing necessary to insure the financial 
stability of the property was to secure the repeal of the acts im- 
posing a 3-cent fare and authorizing local competition and also to 
get a law giving the company permission to contract with the city 
for a new franchise. All this was carried through successfully and 
enabled the company to undertake the needed improvements witli 
prospect of financial success. There were at that time a number of 
.interurban lines entering the city, and others proposed, .and the ques- 

tion of how these lines should bring their cars into the busniess dis- 
trict of the city was seen to be one that would require careful con- 
sideration in order to provide for the needs of the future. This 
matter was taken up and Aug. 4, 1902, the Indianapolis Traction & 
Terminal Co. was chartered. Contracts had been made the preced- 
ing year between the Board of Public Works and three of the inter- 
urban lines entering the city, by which the latter were given lliv 
right to operate over the lines of the Indianapolis Street Railway 
Co., subject, of course, to a satisfactory agreement with that company 
being made. Contracts were made between the city company and 
the interurbans and having in view the erection of a union station, 
provision for this was made. 

The principal features of this contract are permission to use the 
city tracks necessary to reach the down town district, and to use 
sections of dead track for unloading express and freight; the local 
company to furnish power for the interurban cars and keep the track 
and overhead lines in repair; the number of interurban cars to be 
brought into the city to be fixed by the local company and not to be 


nv,T,„e i ; Batrf 

-I J 




Cv^fiAMi'' fi'/fofisffn' 

CO^^/TA'f fJW£'^T'^ 




Jan. 15, 1905.] 



greater tlian one every 30 iiiiiuilcs orflinarily, ami on special occa- 
.sions a car every 15 iiiiiuiles, with permission to run oiit-goinK trijis 
at intervals of 10 niiniik-s, if necessary to return passengers lirouglit 
into the city; the nuniher of round trips of exclusively freight and 
express cars is limited to five per day. 

Each inlerurbaii company may bring into the city under its contract 
only cars operated by it and its successors. Transfers are not per- 
mitted between the interurban and the local cars. Statements of 
Miiineys due under the contract are made weekly and the account 
settled monthly. The account of passenger fares is kept upon reg- 
isters in the interurban cars, the expense of installing the registers 
being equally divided between the two companies. An interesting 

Illinois St., and Capitol Ave., also the entire northeast quarter '<i 
this block, excepting a lot fronting 120 ft. on Ohio St. and gj'/j 
ft. on Illinois St., and also secured 25 ft. off of the cast side of the 
southwest quarter. This block is cut from east to west by a 30-fl 
street known as Waliash St., and from north to south by a is-fl 
alley. The company secured from the city a vacation of this alley, 
so that it has in effect a rectangle 420x425 ft., with the exception of 
lots at diagonally opposite corners; one of these, as mentioned, is 
120x971/2 ft. and the other lot not owned by the company is i8ox 
I9S ft. 

The office building occnpics the southeastern corner of the terminal 
property and is 163 ft. 8 in. long by 08 ft. wide and nine stories in 


provision of the interurban contract is that in event of the limits of 
the city being extended to take in a part of the tracks built by the 
interurban company, the latter agrees to sell to the Traction & Ter- 
minal company the tracks included within the corporate limits, ex- 
clusive of any franchise valuation, at a price to be agreed upon, or 
failing that to be determined by action in the Marion Circuit Court. 

Plans for the interurban terminal station were first considered by 
the Indianapolis Street Railway Co. in the spring of 1902. Ground 
was broken in 1903, and, while the office building was completed in 
August last, the station was first opened for traffic on Monday, Sept. 
12, 1904, the beginning of State Fair week. 

The site chosen is an admirable one, being one block west of 
the "Circle," which is the geographical center of the city, and one 
block east of the State Capitol ; it is one block north of Washington 
.'^t., the main business street. 

The company secured the entire southeast quarter and the entire 
northwest quarter of the block bounded by Ohio St., Market St., 

height. The framework is of steel, with tile fireproofing wall and 
floor foundations. 

The building is designed in the Byzantine style of architecture and 
is very pleasing in appearance. The two lower stories are done in 
Bedford stone, with an imposing main entrance handsomely carved. 
Above the second story the exterior walls are of buff speckled brick 
with molded brick jambs, terra cotta window sills and at the top is 
a well designed cornice done in terra cotta. 

The ground floor is finished in marble, and above this the hallways 
are wainscoted with marble and the floors laid with marble tiling. 
The elevator enclosure is an ornamental design executed in iron with 
Bower-Barff finish to correspond with the balustrades, hardware and 
electric light fixtures. Floors in the offices are of hardwood and the 
other woodwork is solid San Domingo mahogany. Fireproof vaults 
are placed in each suite of offices; also wash basins and mahogany 
coat closets. On the ground floor the hallway, with entrance to the 
three elevators which serve the building, is in the center. North of 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 


the elevator lobby are three storerooms fronting on Illinois St. and 
abutting on the station platform, in the south end of the building are 
two storerooms extending from Illinois St. to the station platform 
and three short rooms fronting on Market St. One of these is at the 
corner and also fronts on Illinois St. 

The office for the sale of interurban car tickets is just in the rear 
of the elevators, and on the right hand as one passes to the waiting 
room from the Illinois St. side of the building. .\ basement extends 
under the entire building; the greater portion of this is in one room, 
and admirably suited for a cafe, for which purpose it will probably 
be used. With the object of providing a suitable entrance for a cafe 
in this location, the south building line was moved back lo ft., leaving 
ample room for an entrance to the basement from the sidewalk. 
.At the north end of the basement is placed the power plant for the 
buiUiing, Three elevators will be operated, and the design provides 

ness without having to climb stairs in an office building. The tenants 
are for the most part life insurance companies, railway passenger 
and freight agents, engineering firms, bridge companies, dealers in 
railway supplies and the several electric railway companies having 
offices in the city. The companies using the station for terminal 
purposes have already been specified. Those now having offices in 
the building are the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., which 
together with the Indiana Co. occupies the entire top floor; the Coal 
Traction Co. (operating the Indianapolis & Plainfield Electric R. R.), 
and the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. 

Just west of the office building is a waiting station. This is a 
platform at the sidewalk level and is 37 J^ ft. wide and 164 ft. long. 
It is covered by a roof with skylight, and in the basement below are 
the waiting rooms. The main waiting room is reached by two 
stairways from the platform above and is provided with settees. .M 


for the installation here of a lighting plant and a water purifying 
and refrigerating system. 

Fronting as it does on three streets and overlooking the one-story 
waiting room, the building is well lighted from all four sides and 
contains no dark rooms. It is the intention to make this building as 
attractive as possible to tenants, and electric light as well as heat and 
janitor service is furnished. Iced water is provided in all the cor- 
ridors. Elevators are operated both day and night, something that 
is unusual even in the best appointed modern office buildings in the 
largest cities. The 24-hour elevator service, it is expected, will be 
found of great advantage to men traveling out of Indianapolis or 
having branch offices in near-by territory to which they must make 
frequent trips. The idea is that persons visiting Indianapolis can 
avail themselves of the interurban lines and save a great deal of 
time by making appointments in the evening and can attend to busi- 

one end is a room for women, and adjoining this a toilet' room and 
lavatory. At the opposite end is a smoking room and lavatory and 
toilet room for men. 

Coal is conveniently unloaded into the basement through the hatch- 
ways indicated on the ground phn. .A.shes are removed by means 
of an elevator of the usual sidewalk design, which will lift the ashes 
so that they can be dumped into cars run onto the first track. 

The train shed extends from the waiting platform to the west 
property line of the company and is 133 ft. 9 in. wide inside. It is 
somewhat longer than the office building. The plan view shows this 
arrangement of the nine tracks, which have been provided in the 
train shed and also the leads to the Ohio, Market and Illinoi.s St. 
tracks, which together with those in Capitol Ave. constitute the ap- 
proaches to the station. The train shed is lighted at night by 15 
arc lamps. 

Jan. 15, 1905.I 



Tlic lr,u-l< work nn ihc Icniiijial lunp aiul in llic train shed is all 
new, am! for this there has hecii used a 7-iii. T-rail with head 2}^ 
111. vviilo and vvc-h 9-16 in. thick. These rails are in (jo and 62-ft. 
Ii'nglhs. I Ills rail, with a web J4 i"- thicker than is found in the 
ii.>.ual section, was adopted to avoid failure of tlic rail by bending of 
the web, a condition thai has been met with in some of the 9 in 
girder rails used by tlie company. 

Within the liinils of the station building and ground.s the tracks 
are laid n)i 6 in. .x 8 in. x 7-ft. ties, spaced 24 in. between centers 
wilh (;r:i\il l.,ill;i-il {■xleiidiiiL,' ''i in. below tlic tics. In the train shed 

a cement concrete flooring is used. 
In the street the rails are sup- 
ported on concrete beams, as 
shown in the perspective view of 
I be Iraik section. The concrete 
Iieams arc 18 in. deep and 22 in, 
jja^. ^^^H wide, the concrete coming tip 
■* ' about 2!-> in. above the base of the 

rail. Wooden ties are spaced at 
intervals of 12 feet. It has been 
found that with the heavy cars it 
^ is quite as important to hold the 
rail down as to hold it up, and to 
prevent lifting two anchors are 
placed on the rail between adja- 
cent ties. In the illustrations these 
luc.u J. M COWAN. anchors are shown, consisting of 

brace tie plates from which is 
hung a plate by two bolts. In the greater part of the new work the 
anchor consists, instead of solid plates, of 3-in. cast washers sus- 
pended by yi-'m. bolts 10 in. long, two bolts at each brace tie plate. 
Ill lliis track the rails are connected by continuous rail joints and 
bonded with two No. 0000 "Protected" bonds. 

The architects for the building were D. H. Burnham & Co., of 
Chicago, and the construction was carried on by the Indiana Co., of 
New Jersey, which is the construction company organized to carry 
out the work of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. Mr. H. 
I!. Peck is vice-president and active head of the Indiana Co. 

At each end of the train shed some form of mechanically operated 
gates will be installed; these as well as the switches will be con- 
trolled from a tower. There are now in place a pair of pneumatically 
operated gates made by the Buda Foundry & Manufacturing Co., a 
lype that wiil probably be adopted. 

There is published regularly a 12-page folder containing the official 
time tables of the interurban electric lines diverging from Indian- 
apolis, which folder shows a total of 294 regular cars per day entering 
or leaving the station. 

Indiana Union Traction Co.— Out. In 

Muncie Division 18 iS 

Logansport and Peru Division 18 iS 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern 18 18 

Indianapolis-Plainfield 17 17 

Indianapolis-Shelbyville 19 19 

Indianapolis & Northwestern 23 21 

Indianapolis & Martinsville 17 17 

Indianapolis & Eastern l8 18 

148 146 

The revenue of the Traction & Terminal company from the station 
proper consists of one cent for each incoming or outgoing passenger 
on the interurban lines. 

In 1903 the number of passengers carried over the tracks of the 
Indianapolis Street Railway Co. in interurban cars was 2,347,936. 
The total number that will be carried in 1904 is estimated at 3,500,- 
000. This estimate is based on the traffic for 1903, taking into ac- 
count the natural increase that is to be expected and the fact that 
a number of lines now entering the city were only in operation for 
a few months of 1903. As the cost of the land and the building for 
this station was between $900,000 and $1,000,000, it is evident that 
within a very short time the revenue from interurban passengers will 
be sufficient to pay all of the fixed charges, leaving the excess of rent 
over the operating charges of the office building as profit on the in- 

The directors of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. are 
lliiRh J. McGowan, president; H. P. Wasson, first vice-president; 
John Appel, second vice-president; W. Keslcy Sclioepf and Arthur 
W. Brady. William I". Milholland is secretary and treasurer. The 
executive committee consists of W. Kcslcy Schoepf, chairman; Hugh 
J. McGowan and John Appel. The finance committee comprises 
Randal Morgan of Philadelphia, chairman; W. Kcsley Schoepf, itugli 
J. McGowan and .•\rlliur W. Brady. The directors of the Indian- 


-1 VII'iN, NOV. 


apolis Street Railway Co. are Admiral George Brown, president; 
Dr. Henry Jameson, vice-president; James Murdock, Marry S. New, 
Marshall Morgan, J. A. Lemckc and II. B. Hibben. 

(Canadian Street Railway Association. 

1 he first meeting of the Canadian Street Railway A.ssociation was 
held at the Windsor Hotel, Montreal, December 20th. Mr. W. G. 
Ross was chosen temporary chairman, and the meeting proceeded to 
the consideration of constitution and by-laws for the association. 
After thorough discussion this subject was postponed until the fol- 
lowing day for final revision and approval. 

The fees from Dec. 20th, 1904, to June ist, 1905, were fixed at 
$50 per member. .\l the afternoon session Mr. E. A. Evans, Man- 
ager of the Quebec Railway Light & Power Co., presented a paper 
on "Plandling of Express by Electric Suburban Railways." After 
discussion of this subject there was a general discussion on "Trans- 
portation of Mail and Letter-Carriers," and on the "Use and Abuse 
of Passes." In the evening delegates attended a dinner, at the St. 
James Club, given by the Montreal Street Railway Co. 

On the second day the constitution and by-laws were adopted, in 
the form printed herewith. 

The chairman next introduced Mr. W. B. Brockway, acting secre- 
tary of the Street Railway Accountants' .Association, and Mr. Elmer 
M. White, who since that meeting has been chosen secretary of the 
Accountants' Association, both of whom addressed the meeting. 

Mr. D. McDonald, manager of the Montreal Street Railway Co., 
then read a paper on "Relieving Congested Traffic at Rush Hours." 

The association then proceeded to the election of officers, which 
resulted as follows : 

President, W. G. Ross, managing director Montreal Street Rail- 
way Co., Montreal. 

Vice-President, W'. H. Moore, assistant to the president Toronto 
Railway Co. 

Secretary-Treasurer, .\. Royce, vice-president of the Toronto Sub- 
urban Railway Co. 

Executive Committee, The President and Vice-President, and C 
E. A. Carr, general manager London Street Railway; E. A. Evans, 
manager Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co.; D. McDonald, man- 
ager Montreal Street Railway Co. 

Attorney, Col. H. H. McLean, St John Ry. 

Those participating in the first meeting of the Canadian Street 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

Railway Association were: W. G. Ross, D. McDonald, R. M. Ilan- 
naford. Nelson Graburn, D. E. Blair, P. Dubec, II. E. Smith, Mon- 
treal; H. n. McLean, M. Neilson, W. Z. Earle, St. John; E. A. 
Evans, Quebec; A. Royce, W. H. Moore, R. J. Fleming, Toronto; 
C. E. A. Carr, London; Dr. S. Hitter Ickcs, Brantford. 


I. NAME— The name of the association shall be the Canadian Street 
Railway Association and its office shall be at the place where the sec- 
rt'tary-lroasurer resides. 

II. OBJECT— The object of this association shall be the acquisition 
of experimental, statistical, and scientific knowledge, relating to the 
construction, equipment and operation of street railways, and the 
diffusion of this knowledge among the members of this association. 
with the view of increasing the accommodation of passengers, improv- 
ing the service and reducing its cost; and the encouragment of cordial 
and friendly relations between the roads and the public. 

III. MEMBERS— The members of the association shall consist of 
street railway companies in the Dominion of Canada, and each mem- 
ber shall be entitled to one vote by a delegation presenting proper 

IV. AMENDMENT— This constitution may be amended by a two- 
thirds vote of all the active members of the association, present or 
represented by proxy, at any regular meeting or properly called special 
meeting, after the proposed amendment shall have been submitted in 
writing to each active member of the association thirty days prior to 
the date of the meeting when the proposed amendment is to be acted 


I. APPLICANTS— Every applicant tor membership shall signify the 
same in writing to the secretary-treasurer, and if elected, shall pay 
the requisite fee and assessment. 

II. OFFICERS— The ofBcers shall consist of a president, a vice- 
president and a secretary-treasurer. There shall al-so be an executive 
committee, composed of tlie president, vice-president and three mem- 
bers, three of whom shall constitute a quorum. The otncers and mem- 
bers of the executive committee shall be elected by ballot, at each an- 
nual general meeting of the association, and shall hold ofHce until 
their successors shall be elected. They shall have the entire charge 
and management of the affairs of the association. 

in. DUTIES OF OFFICERS— The officers of the association shall 
assume their duties immediately after the close of the meeting at 
which they are elected. 

IV. PRESIDENT— The president, if present, or in his absence, the 
vice-president, or in the absence of both, a member of the executive 
committee, shall preside at all meetings of the association. 

V. SECRETARY-TREASURER— The duties of the secretary-treas- 
urer shall be to take minutes of all proceedings of the association and 
of the executive committee, and enter them in proper books for the 
purpose. He shall conduct the correspondence of the association, read 
the minutes and notices of all the meetings and also papers and com- 
munications, if the authors wish it. He shall receive and safely keep 
all moneys of the as-sociation, keep correct account of the same, and 
pay all bills approved by the executive committee; and make an an- 
nual report to be submitted to the association, and if required, shall 
give a bond to the president in such sum and with such sureties as 
shall be approved by the executive committee, and perform whatever 
duties may ba required in the constitution and by-laws appertaining to 
his department. He shall be paid a salary to be fixed by the executive 
committee. Each member of the association shall furnish annually to 
the secretary a list of its ofHcers and directors, and such other infor- 
mation as may be desired from time to time by the executive commit- 
tee and the secretary shall keep a record of the same. 

VI. MEETINGS— The annual general meeting of the association 
shall be held in the first week in June, and quarterly meetings shall 
be held in the first week in the months of September, December and 
March in each year, and at such hour and place as shall be desig- 
nated by the executive committee. Notice of everv meeting shall be 
given by the secretary-treasurer to each member. Five members shall 
constitute a quorum of any meeting. Every company which is a mem- 
ber of this association shall be entitled to be represented at all meet- 
ings of the association by the officers and directors of this company, 
all of whom shall be eligible to be elected officers of this association, 
provided, however, that on all votes each company shall only be en- 
titled to one vote. 

VIL ORDER OP BUSINESS— At the annual general meeting of the 
association, the order of business shall be: 

1. The reading of the minutes of the last meeting. 

2. The address of the president. 

3. The report of the executive committee on the management of the 

4. The report of the secretary-treasurer. 

5. Reports of special committees. 

6. The reading and discussion of papers, of which notice has been 
given to the secretary-treasurer at least twenty days prior to the 

7. General business. 

8. The election of oflScers. 

Vin. ORDER OF BUSINESS— At the quarterly meeting of the asso- 
ciation, the order of business shall be the same, except as to 2nd, 4th 
and Sth clauses. 

IX. NOTICES— The secretary-treasurer shall send notices to all 
members of the association at least ten days before each regular 
meeting, mentioning the papers to be read, and any special business to 
be brought before the meeting. 

committee shall meet at least one hour before each meeting of the 
association; and. on other occasions, when the president shall deem 
It necessary, upon reasonable notice. 

XI. VOTING— All votes, except as herein otherwise provided, shall 
be viva voce; and in case of a tie, the presiding officer may vote. 

XII. READING OF PAPERS— All papers, except reports of commit- 
tees, must be approved by the executive committee before being read 
to the association. 

XIII. PAPERS, DRAWINGS AND MODELS— All papers, drawings 
and models, submitted to the meetings of the association shall remain 
the property of the owners; subject, however, to be retained by the 
executive committee for examination and use, but at the owner's risk. 

XIV. FEES— In consideration of the benefits and mutual protection 
which the association gives to each corporation in membership, each 
corporation binds Itself and agrees to pay Into the treasury of the as- 
sociation an annual fee of one hundred dollars, and such special as- 

sessment or assessments as the executive committee, upon approval of 
the association, may, from time to time determine. 

Assessments in addition to the annual assessment may be levied, 
from time to time, as the necessity may arise, upon recommendation 
of the executive committee and the approval of the association, and 
shall be levied pro rata upon the corporations forming the association 
in such proportion as the gross earnings arising from the operation of 
Its street and electric railway systems reported in preceding fiscal 
year's annual report of each corporation bear to the whole amount. 
Appeals may be made to the executive committee on account of spe- 
cial considerations, such committee to have full power. 

The annual fee is payable on the first day of July In each year, 
and all special assessments are due and payable within thirty days 
after tiiey are levied. 

XV. ARREARS — No member whose annual dues or assessments 
shall be in arrears shall be entitled to vote. 

XVI. ELECTION— All applications for membership shall first be 
submitted to the executive committee and if approved by a unani- 
mous vote, shall be ballotted for at the next quarterly meeting, and 
shall upon a majority vote be elected to membership. 

XVII. WITHDRAWAL— Any member may retire from membership 
by giving a written notice to that effect to the secretary-treasurer, and 
the pa^■ment of all annual dues and assessments to that date; but shall 
remain a member, and liable to the payment of such annual dues and 
assessments, till such payments are made, except as hereinafter pro- 

XVIIf. EXPULSION— A member may be expelled from the associa- 
tion by ballot of three-fourths of the members voting, at any reguiai' 
meeting of the association, upon the recommendation of the executive 

XIX. AMENDMENTS— Amendments to the by-laws shall be laid 
before the executive committee, who sliall bring them before the next 
meeting of the association. 

XX. Each member of the association shall be furnished by the sec- 
retary-treasurer with a copy of the constitution and by-laws of the 
association and also a list of the names and addresses of the members. 

Interchange of Freight Between Steam and 
Electric Roads. 

Decision of the New York Supreme Court Further 

Affirming the Kij;ht of an Electric Railway 

to Interchange Freight. 

."Kt the time of its organization in 1901, the Hudson Valley Railway 
Co., of Glens Falls, N. Y., -was engaged in litigation to secure physi- 
cal connection with steam railroads and recognition of its right 
to interchange freight witli them, proceedings having been instituted 
by the Stillwater & Mechanicville Street Railway Co. (one of its 
constituent companies) to obtain an order permitting it to unite and 
connect the tracks of its railroad with those of the Boston & Maine 
Railroad Co. The decision in this matter by the Supreme Court 
was in favor of the electric road, but this was reversed by the appel- 
late division of the Supreme Court; the case was carried to the 
Court of Appeals, however, which rendered its decision June 27, 
1902, reversing the appellate division and affirming the original de- 
cision. The opinion of the Court of Appeals was published in full 
in the "Review" for July, 1902, at page 419. 

Following this litigation the physical connection contended for was 
effected and the company for two years enjoyed the benefits follow- 
ing such union of the two systems, which rendered it practicable 
and convenient to exchange freight. After that time, however, tlic 
Delaware & Hudson Co. reached the conclusion that the decision 
of the Court of Appeals merely entitled the electric line to physical 
connection of its tracks without the right to interchange cars and 
refused to deliver to the electric road cars from other railroads con- 
signed via the Hudson Valley Railway. The Boston & Maine was in- 
duced to take the same position and annulled the agreement that 
had been made between it and the Hudson Valley Railway Co. and 
refused to operate under contracts then in force. The Hudson Val- 
ley company immediately began action against the Delaware & Hud- 
son Co. and the Boston & Maine R. R., and secured injunctions; 
the motion to continue the temporary injunction was argued in No- 
vember last at a special term of the Supreme Court. Justice John 
M. Kellogg has just made his ruling on the motion, which is against 
the steam railroads. Below are given extracts from the opinion cov- 
ering the principal features of the case: 

"The defendant plants itself upon the ground that its cars arc 
its properly and it has the right to control them in its own way, 
and that it cannot be compelled to carry the cars of other companies 
upon its lines except by contract. It overlooks the broad proposition 
that a railroad is of a semi-public nature and assumes somewhat the 
form of a public utility; that while the stockholder views it as 
operated for his benefit, the public views it as being maintained also 
for the convenience of the people, the transaction of the people's busi- 
ness and means of commerce. It is a common carrier of freight and 
property, a highway, as it were, for the transaction of the business 

.I\N, 15. I'-pS. 



ot tlic public according lo such reasonable rules and regulations 
as the company may establish and which are not against public 
policy. The owner, by putting his private properly into the track and 
the cars upon it, has lost some of the absolute and independent con- 
trol which he had over his property by dedicating it to this public 
use, and his profit and interest, and the demands of public commerce 
and public business, arc the rules whicli must govern the use and 
operation of the properly. The defendant contends that it has not 
refused I" receive or deliver freight, but that it only refused to 
icceivc or deliver the vehicle in which freight is contained. Rut 
whether tlie refusal of the vehicle is a refusal of the freight de- 
pends to a great extent upon the nature of the freight, the packages 
in which it is contained and the manner in which that class of 
freight is usually transported. A carrier cannot require a shipper to 
deliver freight in just the form which the carrier though caprice may 
require, but must receive the freight in the way and manner in 
wliich it is usually shipped and generally forwarded. We can sec 
that the refusal to receive or deliver an oil tank car containing oil 
is practically a refusal of the oil. The same is true of coal and 
grain and other merchandise which may be shipped in bulk in a 
freight car and containing in no separate package, the car being, 
as it were, the package in which the coal or grain is shipped. And 
if this bulk is broken, and it is required to be taken in boxes or bins, 
the expense of removal to another car and the delay of the rcship- 
nicnt would be so great that it would practically destroy the right to 
ship. If carloads of freight are usually shipped to their destination 
without breaking bulk, competition in all lines of business is so 
keen that the shipper who must submit to the delay and expense of 
the transfer from car to car at every railroad connection cannot 
compete with his competitor who has to suffer no such expense 
or delay, and in substance transportation of his freight is denied to 
him. When, therefore, a company refuses to receive freight in a car, 
which is usually shipped by the carload, and the expense or delay in 
llie handling of the freight from one car to another might be such 
as practically to destroy the profit in shipping, it in effect and sub- 
tance refuses the freight. 

"A railroad company, under subdivision seven of section four 
of the railroad law, lias power to take and convey persons and prop- 
erty on its railroad and receive compensation therefor. Under this 
section it does all its business and gets all its earnings. The railroad 
law, when it speaks of a railroad carrying property, uses the word 
'property' in its broadest sense, and seems to embrace everything 
which a railroad may carry except persons. Under this word 
'properly' it transfers for hire or otherwise the cars of other rail- 
roads, either with or without freight, and may take a new and empty 
car from the factory to its road and deliver it to the road for which 
it is intended, and its right to receive pay arises from tlie fact that 
it is carrying property within the meaning of this statute. Section 
twelve of the railroad law requires that railroads which are inter- 
sected by another railroad shall receive from each other and forward 
to their destination goods, merchandise and other property intended 
for points on their respective roads, with the same dispatch as, and 
at a rate of freight not exceeding the local tariff rate charged for 
similar goods, merchandise and other property, received at or for- 
warded from the same point for individuals and other corporations. 

"It will be noted that this section does not use the word 'cars' but 
requires the forwarding of all merchandise and 'other property.' 
'Other property' properly means any property which from its nature 
and the condition in wliich it is, is reasonably capable of being trans- 
ported over the road.. In my judgment a carload of merchandise 
comes within the provisions of this section, either as merchandise, 
the car being treated as the package or holder of the merchandise, 
and if it is such a package or holder as is usual in the transportation 
and carriage of such merchandise, it seems unreasonable and im- 
proper for the company to refuse to accept it ; or the car, if we 
separate it from the merchandise, well comes within the term 
'other property' mentioned in the statute, because it is such property 
as is usually transported on a railroad. And if there were doubt 
about this position it is somewhat cleared by section 35 of the rail- 
road law, which requires a railroad whose road at or near the same 
place connects with or is intersected by two or more roads compet- 
ing for its business, to fairly and impartially afford to each of such 
connecting or intersecting roads equal terms of accommodation, 
privileges and facilities in the transportation of cars, passengers, bag- 
gage and freight over and upon its road, etc. This section leaves out 

the words 'other property' and in place of them uses the words 'cars, 
baggage and freight.' By reading the two sections together it may 
fairly be inferred that the legislature intended by the general rail- 
road law that railroads should interchange cars loaded with freight 
and that the intersection provided for by section 12 of that law was 
intended for that purpose. And this fact is emphasized by subdi- 
vision s of section 4 of the same act, which empowers the roads to 
intersect and to build and maintain switches and other conveniences 
in furtherance of the objects of its connections. The object of its 
connections is to transfer cars from one road to the other. There 
can be no other good reason for a connection, and the railroads 
having the power to make the connection, and if necessary to con- 
demn private property for that purpose, it becomes the duty of 
each to exercise the power granted it and use the connection for the 
purpose for which it was created. It is apparent, if one railroad 
is compelled to transfer freight from one car to another, and per- 
haps furnish new receptacles in which to place the freight when it 
is in the car in bulk, that it is not being transported with equal 
facility or on equal terms with another railroad which transports its 
freight in the car in which it was originally placed. This connec- 
tion at Stillwater, it is urged by the plaintiff, fairly comes within 
section 35 above referred to. And while it is true, as stated by the 
defen<lant, that the moving papers do not show that the Delaware & 
Hudson and the plaintiff are competing for the business of this 
defendant or near that place, the facts are fairly well supplied by 
the answering affidavits which show that the connection of the Dela- 
ware & Hudson company covers nearly all the territory and points 
reached by plaintiffs. It thus appears that the Delaware & Hud- 
son and the plaintiff are competing for the business of the defendant 
at or near Stillwater and that therefore section 35 requires an inter- 
change of cars with substantially the same facility and on equal 
terms as granted the Delaware & Hudson at or near that point. 

"The defendant's contention that if it has violated section 35 of 
the railroad law, the plaintiff's only remedy is an application to the 
railroad commissioners for redress is not well taken. That section 
authorizes the railroad commissioners to prescribe such rules as will 
secure equal enjoyment of equal accommodation and facilities at such 
intersections and the terms and conditions upon which interchange of 
traffic shall be afforded each road. That section enables any dis- 
pute as to the terms and conditions upon which the interchange 
can be made to be settled by the railroad commission. It does not 
furnish the only remedy where an interchange is absolutely refused 
without regard to terms and conditions and where one of the roads 
claims that the statute does not require such interchange. This court 
may construe the statute and determine the right of an inter- 
change. If the parties cannot agree upon the terms and conditions 
of the interchange after the right is established by the court, the 
railroad commission is competent to fix the terms and conditions. 

"The defendant produces affidavits which it contends show that 
the plaintiff's road is not in fit condition for freight traffic. This 
is probably something of an afterthought, as a refusal to deliver cars 
was not put upon that ground, and it does not appear that from 
the interchange of cars which previously existed between the 
plaintiff and defendant that it was discovered that the cars were in- 
jured upon the plaintiff's road in any manner, and it would seem 
from the fact that there had been such interchange for some time 
and to a considerable extent and that no bad results followed, that 
that fact speaks louder than the opinion of experts criticising the 
physical condition of the road. We can well understand that the 
road is not adapted to freight business or the running of freight 
trains at the usual speed and manner, and can well understand that 
the running of freight cars through the villages would not be 
allowed with the same speed or manner in which it is done on 
steam railroads. But there is nothing in the case to show that the 
cars have been or will be seriously injured if properly handled upon 
the plaintiff's roads and there is no proof in the case showing that 
the plaintiff is irresponsible or not able to pay for any damage 
which may arise from its carelessness or the improper construction 
of its way. 

"This is a motion to continue the injunction which was granted 
during the pendency of the motion, until the determination of the 
action. The question as to whether the defendant must load its cars 
with freight to be carried over the plaintff's road can better be de- 
termined upon the trial of the action, and in the discretion of the 
court it is deemed best not to cover now that situation by an injunc- 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

tioii, but there is no reason why during the pendency of the action 
the defendant should not receive from the plaintiff for carriage, 
freight and freight in cars, or freight trains, where said cars are 
standard cars and properly equipped, tendered to it at the connections 
referred to, upon its being paid its proper charges in relation thereto. 
Neither is there any reason why the defendant should not be re- 
quired to deliver to the plaintiff at the several connections such car- 
load lots of freight, with the car or such cars as it may receive from 
other roads consigned to parties upon the plaintiff's road, where 
the cars are consigned and billed by way of the plaintiff's road, and 
deliver such carload lots of freight, in car, and freight cars, as may 
be consigned to parties upon the plaintiff's road at points of destina- 
tion not reached by the defendant's company or by any other con- 
necting railroad. 

"Either party may apply to the court to fix the terms and condi- 
tions upon which the interchange of cars and freight shall be made 
in case a dispute arises in any case in which the railroad commission 
is not competent to direct. If the order is not agreed upon, it will 
be settled upon ten days' notice." 

The court reviewed the action brought by Stillwater & Mechanic- 
ville Street Railway Co. to secure a physical connection, which de- 
cision gives to a street railroad company the same right of con- 
nection as a steam railroad company, and said the court has not the 
right to force a physical connection that does not carry with it 
tTie right to interchange cars. Assuming if an interchange of 
cars is impracticable, or not to be had, that a physical connection 
cannot be required. 

The following memorandum was filed by tlie court with reference 
to the Delaware & Hudson Co.: 

"The questions in this case, so far as they relate to receiving from 
or delivery to plaintiff's road of cars or freight, are disposed of 
by the decision in Hudson Valley Railway Co. vs. The Boston & 
Maine Railroad Co., at this term of court, and the injunction will 
cover the same points and also prevent a removal of the connection 
now existing at Lake George and Glens Falls. The connections 
formerly existing at South Glens Falls and Saratoga were put in 
under special contract for the sole purpose of aiding the plaintiff 
in getting rails and material to be used in the construction of its 
road and after sucli material was moved were to be removed when- 
ever the plaintiff required. This court cannot prevent the removal 
or require the restoration of those connections in violation of the 
terms of the contract between the parties. This is not a proceeding 
to establish a physical connection. It may be that the temporary 
physical connection as established is at a place or is different in con- 
struction than the parties would require or desire for permanent use. 
If the order is not agreed upon it will be settled on ten days' notice." 

Electric Tramvvaj' for West Fife. 

Ohio Interurban Railway Association. 


A company has been formed here by local parties to build an 
electric railway through the west of Fifeshire. The promoters have 
given notice to the Fife County council, the corporations of Dun- 
fermline, Inverkeithing, Cowdenbeath, and Lochgelly of their in- 
tention to apply to Parliament in November for provisional orders 
to carry out the scheme. The stock will then be floated, and it is 
expected the company will begin the construction of the road in the 
spring of 1905. The road will be 16 miles in length, and besides 
connecting the towns mentioned will ultimately touch the new naval 
base, on the Firth of Forth, referred to in my previous annual re- 
port. The estimated initial cost is £130,000 ($632,645). The Fife 
Electric Power Co., which is now building a power plant here, will 
supply the power required for all purposes in the operation of the 
tramway system when completed. 


At the ne.xt meeting of the Connecticut legislature franchises will 
be presented for electric railways paralleling the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Go's, line between New Haven and 
Putnam, Conn., via Middletown and Willimantic, and between Brad- 
ford and East Lyne. The former line will be extended to Boston 
and the latter to Providence, R. I. The legislature will also be 
asked to grant a charter for an electric line between Broad Brook 
and Buckland, via Wapping, to connect with the Hartford, Man- 
chester & Rockville Tramway Go's, system at Buckland. 

The regular December meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway 
.Association was held at the Hotel McKinley, Canton, Ohio, Thurs- 
day, December 29th. The meeting was called to order at 10.30 a. m. 
by President Clegg, who introduced Mr. F. J. J. Sloat, chairman 
of the Committee on Interline Tickets. 

Mr. Sloat stated that he had found wide differences of opinion 
among the interurban railway men of the state as to what should 
be included in a ticket intended for their use. He had therefore 
secured sample forms for a ten-coupon ticket which embodied about 
all the features that could be included in such a form, and presented 
the sample for discussion, the idea being that after discussion the 
undesirable features could be eliminated. 

The form submitted is what is known as the "skeleton ticket," 
and is one not favored by railroads because of the opportunity it 
offers for manipulation in the hands of scalpers. It was the idea that 
after a few weeks' experience had shown the tickets for which there 
was a demand, these would be printed, and the need for using the 
skeleton avoided. 

The ticket form secured by Mr. Sloat was presented to the asso- 
ciation and discussed in detail ; the various points decided upon 
were : 

1. There should be an agent's stub, showing the Form No., Start- 
ing Point and Destination, Route and Amount Collected. The Route 
is a necessary addition, because some companies can offer more 
than one route to a given point. The agent's stub will be at the 
bottom of the ticket, so that if a skeleton form having more coupons 
than are needed is used, the unused coupons at the bottom may be 
detached in one piece, together with the agent's stub. As in some 
instances agents will make a daily settlement and report at longer 
intervals, it was made optional as to whether a duplicate stub 
be provided on the ticket ; with two stubs one would be forwarded 
to the auditor with daily collections, and the other retained by the 
agent until his report was completed and then turned in; if a second 
stub is not needed for reporting it could with advantage be used for 
advising the general passenger agent as to sales. 

2. The contract section of the ticket should be provided with a 
calendar, in which day, month and year can be punched to show 

.^. The passenger should not be required to sign the contract. 

4. There should be a stipulation as to the selling company acting 
only as agent for other roads over which ticket reads. 

5. There should be only one class indicated on the ticket form. 
It had been suggested that the regular form might be used for spe- 
cial or excursion rates, by punching the ticket second class, but to 
this it was objected that a great many mistakes on the part of agents 
and conductors would he eliminated by having a different form for 
excursion tickets. 

6. That the contract should contain a clause making the ticket 
void in case of alteration, or the cancellation of more than one date. 

7. That the ticket should be on its face limited as to time, 30 days 
from date being the limit on regular tickets. 

8. That the contract should stipulate that the ticket is subject to 
the stop-over regulations of the roads over which it reads and is 
subject to exchange for train checks in accordance with such reg- 

9. That no proof of identity of passenger using the ticket b" 

10. That the coupons be void if detached. 

11. That the baggage liability be limited to $50 for a full ticket 
and $25 for a half-ticket. 

12. That the contract stipulate that no agent or employe hns power 
to modify the contract in any particular. 

13. That the coupons he plainly marked with the name of the 
road issuing the ticket. 

On the subject of colors there was a wide variety of opinion ex- 
pressed. While it was admitted that various colors might be used 
to advantage with the purpose of making it easier for ticket agents 
to distinguish tickets in the case, or for conductors, or for the audit- 
or's clerks, it was considered that it was not wise to adopt a plan 
that would encourage employes to rely on the color rather than the 
reading matter. ,Mso it was evident were each company to follow 
its own color scheme, the extensive use of interline tickets would 

Jan. 15, 1905.] 



result in tlic overlapping of different systems of colors and the de- 
struction of the value of such schemes for distinguisliing tickets. 
Acrordiiij;ly it was voted to print one way interline tickets on green 
safety paper, and round trip interline tickets on gray safety paper, 
half-fare tickets heing distinguished from whole tickets liy printing 
on the form the words "half-fare." 
The cniilract derideil upon is as follows: 
Issued By 
Good For 
One First Class Passage 

When stamped by Company's agent and presented with coupons at- 
tached in accordance with the following conditions: 

1st. That in selling this ticket for passage over other lines and 
cheeking Iiaggage on it, 

The Lake Shore Electric Railway 
acts only as agent and is not responsible beyond its own line. 

2nd. This ticket is void for passage if any alterations or erasures 
are made hereon, or if more than one date is canceled. 

3rd. If limited as to time, it must be used to destination before 
midnight of the date indicated by punch marks. 

4lh. Baggage liability is limited to wearing apparel not to exceed 
fifty (50) dollars in value for a whole ticket, and twenty-five (25) 
dollars for a half ticket. 

5th. It is subject to the stop-over regulations of the lines over 
which it reads, and may be exchanged by conductors at any point 
for tickets or checks conforming to such regulations. 

No agent or employe has power to modify this contract in any 

(Cancellation Calendar for 7 years given on right hand side of this 

Form of Coupon : 

Issued By 


Acc't of R. R. 


On conditions named in contract. 


One Passage. 
Form — Not Good If Detached. 

(Destination shown in column on right band side.) 

(Number of ticket shown in left hand column.) 

(Agent's Stub, showing form number, number of ticket, rate, route, 
original point and destination, next attached.) 

For special rate tickets the committee was mstructed to draft a 
special contract and report at the next meeting. 


.As to the basis of settling with foreign roads it was voted that: 
I. Settlements be made upon the basis of sales by the issuing road 
and not upon the collections made by the carrying road. By this 
means, if a conductor fails to lift the coupon, the road will not lose 

the fare. While in practice redemptions of unused tickets will be 
made for the most part by the selling company, such redemptions 
will be charged against the other road and the amount paid on 
account of the original sale, collected back. 

2. Settlements be made monthly, the creditor road drawing on the 
debtor road for the balance due. 

3. The form of report on coupon tickets recommended for use by 
the members of the association be that adopted by the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway Co. The heading of this form is shown herewith : 

Through Baggage. 

The subject of "Uniform Checking of Baggage" was not discussed 
at this meeting. Mr. E. C. Spring, chairman of the committee having 
this in charge, being unable to attend the Canton meeting. 

It was stated that the Dayton & Troy Company cheeked baggage 
over three roads, using its own checks. In Dayton the express serv- 
ice maintained enabled the company to take baggage from residences, 
something that but few companies were now able to do. 

On the Dayton & Troy, 50 to 60 pieces of baggage per day had 
been handled at 25 cents each ; this Mr. Clegg believed was a source 
of income worthy of consideration. 

Railway Guides. 

Representatives of the Central States Guide addressed the meeting 
and quoted prices as follows for monthly guides; 100 to 300 at $1.20 
each per year; 300 to 500 at $1.10 each per year; 500 and more at 
$1.00 each per year. 

It was voted that those wishing to take advantage of this offer 
communicate with the secretary of the association, so that he could 
arrange to get' the best discount available. 

Annual Meeting. 

Ihe president announced that the next meeting would be at Day- 
ton, Ohio, Jan. 26, 1905, this being the annual meeting. A nom- 
inating committee, consisting of F. J. J. Sloat, F. W. Coen, Valentine 
Winters, F. D. Carpenter and J. L. Bushncll was appointed. 

Institute Annual Dinner. 

The annual dinner of the .\merican Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers will be given in the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria, New 
York City, on February 8th, and promises to be a most interesting 
occasion. A number of pioneers and leaders will be present, an 
original menu has been designed, and some novel features will be 
introduced ; while the list of speakers includes men of national and 
international reputation. The dinner will be served for $5 per cover 
without wine or cigars, and as is usual on these occasions, ladies will 
be present. The participation of the ladies was a feature that 
elicited Mr. Carnegie's enthusiastic commendation at the famous 
Institute Library dinner, which he made forever memorable by his 
million-dollar gift for the United Engineering Building. Notices 
will be sent to the members forthwith, and it is requested that an 
early response be made, in order that proper care can be taken of all 
applications. Over 400 had to be seated at the Edison dinner last 
year, and the attendance in February promises to be equally large. 


Sold over the. 


during the month of 

, 190 

N. B. If any tUscrepauuies are found in tbis report, jjlease luaUe no alterations but 
advise by letter and corrections will be made in subsequent statement. 




Consecutive Nos. 

No. Sold 

Tbroo^b Rate 



Com. No. 

Clos. No. 

R. T. 

S. T. 


'* ' ' ' 






[Vol. XV, No. i. 

""•yf^ ^'-^T- ■ 



Middletown Cars for York, Pa. 

The accompanying illustrations show the general views and de- 
tails of a si.x-yard dump car and a twelve-yard hopper car, both of 
which were built by the Middletown Car Works, of Middletown, 
Pa., for the York Street Railway Co. The si.x-yard dump car is 
in service hauling limestone and distributing the same on the pikes 
over which the railway company has its right of way. This dump 
car is used for delivering crushed stone in small amounts from 
place to place for the purpose of repairing the road, and in order 
to control the distribution of this stone the Middletown Car Works 
devised a special controlling mechanism which permits the body 
of the car to be tipped to a certain angle and then righted again, 
so that any give quantity of material may be deposited at any one 
or more places. The half-tone illustration shows this car tipped to 
a certain extent, and the end elevation shows the details of the 
tipping mechanism. An ordinary type of dump car would discharge 

the whole load at one stop instead of being able to dis- 
tribute it from point to point. 

The twclvc-yard hopper car is used as a ballast car 
to distribute broken stone along the line of the York 
.Street Railway Co. to such places as it may be required 
for ballasting. It will be seen from the end and side 
elevations of this car that the hopper is arranged to 
discharge between the rails, and, as the slope is 30°, the 
stone is promptly discharged with a minimum of labor. 
This car is equipped with steel body and truck bolsters 
and has proved highly satisfactory in the line of work 
for which it was designed. 

Tramways at Smyrna. 

Mr. Rufus W. Lane, U. S. Consul at Smyrna, Turkey, 
sends the Department of Commerce and Labor the fol- 
lowing data : 

The first line of tramway in Smyrna was inaugurated 
in 1879 with about 3 miles of track. It is known as the 
Tramways des Quais, and is operated by a French 
company, of which the president, secretary, and gen- 
eral manager is Aime Tissot. Twenty-five horse cars 


are in use on this line, which has recently been extended 
5 miles. The only other line operating in Smyrna is the 
Societe des Tramways, Smyrne-Guez-Tepe. This line 
began to run horse cars in 1886, with 2 miles of track : 
subsequent extensions have given them nearly 5 miles, 
and they require about twenty cars to accommodate 
their traffic. This is an Ottoman company, the presi- 
dent being N. Ilarcntz, of Constantinople ; treasurer 
and secretary, Bedros Boloubeyan ; general manager, 
.•\. Ilarentz. 


The annual ball of the Cleveland Consolidated 
Street Railway Employes' Beneficial Association was 
given at the Armory, Cleveland, O., December 2nd. 

Cost of Electric Railway Power Production and Trans- 
mission in the State of Indiana/ 


The word "Elcclric" in the name of our organizalion suggests the 
one characteristic upon which hinge all of the tliffercnccs distin- 
guishing our business from tliat of the older railways of the coun- 
try. In the years of the development of the steam railways, their 
managers and engineers have determined the possibilities of steam 
motive power as regards the economical wciglit of train and length 
of run, and have evolved by experience the schedules and classes 
of service which they arc now giving our different communities. It 
is on account of the limitations of the steam locomotive that the 
older railways have not given the service and obtained the business 
which is ours today. It is wholly due to the development of the 
electric motor and electric power transmission that our interurban 
railways are enabled to run their trains in units of one, two or 
three cars each, at intervals of ten minutes or two hours as required, 
and make stops as frequently as desired, and do it efficiently and 
economically. This is the fundamental reason for whatever success 
the interurban railways have achieved. 

As the method of conveying the energy from our coal pile to our 
car axles is the one thing which makes possible our business, and 
especially as the cost of this energy is one-fifth to one-quarter of 
our entire operating expense, it should be interesting to consider 
briefly the division of this cost into its components, together with 
a statement of the average costs per unit of the power used on the 
Indiana interurban roads. 

A very comprehensive listing of the principal physical features 
of our electric railways was given in a paper entitled "Interurban 
Electric Railways of Indiana," presented by Mr. Robert P. Woods 
at a meeting of the Indiana Engineering Society just a year ago. 
The statistics as given in that paper stand practically correct today, 
when we add the 20 miles of the Indiana Northern Traction Co. 
now operating between Marion and Wabash. 

Supplementing Mr. Woods' paper as a source of information from 
which to draw the conclusions presented in this paper, we have 
written to officials of the various electric railways of the state, 
requesting car mileage and cost of power statistics. Nearly all of the 
roads have very kindly taken the pams to reply to our inquiries 
in a very satisfactory manner, and it is due to their kindness in 
this regard that we are enabled to furnish some average figures on 
power costs. 

We now have alxiut 800 miles of interurban electric railways in 
the state, operating 100 cars regularly. These cars vary in size 
from the ordinary street car to the 6o-ft. 35-ton car in use on the 
Indianapolis & Northwestern. The average weiglit of the 100 cars 
in regular daily operation is 25.61 tons and their average scheduled 
speed is 20 miles per hour. 

Twenty-four power stations furnish current to these cars, the 
combined station capacity (exclusive of the Indianapolis Traction 
& Terminal Go's, station) being slightly over 20,000 kw., or an 
installed capacity in generators of about 200 kw. for each interurban 
car operated and 25 kw. for each track mile operated. One half 
of the 24 power stations generate and deliver to the cars direct 
current, while the other 12 generate alternating current, distribut- 
ing to the cars as direct current through 34 sub-stations. The in- 
dividual power station capacities vary from 200 to 6,000 kw. and com- 
prise units of nearly every standard rating from 65 kw. to 1,500 kw. 

Assuming a power consumption of too watt-hours per ton-mile, 
we have an average total at our 100 interurban cars of about 5,000 
kw., using the average figures as given above of 25.61 tons as the 
weight of car and 20 miles per hour as the schedule speed. 

The average load factor of the power stations appears to be about 
40 per cent of the installed capacity. Therefore, the average out- 
put at power station bus-bars is over 8,000 kw., which appears to 

•Read before the Indiana Electric Railway Association, Indianapolis. 
Jan. 12. I9«i. 

indicate that the aggregate losses in overhead lines, rail return, sub- 
station apparatus, step-up transformers, etc., amounts to more than 
3,000 kilowatts average, or an average efficiency from power station 
bus-bars to car motors of say 60 per cent. As the assumption of 
100 watt-hours per ton-mile is probably high, this average efficiency 
of distribution, if in error, is to be considered higher rather than 
lower than the actual. 

This loss of 40 per cent of the total power generated must be 
divided between the stations generating direct current and those 
generating and transmitting alternating current and converting to 
direct current through rotary converters at sub-stations. I'ut 20 
per cent of the railway power generated in the state outside of 
Indianapolis is the output of direct current generators. Allowing 
20 per cent for the transmission losses from the direct current sta- 
tions leaves us an efficiency of about 55 per cent for the remaining 
75 per cent of the generated power which is the product of alter- 
nating current stations. This efficiency is probably made up about 
as follows: 

Efficiency of step-up transformers 94 PC "^^nt 

Efficiency of transmission lines 97 pcr "nt 

Efficiency of step-down transformers 93 per cent 

Efficiency of rotary converters 80 per cent 

Efficiency of direct current distribution 80 per cent 

Combined efficiency 54 V^^ c^"' 

The figures given as the efficiencies of transformers and rotary 
converters will, of course, not compare with the efficiencies guar- 
anteed by manufacturers, as the guaranteed efficiencies are based on 
full load or nearly full load conditions, while the average load on 
rotary converter sub-stations in the service which is most general 
on our roads is hardly greater than 25 per cent of their rated capaci- 
ties. This difference in distribution efficiency as between 80 per cent 
for the average direct current station and 55 per cent for the average 
alternating current station, is at first glance a surprising one and 
helps many a company to spend a large proportion of the dollars 
saved by an economical power station. Without doubt, there is 
more than one railway in the state, now operating an alternating cur- 
rent generating plant with transmission lines and sub-stations, that 
could have invested the same money in direct current stations and 
trolley feeder and be operating today with a less charge to cost of 
power per car mile. On the other hand, there are several alternating 
current generating stations in the state which are delivering power to 
the car axles, after paying the price for the losses, at a cost much 
less than that at which they could accomplish the same result from 
direct current stations. The question of which system should be 
installed in a given case is one that should be carefully considered 
before a decision is made, as too often in the past few years has the 
alternating current generating plant with rotary converter sub- 
stations been installed seemingly because such an outfit was in style, 
when the much more simple system of direct current stations with 
plenty of trolley feed wire would have been much more economical. 

For instance, let us briefly consider a given case as follows: 
Two cities of about 25,000 population each, situated 20 miles apart, 
each with a street railway system of say 10 city cars. These two 
systems arc owned by a company which is to construct an interurban 
road connecting the two, the plans contemplating new power 
equipment. The schedule will call for two regularly operated inter- 
urban cars and 20 city cars, and an installation of say 1,000 kw. 
capacity in power generating machinery. The location of an 
alternating current power station midway between the two towns 
with a sub-station at each end and rotaries in the power station 
will mean average transmission and conversion losses of about 45 
per cent of tlie total power generated. 

The location of a combination alternating and direct current plant 
at one end with sub-stations at the other end and midway will 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

mean average transmission and conversion losses of about 35 per 
cent. With two direct current stations, one at each end, and direct 
current feeder of double the cross section on the interurban line, 
the same results will be attained with power losses of but 20 per 
cent; the first cost of the installation will be no greater and the 
cost of generating the power would be but very little, if any, 
greater, provided, of course, that the facilities for obtaining coal 
and water are the same in the two towns. Assuming a generating 
cost of ID per cent more in the two small stations than in the one 
larger one (which is high), we have the cost of power at the car 
from the direct current stations averaging about 25 per cent lower 
than from the alternating current station at the middle location and 
over 10 per cent lower than from a combined alternating and direct 
current station at one end of the line, without considering the addi- 
tional labor at sub-stations which would be required with cither of 
the alternating current stations. 

If the given conditions be varied by the elimination of the city 
cars at one end of the line, leaving a load to be considered con- 
sisting of an interurban line of 20 miles in length, operating two 
regular cars on an hourly schedule, with a city system of 10 small 
cars centering at one end of the interurban line, then one direct 
current power station at or • near the city car load probably will 
prove to be the most economical. In this case, of course, the 
trolley feeder must be increased greatly, and possibly a booster set 
will be required, but this additional investment will not reach the 
cost of transmission lines, sub-stations and sub-station apparatus 
plus the capitalized cost of sub-station operation and losses. 

However, when the proposed line is much to exceed 20 miles 
in length, especially if future extensions are very likely, and no 
great number of city cars are to be operated, economy begins to 
favor the alternating current station with high tension transmission 
and sub-stations, and as the length of line increases, and with it the 
number of cars to be operated and the total load on the station, it 
finally reaches a point where there is no question as between the 
one alternating current station and a number of small direct current 
plants. When the construction of a power plant of several thou- 
sand kilowatts capacity is under consideration, a location may be 
selected where a supply of good water is assured, where coal may 
be easily handled, and the many refinements conducive to economical 
operation may be introduced which are not possible or practicable 
in smaller stations. These points, together with the low cost per 
kilowatt hour for labor which is possible with a large station, -com- 
bine to reduce the initial cost of power to such a low figure that the 
seemingly low average efficiency of transmission and conversion, 
together with the costs of sub-station operation, may be met, and 
power still be delivered to cars many miles distant at a cost which 
will compare very favorably with direct current distribution within 
much smaller possible areas. 

In this discussion, no mention has been made of the purely alter- 
nating current system, in which the car motors are designed for 
the use of alternating current, and for which the following claims 
are made: Reduction in first cost, by the elimination of the rotary 
converter and saving in trolley feeder; reduction in operating ex- 
penses by doing away with constant sub-station attendance; and 
increase in efficiency by the reduction of trolley and feeder losses, 
reduction or elimination of rheostatic car starting losses, and the 
complete elimination of rotary converter losses. As soon as the 
new alternating current motor can demonstrate these points and 
prove to us that it is as well adapted to our purposes, as efficient, 
as reliable, and as easy of maintenance as the direct current series 
motor, we must seriously consider it in our future plans. 

The operation of cars by this system has just been started on 
the Rushville division of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 
Co., and the operation of this line will be very closely watched by 
street railway engineers and managers, until the success of the sys- 
tem has been fully demonstrated. 

The replies which have been received to letters of inquiry repre- 
sent 8s per cent of the total installed generating capacity of the rail- 
way power stations of the state. These power stations generate 
an average of 5,845,450 kilowatt hours per month at an average total 
cost of $44,156.38, or .755 cent per kilowatt hour. 

This average cost per kilowatt hour is divided as follows: Fuel, 
0.526 cent; labor, 0.158 cent; lubricants, waste and miscellaneous 
supplies, 0.032 cent; repairs, 0.039 cent. 

The lowest total cost per kilowatt hour reported is 0.505 cent, 
while the highest is 2.024 cents. The lowest cost of fuel is o.36(S 

cent; the highest. 1.405 cent. The lowest cost of labor is o.ioo cent; 
the highest, 0.331 cent. The lowest cost of lubricants, waste and 
miscellaneous supplies is 0.015 cent; the highest. 0.086. The lowest 
cost of repairs is o.oio cent; the highest. 0.218 cent. 

Deducting the output of the two most economical stations, repre- 
senting two-thirds of the total output reported, the average cost 
of the rest of the energy generated in the state is 1.021 cents per 

The figures which have been given are on cost of power at power 
station switchboards. As six of the thirteen stations reporting are 
alternating current stations with transmission lines and sub-stations, 
these costs must be increased by the addition of sub-station operat- 
ing expenses. With this addition, the total cost of power delivered 
to direct current feeders is $47,500.01, or 0.964. cent per kilowatt 
hour, the lowest cost reported being 0.747 ^"d the highest being 
2.024 cents. 

The total amount of coal burned in all the stations reporting 
averages S2-'A '""s daily, 80 per cent of which is Indiana run of 
mine and slack. The average cost of all coal burned is $i.8g per 
ton. The average consumption of coal is 5.56 lb. per kilowatt hour, 
the highest consumption reported being 10.7 lb. and the lowest be- 
ing 4.9 lb. per kilowatt-hour. 

The power station capacity per interurban car operated avera.ges, 
as has been stated, about 200 kw.. the lowest being 150 kw. and the 
highest 350 kw. 

The roads reporting give a monthly car mileage of city cars of 
1,122,060, and of interurban cars of 630,258 car miles. The average 
power consumption is 1.48 kilowatt-hours per car-mile for city cars 
and 5.18 kilowatt-hours per car mile for interurban cars. On this 
basis, the average cost of power per car-mile is 1.43 cents for city 
cars and 5 cents for interurban cars. 

As illustrating the beneficial effect of the careful consideration 
of operating features in the engineering design and construction of 
a road, such as reducing curves and grades to the practical mini- 
mum, the careful location of sub-stations with respect to their loads, 
and an economical distribution of copper, some figures on the In- 
dianapolis Northern Division of the Indiana Union Traction Co. as 
compared with the rest of that system, may be of interest. 

The Indianapolis Northern division consists of the lines from 
Indianapolis to Logansport, Kokomo to Peru, and Tipton to Elwood. 
This portion of the line is fed from the power station at Anderson 
26, 42, 43, 59, 59 and 61 miles, respectively, from the power station. 
26, 42, 43, 59 and 61 miles, respectively, from the power station, 
the average distance of all rotary converters being over 46 miles 
from the generators. 

The rest of the system is fed from the same power station through 
rotaries at the power station, and through 15,000-volt transmission 
lines to eight sub-stations, the average distance of all rotary con- 
verters on these old divisions being but 15 miles from the powfr 

The entire alternating current output of the station is measured 
by an integrating wattmeter on the generator switchboard, while a 
second wattmeter measures the input to the step-up transformers 
supplying current to the transmission lines feeding to the Indian- 
apolis Northern sub-stations only. 

Notwithstanding the fact that 12 per cent of the power used on 
the old divisions is delivered directly from the power station with 
no alternating current transformer or transmission losses what- 
ever, and that the average distance from generator to rotary is 31 
miles greater on the Indianapolis Northern division, the power sta- 
tion output to these new divisions is but 33 per cent of the total, 
while handling 42 per cent of the total car mileage. In other words, 
the power consumption per car mile, including all losses from gen- 
erator to car motor, on the new lines is but two-thirds as much as 
on the old lines, even though the average transmission distance is 
three times as great. The class of cars in use on all divisions is 
the same, and the average schedule speed is slightly greater on the 
new lines than on the old. 

* ' * 

Like many other of the more progressive cities, the city of 
Portage, Wis., is being pushed to the front through the medium of 
the extensive advertising of the many advantages it ofifers. A recent 
circular which has been sent out by the Business Men's Association 
shows a view of the new city hall, a map of Wisconsin giving the 
location of the city, a partial list of the city's industries and several 
other interesting facts which appeal to the prospective manufacturer. 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line. 

riic opciiiiiK rit ihc I Jrtioil, Moiiroo & Tdlcdo Short Line between 
'I'dk-do and Detroit and the inauguration of tlirougli limited service 
on thi? line Nov. 5, 1904, marks the completion of an internrban 
railway which has been the subject of considerable discussion and 
interest for the past few years. Shortly after the completion of the 
Toledo & Monroe Railway in July, ifjoi, the Kverctt-Moore .Syndi- 
cate deciilcd to build an electric railway between Toledo and De- 

division of the line from 1 oledo to iJclroil, was completed Apr. 
4, igoi, and is iS miles in length, leaving 30.5 miles which have been 
built within the past two years. A description of the Toledo & Mon- 
roe Ry. appeared in the "Review" for July 15, 1901. 

The new section of the dine is located with a view to high speed 
service, its maximum grade being less than one per cent, and it has 
very few curves. The track construction is practically the same as 


troil, and the owners of the Toledo & Monroe property sold that line 
to the syndicate rather than go into competition with a new line 
between Toledo and Monroe. The Everett-Moore road was com- 
pleted from Toledo to Trenton, Mich., where connection was made 
with the Wyandotte Division of the Detroit United Ry., but in 
January, 1902, the Everett-Moore Syndicate became involved in 
financial difficulties and this property was sold to the Clover Leaf 
and Grand Trunk railways, providing a desired entrance into Detroit 
for the one and into Toledo for the other. The overhead material 
and polos were sold to the new owner of the Toledo & Monroe Rail- 
way, which company secured a more direct route to Detroit, took 
down the poles and lines from the Everett-Moorc road and re- 
placed them on its own. 

The present company w-as organized Nov. 19, 1902, with a capi- 
talization of $6,000,000, to take over the Toledo & Monroe Railway, 
the Michigan & Ohio Railway and the Monroe Traction Co., and 

that of the old line, being laid with 70-lb. A. S. C. E. rails with 
"Continuous" rail joints and Crown rail bonds made by the Amer- 
ican Steel & Wipe Co. The ties, which arc of oak and cedar, are 
laid 2 ft. between centers and the road is rock ballasted throughout. 
The Short Line throughout its entire length, with the exception of 
the route through Monroe, is built on a private right of way. Near 
the city of Detroit is a short section about one mile in length which 
involved the expenditure of over $150,000 for construction. Besides 
buying a right of way through valuable property it was necessary to 
provide a drawbridge which crosses the Rouge River about 100 yards 
beyond where the company connects with the tracks of the Detroit 
United Ry. at Woodmcre, also over crossings for three steam roads 
and under crossings for three steam roads. The elevated crossings 
are over the Michigan Central and Wabash railroads near Woodmere 
and the Detroit Southern near Trenton, wdiile three subways take 
the line under the Lake Shore, Ann Arbor and Michigan Central 



to extend the line from Monroe to Detroit, there remaining at that 
time sonic 30 miles of the line to be constructed. The officers of 
the new incorporation were : President, Matthew Slush ; treasurer, 
Charles R. llannon; secretary, Elisha A. Flinn. 


The total length of tlie route is 57 miles, of which 3.5 miles are 
within the city limits of Toledo and 5 miles within the city limits of 
Detroit. The Toledo & Monroe Ry., which forms the southern 

railroads at Alexis. In addition to this the company has built a 
steel bridge over the Huron River at Rockwood, Mich., a steel 
bridge over Stony Creek and a trestle over the Ottawa River near 
Toledo. .\t all points where curves occur there are sidings over a 
mile long; all cars take the right hand track, thus avoiding d::nger 
of collisions. In addition to the sidings at curves there are sidings 
every two and one-half miles along the entire route, with a com- 
plete system of telephones to facilitate the dispatching of trains. 
The line is double-tracked between Detroit and Wyandotte, the 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

company expecting to carry on considerable freight business through 
this point, which stands third among the cities of Michigan in point 
of freight shipments. The directors have ordered the road double 
tracked bctweon Wyandotte and Monroe, a distance of 20 miles. At 

ating units mentioned, two exciter units, one motor driven and one 
direct connected engine driven. At the main station there are 
si.x transformers for stepping up out-going current to the sub-sta- 
tions of the same size and voltage as those originally installed. The 
boiler equipment for the new unit was furnished by the Aultman- 
Taylor Co., and consists of one 400-h. p. Cahall boiler with Mansfield 



Toledo the line has physical connections with the Toledo Terminal 
Ry., so that its cars can be switched to any of the various railroads 
running out of Toledo. 


At the time of the organization of the new company, the power 
house of the Toledo & Monroe Railway, which is located at Monroe. 
Mich., contained in its engine room two 6oo-h. p. cross-compound 
condensing Hamilton-Corliss engines and two Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers of 400 h. p. nominal capacity, with Goubert steam separators 
and feed water heaters and Penberthy injectors. Directly connected 
to each engine was a 400-kw., 3-phase, rotary-field, 25-cycle Westing- 
house generator, the current being generated at 380 volts and stepped 
up to 15,000 volts, at which pressure it was transmitted to the sub- 
station about 12 miles south of Monroe, equipped with two 200-kw. 

In order to provide power for the new section of the road one 
400-kw. Westinghouse generator direct connected to a 16 and 36 

chain grate stoker and two Mansfield stokers, whicli will be installed 
under the two old boilers 

The two new sub-stations are combination stations and passenger 
depot, the interior of the waiting room and ticket office being shown 
in the accompanying engraving. These are built of steel, brick 
and concrete, with tile roofing, and it is the intention of the company 
to beautify the surrounding grounds. The company also has a 
very handsome passenger waiting room in Detroit, while in Toledo 
the terminal is within easy access to the diverging steam and electric 
lines. One of the accompanying illustrations shows the type of 
standard shelter which has been erected at all road crossings. 

Rolling Stock. 

The original equipment of the Toledo & Monroe Railway consisted 
of five closed passenger cars, two open passenger cars and two com- 
bination passenger and baggage cars, built by the Jewett Car Co., 
of Newark, O. These cars are 42 ft. 4 in. long over all, the body 

" — 

^ :^b|^^ 





by 42-in. Hamilton-Corliss engine was installed at the main power 
station at Monroe, and two new sub-stations, each with two 300-kvv. 
rotaries, were built. The sub-slations are now four in number, lo- 
cated at Erie, South Rockwood, Ford City and one in the main sta- 
tion at Monroe. 
The equipment of the power station now comprises the two gener- 

being 33 ft. long, mounted on Peckham No. 26 double trucks and 
equipped with four Westinghouse No. 56 motors. To this equipment 
have been added eight passenger cars with smoking compartments, 
built by the John Stephenson Co., mounted on Peckham M. C. B. 
trucks and equipped with four Westinghouse 76 motors each; also 
two express cars. 

Jan, 15, lyos- 



Fare, Etc. 
'llic rale of fare liclwccii Detroit and Tolcilo is 80 cents one way or 

$1.50 for the round trip, wliile the round trip on tlie steam roads is 

$2.60. The lengtli of time consumed bctvvcun Ihc two points is 

2]/! hours for the local cars and 2 hours for the limited cars. Of 

this time 24 minulc"; is required to make the 3% miles in Toledo and 

,^0 minutes to make the 5 miles in 
Detroit. The Short Line ha-; a 
cnntract with Ihc Detroit United 
Railway and the Toledo Railways 
& Light Co. under which it pays 
the former 5 cents per passenger. 
liul is allowed mileage for the ,usc 
of its cars, and pays the latter 3 
cents per passenger. The time con- 
sumed on the steam roads is I'/t 
hours on limited trains and 2 hours 
10 minutes by local trains 

The engineering and construc- 
tion work on the Toledo & Monroe 
Railway was done by J. G. While 
& Co., while the contract for the 
work between Monroe and Detroit 
was let to the Detroit & Toledo 

Construction Co.. of which C. J. Reilly was president, Charles R. 

Ilaunon, secretary and treasurer, and Matthew Slush was a director 

and was in active cliarge of the work. 

The present officers of the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line 

Railway Co. are : President, Matthew Slush ; vice-president, C. A. 

HIack; secretary, Elislia H. Flynn; treasurer, Charles R. Hannon ; 

manager and purchasing agent, W. B. Tarkington. The general 

offices of the company are at Monroe, Mich. 


Track and Roadbed Construction and Mainte- 

nance, with Particular Reference to the 

Life and Chemical Preservation 

of Cross. Ties.* 

iiv THUS. n. m'.math, tivii. traction & 


.■\s all present may know, the question of securing good ties is 
each year becoming more difficult, as timber becomes more scarce 
the quality oflfered in ties becomes poorer. Good white and burr 
oak ties are difficult to secure, and the attention of all railroads is 
called to the advisability of using treated timber. At present the 
most satisfactory treatment for prevention of decay in timber is its 
impregnation with creosote; the additional life of treated timber 
fully justifies the expense and it is possible to substitute a grade of 
timber utterly unsuited for ties, yet, which wlien treated, will show 
a life double that of the best untreated timber heretofore used. 

Wood is composd of a great number of tubes firmly united and of 
varying sizes, the more open tubes being in what is commonly known 
as the sapwood ; the older tubes are filled with various substances 
as resin, gum, etc. The sapwood is the living part of the tree, the 
tubes allowing a free passage of water, while the heart wood, due 
to changes, no longer allows such free passage of water. 

Decay is caused by the entrance of living organisms, as insects, 
bacteria or fungi, and sapwood being more open, is the more readily 
attacked. The best conditions for the activities of destroying agents 
and growth exist in the presence of heat and moisture. 

The treatment of timber consists in the introduction of substances 
poisonous to these destroying agents. Whatever it is must pene- 
trate all parts of the timber and must remain there permanently. 
Experiments have been made with the creosoting process for about 
40 years. Assuming that the results of the present creosoting will 
be as good as those obtained 20 years ago, we can assume that the 
life of a tie can be increased by treatment to 20 or 25 years. 

Experiments have shown that the undesirable woods, such as red 
and black oak, owe their quick decay to the open and porous con- 
dition of their wood cells. Woods of this character are the ones in 

*Read before the ludian.l Electric Railway Association, IttdiaiiapoliK, 
Jan. 12, I'XlS. 

which the effect of treatment is greater, aim ihcir me ■ r^mpare, very 
well with the life of the treated white and burr oak timbers. 

On a visit to a southern city the writer was shown creosotcd sap 
pine tics that had been in service on street railway track for more 
than IS years and were evidently good for nearly as much longer. 
Also creosoted sap pine piles that were said to have been in position 
for about 18 years and still were in a good state of preservation. 

Sap pine is the poorest and cheapest grade of lumber in the South 
on account of its open and porous nature, and is the most success- 
fully treated. The writer was told that the treated tics cost about 
40 cents and treated sap pine poles could be secured for about $6.ou 
for a 30-ft. pole. He has written to parties for definite prices on 
these lies and poles delivered in Indianajwlis, but has not as yet re- 
ceived a reply. 

Local creosoting works have quoted prices, but having an in- 
flated idea of the value of their particular process, their prices cor- 

It is believed, however, that a good creosoted tie can be secured 
in Indianapolis for less than 65 cents, and that such a tie placed in 
track would last, under ordinary conditions, double the life of the 
ordinary white oak tic, especially white oak lies of the quality now 

The life of a creosoted sap pine pole, considering its greater 
strength over cedar, would strongly recommend its use. 

The features in which track construction and maintenance in 
cities differ from ordinary steam and interurban railways are: first, 
the work must be such that no repair is necessary except at long 
intervals of time, and second, it must be such as to permit the ordi- 
nary types of street paving to be applied. 

Deep rail sections must be used in order that ties may be low 
enough to permit the paving of the tracks; instead of using, as in 
railroad construction, the shallow rail and partly exposed ties, we 
use deep rails of from 6 in. to 9 in. laid on ties or without ties in com- 
bination with concrete, the rails being laid on blocks in trenches 
which are filled with concrete, forming a beam under and around the 
rail, the rails being held in position by the concrete beam with the 
aid of the street paving material. This type of construction has 
been in use for the past ten years. 

In some cities this type of construction has been considered satis- 
factory, while in others it has been condemned. In Indianapolis we 
have several miles of track of 9-in. girder rail laid on concrete beam 
with ties spaced 12 ft. apart and paved with brick laid on a concrete 
base. This construction is inadequate for interurban traffic. The 
College Ave. line of this city was constructed with 7-in. T-rails on 
lies spaced 2 ft. between centers, ballasted with natural cement con- 
crete, which concrete extends from 6 in. below the bottom of the tie 
to within 5 in. of the top of the rail. The street surface being vitri- 
fied brick, with nose brick forming the flange groove adjoining the 
rail ; this construction has proved entirely satisfactory for inter- 
urban traffic. 

The tracks built last season and now used by the interurban cars 
on Ohio St. and Capitol Ave., were built with 7-in. T-rails on ties 
spaced 12 ft. apart and resting on a concrete beam 24 in. wide and 
20 in. in depth under each rail. Tie plates were used at intervals of 
4 ft. and securely held by anchor bolts extending through the con- 
crete. [This construction is shown in connection with the descrip- 
tion of the Traction & Terminal Station, page 36. — Ed.] 

It being a deduction of the writer from experience in concrete 
beam work, that track constructed in the old manner failed from 
lifting and that such anchorage in addition to holding the track in 
line and gage, would increase its stability by avoiding vertical 
movements. The use of the tie plate between the ties permitted the 
suspension of the anchor bolts in their proper position during the 
process of concreting, the track having previously been brought to 
surface and line by tamping the ties. The concrete used was made 
of the best grade of portland cement and had ample time to set. 

The flange groove alongside of the rail was obtained by the use 
of a special nose block, much larger than the ordinary paving brick, 
this block being 5 in. wide, 4' 2 in. thick and 10 in. long, and the rest 
of the pavement being the ordinary paving brick. The special shape 
of this block permitted its being laid longitudinally directly upon a 
mortar bed on the concrete, strips of wood being used to fill the cav- 
ity under the head of the rail to prevent the special nose brick from 
coming in contact with the rail and to reduce the rumble of the 
passing cars. These wooden strips also act as a semi-elastic materia] 



[Vol. XV. Ko. i. 

adjoining the rail, taking up the thrust due to the expansion of the 
pavement between the rails. 

Brick pavements do expand from temperature causes, and if 
rigidly held by the rail, the brick raises of? the sand cushion to the 
detriment of the pavement, forming a sounding board which in- 
creases the noise. 

The 7-in. T-rail now used in this city was especially designed 
for the heavy intcrurban car. All Shanghai rails previously rolled 
by the mills were too light in the web for such heavy loads, being 
designed for ordinary weights of city cars, and as city pavements 
required the rail to be six inches in height or over, the webs in use 
were extended in height but remained H 'i- '" thickness. 

As interurban cars use 3-in. tread wheel, it was considered ad- 
visable that the head of the new rail should be 2!4 in., the web 
9-16 in. thick, the rail 7 in. high and base 6 in. wide. This rail 
weighs 91 lb. to the yard. To the credit to those interested in the 
designing of this rail it may be said that a subsequent design of 
rail, for similar conditions, made by a committee from the American 
Street Railway Association, is very similar, the main diflference be- 
ing that the committee made the head of its rail 3 in. wide. 

Perhaps the most trying feature of track maintenance in Indian- 
apolis is the adjustments of gage on special work to fit it for 
wheels of all varieties. In this city are found all kinds of wheels 
from 5^-in. flange and 2-in. tread up to the M. C. B. with i^-in. 
flange and 4-in. tread. If the guard rail on a curve is placed with 
the proper width of groove for the big flange, the 5i-in. flange 
wheel car never touches the guard rail unless the wheel on the other 
end of the axle is riding with its flange on the rail. On the other 
hand, if the guard rail is set with reference to the little flange, the 
big flange will ride up on top of the guard rail. 

We have made it a practice on curves where rolled guard sec- 
tions are used to gage curves 4 ft. S^ in. and where we liavc been 
able to get this condition, we have had no derailment trouble, 
although the big wheels squeak and it takes power to send them 
around. Such places we keep well greased. 

The outcome of this condition is that the interurban lines must be 
reasonable about their wheel flanges, and use a flange not over i in. 
deep by I 5-16 in. thick, so that guard rail sections can be used, and 
then, all wheels on city cars should be made to conform. The saving 
in special work renewals would pay for changing all the wheels in 
two years; the addition of 'A in. on the width of tread of city car 
wheels, would immediately add 50 per cent to the life of every forg 
and switch in the track. 

Steam railroad companies have standardized their equipment in 
order that their rolling stock may be interchangeable. 

Mr. H. J. McGowan has taken an initial step in interurban rail- 
way development in erecting the Terminal station and building, in 
which we now meet, and in which station enter interurban cars from 
all parts of the state of Indiana. Arrangements have been per- 
fected by which through bufTet parlor cars from Ohio will also enter 
this station. Indiana has taken the initiative in providing elegant 
and commodious accommodations for interurban railway patrons. 

This association should therefore lead in the work of standard- 
izing all equipment and secure the co-operation of other similar or- 
ganizations in fixing such standards. Standard car wheel flanges, 
width of tread, diameter of wheel and standard gage for pressing 
wheels should be adopted at the earliest possible moment, as cars of 
diflferent lines are now frequently sent over connecting lines, and 
all city railroads over which interurban companies operate their 
cars are vitally interested. The difficulties arising from irregulari- 
ties in any of the above-mentioned items cause the most disastrous 
results and, until this is done, special work cannot be intelligently 

Tests of Brillium. 

Harold P. Brown, 122 Liberty St., New York, sends data concern- 
ing recent tests made with "Brillium," with which he has been ex- 
perimenting for the last two years. 

The Testing Department of the Brooklyn Heights R. R. has re- 
cently made power-house tests with "Brillium." The fuel used 
was locomotive cinders from the Lackawanna railway such as are 
ordinarily used for ballast, with about 10.6 per cent of No. 3 buck- 
wheat anthracite coal ; 44 lb. of "Brillium" to the ton of cinders was 
used and the boiler was run at about 15 per cent above its rating. 

with air pressure of V4 in. under the grate bars. The flue gas tem- 
perature averaged 504° and the carbonic acid gas ran from 8.6 to 
12.2 per cent. A net evaporation of 6.12 lb. of water from and at 
212° was obtained from each pound of fuel. The buckwheat coal 
by itself gives about 6.75 lb. evaporation. 

A recent inspection of the boiler by the Fidelity & Casualty Com- 
pany shows that it and the grate bars are in good condition after 
using this fuel for over eighteen months. 

Some New Products of the Crane Company. 

The Crane Co., of Chicago, which is well known as one of the 
most progressive concerns in the manufacturing of steam appli- 
ances, has recently introduced a number of new devices for which 
patents have been applied. Among these may he mentioned the im- 
proved renewable seat and disk globe and angle valves which are 
suitable for working pressures up to 250 lb. and are tested up to 
700 lb. The renewable parts are made of hard composition, which 
it is claimed is far better and will last longer than those in the 
ordinary valves. They are designed specially for hard work where 
extreme pressure is used and where the wear and tear on the valve 
is severe. By unscrewing a nut on the bottom of this valve all the 
parts are accessible and removable from the top, thus making it 
convenient to substitute a new seat or disk and to replace any worn 
part. In assembling the valve the seat is replaced, the nut on the 
bottom tightened, thus holding the seat in place, then the bonnet 
is screwed on and the valve is ready for use. The Crane renew- 
able seat and wedge straightway valves are another new type suit- 
able for working pressures up to 250 lb. and are tested for 800 lb. 
pressure. The easy methods for inserting the renewable parts of 
these valves will recommend them to all users. 

Crane self-packing globe, angle and radiator valves are made 
with Jenkins disk and non-rising stem and emlwdy the very desir- 
able feature of self-packing. Their use fully obviates the trouble 
and annoyance of escaping steam and water. In the Crane self- 
packing valves vulcanized rubber is introduced between the metallic 
parts which makes a perfect seat and completely overcomes the 
tendency to leak. The threads on the bonnet of the self-packing 
valves are the same as those in the Jenkins disk valve made by this 
company, and the old style trimmings may be replaced with the new 
self-packing device without removing the valve. 

The Crane Co. is confident that these valves will meet all re- 
quirements, and guarantees them to give entire satisfaction. 

A Large Contract. 

The National Electric Co., of Milwaukee, Wis., has been awarded 
the contract for 700 air brakes to be installed under the new con- 
vertible cars of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. Although 
many of the large cities throughout the country have all their cars 
equipped with air brakes the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. has 
placed the largest contract for individual air brake compressors that 
has ever been placed in this country. The decision was not arrived 
at until after over two years of experimenting with practically 
every known type of brake that is manufactured. 

Of this order six carloads of the equipment have already been 
shipped ; the balance will be shipped in the course of two months. 
Thirty cars will be required to load the apparatus to fill this order, 
not including the pipe and fittings, which will be purchased in 
Cleveland. An interesting fact that will illustrate the size of this 
order in comparison with an order for air brake apparatus for steam 
railway coaches is that 30 carloads of air brake material for steam 
coaches would mean about 3,000 steam railway equipments. An- 
other item of interest to show the magnitude of the order is the 
fact that it will require i8j4 miles of pipe to equip the cars, each 
requiring 140 ft. of miscellaneous size pipe, and 60,200 elbows, 
unions and fittings will be required for joining the pipes. 

The compressor ordered is the National Electric Co's. type B-2, 
with a capacity of 20 cu. ft. of free air per minute. The reason for 
this large compressor is because the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. 
intends in the near future to adopt the trailer system during the 
summer months and rush hours. A new type of slide valve will be 
used with this equipment. The weight of the complete air brake 
equipment, including the compressor, is 1,100 lb., and the weight of 
the compressor is 725 lb. 

Recent Street Railway Decisions. 


(The (li-ciBi<ms wliith h;ivi' luiii iei)orti-il in llio Li' Dcnarlimnt of tin- "Strni-t Railway Ri-vlcw" «inc:i' 18'I3 havi- bi'.n (lublinhnd •.••jiaralily br the Windwjr A 
Kelt 111- hi IMiblishiii^,' Co. undtT I hi- lillf " ,Slrf<-l Kail way Law," four voliiiin-s of which have ln-rii printi'd. Vol. I covith thi* piTiod from January. IM'M, to January, IW;?; 
Vol. II fnini January, I»'17, li' July, IN'i'i; Vol. Ill (ron'i July, IK'i'i. lo April. I'K)I; Vol. IV from April, rmi. to April, Vll>X Vol. V l« now In pri'i.-,. l-ricr: Iluund in 
«hcep: four volunu'K, $10.00; siujfli- volume, W.OO. IJound In imikram : four volumi-H, |<».5o; Hiiitflcr yolumc, t2 ifO.J 


ll.-ilvcrson vs. Seattle Electric Co. (Wash.), 77 Pac. Rep. 1058. .Sep. 
21, 1904. 
It may not be negligence nf railway companies, the supreme court 
of Wasliington says, to fail lo provirle railings or grates lo prevent 
passengers from falling or being thrown from the cars, where they 
are run at the usual rate of speed upon straight or even tracks, 
where no such protections arc usually required; but when an un- 
usal or high rate of speed is maintained around curves, or over 
rough and uneven roads, then ordinary diligence requires such safe- 
guards, even if Ihey arc not required by positive statute. 


Hoist vs. Savannah Electric Co. (U. S. C. C, Ga.) IM Fed. Rep. 9.31. 
July 16, 1904. 
Where it is expressly declared in the charter of a city that the 
control of the streets, paving street railways, and the like, must be 
by ordinance, the mayor and aldermen being given power and au- 
thority from time to time to make, ordain and establish such by- 
laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as shall appear to them 
requisite, etc., the United States circuit court, in Georgia, holds 
that a city street cannot be dedicated for street railway purposes 
by a mere resolution, over the protest of the property holders. 


Thompson vs. Schenectady Railway Co. (U. S. C. C. .\., N. Y.), 
131 Fed. Rep. 577. Apr. 5, 1904. 
An alleged agreement constituted by the action of a receiver in 
foreclosure proceedings, joined with certain property owners, peti- 
tioning the common council to consent to and authorize the discon- 
tinuance permanently of the running of cars upon a certain street, 
.".nd a removal of the track therefrom, which the common council 
adopted a resolution consenting to, the so-called agreement being 
made in the supposed interests of the receiver and the narties to the 
foreclosure, and in order to lift the burden of maintaining an un- 
profitable part of the railroad, without the consent of tiie railroad 
commissioners or of the state to the agreement, the United States 
circuit court of appeals, second circuit, refuses to sanction or en- 
force. It says that the right to construct and operate a street rail- 
way is a franchise granted by the state upon considerations of the 
public welfare; and any contract which disables the corporation 
from performing its functions without the consent of the state, and 
made to relieve the corporation of the burden which it has assumed, 
is void as against public policy. 


Schenectady Railway Co. vs. United Traction Co. (N. Y. Sup.). 89 

N. Y. Supp. 931. July, 1904. 

The defendant having granted to the plaintiff the right to run its 

cars over certain tracks, conditioned that it should not operate cars 

of such excessive weight and size, or propel them at such excessive 

rates of speed, as would endanger the defendant's property, and 
subject it lo unusual difficulty or expense, it being stipulated that 
until another type of car might \x agreed upon the plaintiff might 
operate cars forly-eight feet over all, to weigh not to exceed twenty- 
five tons when loaded, etc., the supreme court of New York, special 
term, Montgomery county, in continuing an injunction against the 
defendant during the action, restraining it from interfering by 
physical means lo prevent the operation upon its tracks of certain 
cars, holds that the defendant had not the right to decide for it- 
self the questions involved in this controversy, and lo enforce com- 
pliance therewith by physical force; that it should have resorted 
to the courts for the protection of its rights and the justification of 
its claims. 


O'Gorman vs. New York & Queens County Railway Co. (N. Y. 
Sup.), 89 N. Y. Supp. 589. July 28, 1904. 
A rule excluding all dogs from cars, the second appellate division 
of the supreme court of New York holds, is not unreasonable. It 
says that a rule cannot be regarded as unreasonable which tends to 
the comfort and safety of pasengers, and to the preservation of good 
order, which it is a duty of a carrier of passengers to be vigilant 
in seeking. It needs no argument to establish the fact that the in- 
discriminate carrying of dogs upon the street cars of a large city 
would be calculated to disturb the comfort and jeopardize the peace 
and security of the passengers. A rule which discriminated as to 
dogs would be practically unenforceable, as it would be impossi- 
ble to expect passengers and conductors to agree as to which dogs 
should not be carried. Such a rule might well be regarded as un- 
reasonable, as it would necessarily tend to favor one person's dog. 
while that of another would be rejected as unfit to travel with 
human passengers. The defendant, not being compelled by the 
law to carry dogs, could lawfully determine that it would carry 


Evansville & H. Traction Co. vs. Henderson Bridge Co. (U. S. C. 
C, Ky.), 1,32 Fed. Rep. 402. Sep. 19. 1904. 
The United States circuit court, in Kcntucia-, says that the com- 
plainant, an Indiana corporation, which may be described as being 
an interurban street railroad company, desiring to operate a road 
from Evansville, Ind., to Henderson. Ky.. applied, among other 
things, for a perpetual injunction restraining the defendant from 
refusing to it the right to connect its tracks with the track of 
the defendant, both at the Kentucky and at the Indiana ends of the 
defendant's bridge over the Ohio river, and from refusing to com- 
plainant the right to equip said bridge with wiring and bonding 
appliances and necessary attachments for constructing, maintain- 
ing and operating an interurban street railroad, propelled by elec- 
tricity, upon, over, and across the defendant's bridge, approaches, 
and tracks. But the court holds that a demurrer to the com- 
plamant's bill must be sustained upon the ground that the bill could 
not be maintained because, stated briefly, it did not aver nor show 
that the complainant had complied with the requirements of the 
constitution and statutes of Kentucky, that foreign railroad corpo- 
rations must incorporate in that state to be entitled to the benefit 
of the right of eminent domain, etc 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 


Horiiesby vs. Georgia Railway & Electric Co. (Ga.), 48 S. E. Rep. 
339 Aug. II, 1904. 

Where a street railroad company voluntarily permits passengers 
to transfer from one of its cars to another and continue their jour- 
ney without the payment of additional fare, the supreme court of 
Georgia holds that it is reasonable to require, as a condition prece- 
dent to the e.xercise of this right, that the passenger shall tender 
the conductor of the second car a printed transfer check, which 
must be used within a time indicated by punch marks on the check, 
provided a car upon which the passenger can be conveniently and 
comfortably transported passes the transfer point within the time 
so limited. A person who fails to comply with such requirement, 
and who refuses to pay fare, cannot recover for an expulsion from 
the car, when he does not show that his failure to have a valid 
transfer check was due to the fault of some employe of the com- 
pany having authority in such matters. 

It follows that no recovery can be had where the initial car does 
not reach the transfer point until after the time indicated by the 
punch marks on the check, and the passenger voluntarily leaves the 
car before it reaches such point, and make an unsuccessful attempt 
to walk to the transfer point before the time limit expires. In 
such a case it is the duty of the passenger to remain on the car, and 
give the conductor .in opportunity to make arrangements for his 
transportation on the transfer car; and this is true even though it 
is the custom of the company not to issue new transfer checks 
where the initial car is delayed. 


Cheyne vs. Van Brunt Street & Erie Basin Railroad Co. (N. Y. 
Supp.) 626. July 28, 1904. 
As an electric car on which the plaintiff was a passenger was 
about to turn a corner the trolley pole came off the wire, and the 
conductor, w-ho had been standing in the front of the car, with 
the door open, rushed back through the car to the rear platform. 
Something struck the plaintiff in the eye as the conductor passed, 
which it was a fair inference was the conductor's ticket punch, 
which the plaintiff had previously seen in the conductor's outside 
pocket, and which the conductor returned and picked up after ad- 
justing the pole. But while the occurrence was most lamentable, 
in view of its serious consequences to the injured pasesnger, the 
second appellate division of the supreme court of New York says 
that it does not perceive any ground upon which the defendant 
company could be held liable. Neither a common carrier nor any 
other party upon whom the law imposes the exercise of care in the 
discharge of duty is under a legal obligation to take precautions to 
guard against casualties which cannot reasonably be anticipated 
or foreseen. If its officers and agents had no reason to apprehend 
a peril of this nature, it could not be said that the corporation 
was guilty of negligence in failing to provide any safeguard against 
it. It was suggested that the conductor's ticket punch should have 
been safely secured in some manner ; but, even if this had been 
done, it would have had to be held by a chain or cord sufficiently 
long for the conductor to use it, and it was not apparent that a 
fastening of this character would have prevented the accident. 


People vs. Kennedy (N. Y. Sup.), 89 N. Y. Supp. 603. July 28. 1904. 
The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company having a vested right 
to construct its lines to the city limits along Kingston avenue. 
which right antedated the construction of what was called the East- 
ern Parkway, which was a parked street or boulevard, the second 
appellate division of the supreme court of New York says that it 
must be assumed that the legislation giving control of this park- 
way to the park department was made subject to the rights which 
were then in existence, and that it did not confer any authority 
upon the commissioner of parks to make any restrictions upon the 

method of operating the street surface railroads which should cross 
such parkway. The commissioner, as a condition of his consent, 
could undoubtedly require any reasonable compliance with his sug- 
gestions as to the location and construction of the tracks. He 
might very properly specify the kind of paving which should be 
laid, and might make suitable regulations in reference to any mat- 
ters connected with the location or construction of the tracks; but 
here his discretion ended. He could not go beyond this, and deter- 
mine how the corporation should discharge its duties to the public 
in the operation of its lines. That was a matter wholly outside of 
the scope of the office of a commissioner of parks. Here the com- 
pany had a vested right to continue its lines across the Eastern 
Parkway, subject to such reasonable rules and regulations in re- 
.'ipect to the location of the tracks, etc., as should be prescribed by 
the local authorities having charge of such parkway ; but when the 
parkway was reached and an application was made to cross it that 
was granted coupled with a condition that "no motor cars nor any 
other cars or conveyances except those used for express, repairs, 
construction, and conveyance of passengers and material now in 
ordinary use shall be permitted, and that all cars shall cross the track 
singly, except where an accident has occurred making it impossible 
for a car to be conveyed singly ; the intent being to forever prohibit 
the use of trains operated by steam, electricity, or any other power." 
The court holds that a peremptory writ of mandamus was properly 
granted, on the relation of a corporation interested in certain real es- 
tate and desiring to have the lines constructed across the parkway, to 
compel the granting of a permit therefor, without such condition. 


Butler vs. Rockland, Thomaston & Camden Street Railway (Me.), 
58 -Atl. Rep. 775. July 26, 1904. 

.\ street railway company, the supreme judicial court of Maine 
holds, has the lawful right to operate its railway in the location 
where it has been placed, and run its car singly or in trains upon 
the track ; but it is its duty to do so, having due regard to the safety, 
not only of travelers upon the street, but of tliose who have oc- 
casion to cross the tracks in driving out from the yards of houses 
situated along the railway. 

The speed at which a car or train may properly be run, the kind 
of control over it, and the degree of watchfulness imposed upon 
those in charge must depend to some extent upon the surround- 
ing conditions, such as the nearness of the track to the side of the 
street and to the houses, the likelihood of persons driving out from 
the yards, and whether the driveways are so situated that persons 
driving out over thein can see or learn of the approach of cars 
in season, with due care to avoid collision. The railway company 
and its servants have a right to assume that all such persons will 
tliemselves be in the exercise of ordinary care. 

It is the duty of a street raihvay company at all limes to use due 
care in view of apparent dangers, and those which may reason- 
ably be expected, so to regulate the speed of its cars, so to have 
them under control, and so to be on the lookout for a team about 
to cross that those in the teams, if they themselves are in the exer- 
cise of due care, shall not be put in jeopardy. 

The person in charge of the car must exercise due care and judg- 
ment, and the movements of the car must be regulated with refer- 
ence to the apparent situation. If it be apparent that a collision is 
likely to occur, it is the duty of the servant in control of the car 
to be ready to use, and to use, if necessary, and when necessary, all 
practicable means to prevent it. 


Guaranty Trust Co. of New York vs. .Atlantic Coast Electric Rail- 
road Co. (U. S. C. C, N. J.), 132 Fed. Rep. 68. Aug. 22, 1904. 
A mortgage given by the defendant railroad company recited the 
form of the bonds secured by it, which declared that the bonds were 
secured by a mortgage upon "all the certain railroad and other 
property, real and personal, and franchises of said railroad com- 
pany, whether now owned or hereafter acquired by it." The con- 

Jan. 20, 1905.] 



vcyiiMcc clauses of the tiiorlgage limited its lien upon after-acquired 
liropcrty to such properly, and to such rights acquired by lease from 
(ilher railroad coiiipaivies, as should he "connected with or appurte- 
nant to" the railroad of the defendant company specilically descrihcd 
in the mortgage. 

The United .Slates circuit court, in New Jersey, holds (i; lliat the 
lien ni the mortgage embraced rights acquired by leases made after 
the date of the mortgage to the defendant company by other rail- 
road companies owning railroads connected with the defendant's 
railroad, and being operated by the defendant company in connec- 
tion with its own railroad and as a part of its railway system. (2) 
That its lien also embraced the capital stock of, and a lease ac- 
(piircd from, a new corporation, such new corporation having been 
created for the mere purpose of subserving tlic interests of the de- 
fendant corporation, which had paid for all the properly conveyed 
to Iho new corporation, and assumed all its obligations, and the new 
corporation having issued to the defendant company all its capital 
stock and executed to the defendant company a lease upon all its 
property for the term of 99 years, the existence of the new corpora- 
tion being limited by law to 100 years, and the railroad of the new 
corporation being operated by the defendant company in connection 
with its own railroad and as a part of its railway system. (3) 
That its lien also embraced a line of railroad constructed by the de- 
fendant company which was operated by the defendant company, 
in connection with its own railroad and the railroads on which it 
had secured leases, as a single railway system. (4) That its Hen 
did not embrace a hotel property which did not appear to be in 
anywise connected with the operation of its railway system. 


Raritan River Railroad Co. vs. Middlesex & Somerset Traction Co. 
(N. J.), s8 Atl. Rep. 332. 

A railroad company, incorporated under the general railroad law 
of New Jersey of 1873, was maintaining certain bridges whereby 
the highway was carried over its tracks at an elevation ; the duty 
to maintain the bridges being imposed upon the railroad company 
in behalf of the public by statute. A traction company proposed to 
construct a line of tracks along the highway, and to that end de- 
sired to strengthen and reinforce the bridges, so that they would 
sustain the increased weight of traffic placed upon them by reason 
of the maintenance and operation of the traction road. By agree- 
ment between the railroad company and the traction company, the 
former gave consent that the latter might strengthen and reinforce 
the bridges, and the parties agreed thereafter to share equally the 
cost of their maintenance and repair; the traction company being 
given the right to repair the bridges on default of the railroad 
company to do so, and the railroad company agreeing to pay one- 
half the cost thereby incurred. The court of errors and appeals of 
New Jersey holds that this consent and agreement of the railroad 
company furnished a valuable consideration to support reciprocal 
covenants on the part of the traction company. It further holds that 
an agreement made between a railroad company and a traction com- 
pany, whereby the former gives consent that the latter may con- 
struct a traction road across the line of the railroad at grade, and 
settling as between these parties the mode of crossing, is not void 
because made without application to the chancellor to define the 
mode of crossing under the statute. 

The court says that it was not necessary to question whether the 
continuing obligation of the railroad company to keep up the bridges 
in accordance with the growing demands of travel extended to their 
reinforcement and maintenance under the extraordinary weight of 
trolley tracks and roadbed and the operation of trolley cars. Assum- 
ing that to be so, the traction company was still (in the absence of 
agreement of the railroad company) left in the situation of a mem- 
ber of the general public having a great practical interest in the 
proper performance of this public duty by the railroad company, but 
without direct means of its own to specifically enforce such perform- 
ance, and without redress for non-performance unless it should 
be specially damnified. Under these circumstances, an agreement 
settling as between these parties that they would equally bear the 
expense of maintaining the improved bridges, and giving to the 
traction company the right to do the repairs and charge one-half 

the cost to the railroad company, icnded to avoid litigation between 
the parlies about the matter, and had such value to llie traction com- 
pany as lo furnish consideration (or its reciprocal sllpulalioiis. 

An agreement, made between a railroad company ami a compel 1- 
lor, llial during a limited period the former company "will not re- 
duce its present rales of fare, unless required by law," ihc court 
holds, is not contrary to public policy as established in New Jer- 


.\'ew York Central & Hudson River Railroad Co. vs. BuiTalo & Wil- 
liamsvillc Electric Railway Co. (N. Y. Sup.), 89 N. V. Supp. 
418. July 6, 1904. 

In construing a statute with the wide scope of one requiring the 
certificate of the board of railroad commissioners to precede Ihc 
construction of a railroad, the fourth appellate division of the su- 
preme court of New York says that a practical and sensible inter- 
pretation, rather than a metaphysically literal one, should be given 
lo it. The privilege accorded to a street surface railroad company 
"to extend its road or construct branches" thereof without applica- 
tion tc^ the board of railroad commissioners must be reasonably con- 
strued, having in view the general policy of the slate which submits 
to that body the determination of the necessity of the new road. If 
the branch proposed to be added to the main trunk will in fact be 
the corpus itself, if the contemplated extension really will com- 
pose the main body, then it will be a parody on the statute to permit 
the branch or extension to be added without the permission of the 
railroad commissioners. A company organized to construct and 
which is operating a street railroad a mile in length ought not to 
be permitted to add too miles, without the consent of the railroad 
commissioners, on the pretext that the construction is a mere ex- 
tension of the main line. The term "extension" conveys to the 
mind an enlargement of the main body, the addition of something 
of less import than that to which it is attached. 

As to the suggestion that the defendant could accomplish its pur- 
pose by adding a few miles of the road each year, the court an- 
swers that that may be true. No exact rule, like the rate of inter- 
est, may be laid down applicable to every case. A proposed improve- 
ment in one instance may be clearly construed an extension, and in 
another it may be equally clear that the extension is intended, in ef- 
fect, to be a new road. The court appreciates that it often may be 
very difficult to determine whether a contemplated addition to an ex- 
isting road is an extension within the scope of the statute or a new 
road, thus requiring the preliminary certificate of the board of rail- 
road commissioners. Unless there is additional legislation defining 
what constitutes an extension, the courts must dispose of each case 
as it is presented on its own merit. In that disposition the policy 
of the legislature to vest in one tribunal the authority to determine 
as to the propriety of constructing a road will be a pregnant cir- 
cumstance ; that is. the legislature, in its wisdom having vested a 
board with this power, the courLs, in their decisions, should proceed 
as far as possible in harmony with the legislative intent, especially 
as the tendency is to enlarge, rather than to restrict, the powers of 
that body. 


Fair Haven & Westville Railroad Co. vs. City of New Haven 
(Conn.), 58 Atl. Rep. 703. Aug. 12, 1904. 

This was an application for relief from an assessment against the 
company for the cost of certain asphalt paving. The supreme court 
of errors of Connecticut says that the city paid to the contractor a 
certain sum per square yard for laying the pavement and agreeing 
to keep it in repair for 10 years, said agreement being secured by a 
bond to the city. The award of the trial court was based upon this 
sum. It was clear, therefore, that an amount was included which 
represented cost of repair. 

On the question of the propriety of this inclusion, the court says 



[Vol.. XV, No. I. 

that an act was passed in 1897 which was clearly intended to meet the 
situation where pavements are laid with a guaranty, as here. It pur- 
ports to amend the act of 1895 so that not only the cost of laying 
a pavement, but of an agreement to keep it in repair for a period 
not CNceeding 15 years, might be considered in determining the 
cost of each square yard which the city might collect of the per- 
sons and railroad companies, as provided in said last-named act, 
which was the act under which the present charge was made against 
the company. If the necessary eflfect of the execution of the act 
of 1897 was to impose upon a street railroad company standing in 
the position which the plaintiff occupied a double burden, arising 
out of the duty cast by law upon it to keep in repair the specified 
portion of the highway through which it operated its lines, or if, 
in the application of the act to the circumstances of the present 
case, such became its effect, it was plain that the action of the 
court could not be supported. It was unnecessary to inquire whether 
conditions might not exist or be created under which the act might 
operate not only justly, but also favorably, to all parties, and in vio- 
lation of no constitutional prohibition. 

The plaintiff before the statute of 1897 was under the statutory 
duty of keeping in repair so much of every highway in which its 
tracks were laid as was included within them, and a space of two 
feet on the outer side of the outer rails thereof. The space thus 
specified corresponded substantially with that for the paving of 
which the present judgment required the plaintiff to pay the city. 
Liability for all damages resulting from injuries caused by the fail- 
ure of the plaintiff in its duty to repair was also imposed upon it. 
This duty and liability have never been removed by express legis- 
lation. The act of 1897 contains no provision for such removal, or 
a conditional or qualified removal. In the absence of any express 
provision to that effect, it can scarcely be presumed that the legis- 
lature intended that a resort by the city to the course of action au- 
thorized by the act should, with respect to the particular piece of 
highway involved, operate to shift the burden of duty, and con- 
sequently of liability, from railroad to city, with all the resulting 
confusion to the parties and the public with regard to matters of 
frequently grave concern. 

In the present case we find the company, which remains under 
the duty of maintaining the highway in repair, and the liability for 
the results of non-repair, called upon to pay the cost of an agree- 
ment on the part of a third party to do a certain share of the re- 
pairs involved in the statutory duty for a specified term. To this 
agreement it was not a party. The bond given to secure perform- 
ance of the agreement did not run to it. Surely there was left 
upon it, from the point of view of legal rights, some share of the 
burden which it had been compelled to pay others to assume. 
Wherefore the cause was remanded for a deduction from the 
amount of the assessment confirmed and established by the judg- 
ment of the court below of the cost to the defendant of the agree- 
ment to repair, in so far as said cost related tcv the pavement for 
which the plaintiff was charged in said judgment. 


Duchemin vs. Boston Elevated Railway Co. (Mass.), 71 N. E. Rep. 
780. Sep. 7, 1904. 

The turning point of this case was the question whether a foot 
traveler on the highway, who is approaching a street car stopped 
to receive him as a passenger, and before he actually has reached 
the car, is entitled to the rights of a passenger in respect of that 
extraordinary degree of care due to passengers from common car- 
riers of passengers, at least so far as any defect in that car is con- 
cerned. In other words, the question was whether the jury should 
have been instructed that the defendant owed to the plaintiff (who 
was injured by the fall of a trolley pole and car sign) the same 
high degree of care while he was approaching the car, and had not 
yet reached it, that it would owe to a passenger. 

It is apparent, the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts says, 
that a person in such a situation is not in fact a passenger. He 

has not entered upon the premises of the carrier, as has a person 
who has gone upon the grounds of a steam railroad for the pur- 
pose of taking a train. He is upon a public highway, where he 
has a clear right to be independently of his intention to become a 
passenger. He has as yet done nothing which enables the carrier 
to demand of him a fare, or in any way to control his actions. He 
is at liberty to advance or recede. He may change his mind, and 
not become a passenger. Certainly the carrier owes him no other 
duty to keep the pavement smooth, or the street clear of obstructions 
to his progress, than it owes to all other travelers on the highway. 
It is under no obligations to see that he is not assaulted, or run 
into by vehicles or travelers, or not insulted or otherwise mistreated 
by other persons present. 

Nor docs the court think that as to such a person, who has not 
yet reached the car, there is any other duty, as to the car itself, 
than that which the carrier owes to all persons lawfully upon the 
street. There is no soimd distinction as to the diligence due from 
the carrier between the case of a person who has just dismounted 
from a street car and that of one who is about to take the car, but 
has not yet reached it. In the case of each the only logical test 
to determine the degree of care which the person is entitled to have 
exercised by the street railway company is whether the person actu- 
ally is a passenger, or is a mere traveler on the highway. The court 
thinks that a present intention of becoming a passenger as scon as 
he can reach the car neither makes the person who is approaching 
the car with that intention a passenger, nor changes as to him the 
degree of care to be exercised in respect of its cars as vehicles to 
be used upon a public way with due regard to the use of the same 
way by others. The defendant incurs no responsibility to exercise 
extraordinary diligence by making an express contract, but only by 
its exercise of the calling of a common carrier; and its obligation 
as such does not arise until the intending passenger is within its 

The court is unwilling to go farther than the doctrine stated 
in Davey vs. Greenfield Street Railway Co., 177 Mass. 106.. 58 N. E. 
172, that, when there has been an invitation on the part of the car- 
rier by stopping for the reception of a passenger, any person ac- 
tually taking hold of the car and beginning to enter it is a pas- 
senger. And the court holds that if the instructions allowed the 
jury to find for the plaintiff only in case the car had reached a 
usual stopping place, and had stopped to receive him. there was 
error in ruling that under those circumstances, and before he had 
actually reached the car, he had a right to have the defendant ex- 
ercise as to him that extraordinary degree of care due to passen- 
gers. So long as he remained a mere traveler on the highway, al- 
though walking upon it for the sole purpose of taking the car, the 
defendant did not owe him any other duty than that which it owed 
to any person on the highway. Whether one just has dismounted 
from a street car, or just is about to board one, he does not have 
the rights of a passenger. 


Georgia Railway & Electric Co. vs. Joiner (Ga.), 48 S. E. Rep. 336. 
.Aug. ir, 1904. 

It is the duty of a street railway company, in operating its cars 
along a public road, the supreme court of Georgia holds, not to in- 
terfere with the rights of individuals using such road by other 
modes of travel, by making unusual and unnecessary noises, such 
as aj-e likely to frighten animals along such road; and for dam- 
ages resulting from a breach of such duty the company is liable. 

Section 2234 of the Civil Code of Georgia of 1895 providing that 
•'all engine-drivers and conductors must cause the trains which 
they respectively drive and conduct to come to a full stop within 
fifty feet of the place of crossing," where the tracks of separate 
and independent railroads cross each other, does not apply to a 
street railway, so as to compel it to stop its cars before crossing a 
steam railroad track. 


The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. is planning to purchase a large 
tract of land near its West End terminal at Coney Island, on which 
it will build sidings to receive sufficient cars to comfortably accom- 
modate the great crowds carried to that resort. 

December Meeting New England Street Railway Club. 

The rosiilar inonthly nicctiiiR of tlic New EnRlaiul Street Rail- 
way Club was held on the evening of December 29th, at Pierce 
llnll, Copley Sq., Boston, with President Ncal in the chair. After 
I he general business of the evening had been disposed of, the niem- 
licrs of the club were addressed by Mr. Victor Angcrer, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of Wm. Wharton, jr., & Co., Inc., 
I'hiladelphia, on the subject of Special Track Work. The lecture 
wns illustrated by many lantern slides and was received with much 
interest by those in attendance, among whom were a number of 
members of the New England Railroad Club. 

Mr. Angcrer stated at tlie beginning of bis address that he had 
had some doubts as to the interest of frogs and switches as the 
subject of an address prior to the October meeting of the club, but 
that these doubts had been dispelled by the papers read at that 
lime on the general subject of track. (These papers were ab- 
stracted in our November issue.) He said that the term "special 
work" is of comparatively recent origin in railway circles, and that 
he could not trace it back more than ten years. In steam railroad 
work the term "Specials" was used in reference to switches and 
frogs as dislinguisbcd from "Standards," but today this term 
"Special Work" is quite generally understood and used by railway 
men, although it has not as yet been accepted by either Webster's 
or the Century Dictionary. Mr. Angerer advised the use of the 
term "Special Track Work" as being more definite, even at the 
sacrifice of the time required to speak or write the additional word. 
Throwing a picture of a horse car upon the screen, the speaker 
stated that if street railway men still had to deal with the "corn 
fed" motor, curves and switches would indeed form an unimportant 
part of their systems. It would not be necessary to dwell at length 
upon the special track work of those days. Mr. Gilbert Hodges 
has told the club how the curves were made out of short cast-iron 
sections, and how these were improved 32 years ago by Wm. Whar- 
ton, Jr's., rolled and cold bent grooved rails made of Bessemer 
steel. In New England these grooved or guard rails were generally 
used on the inside of curves only, to guide the cars, and a flat 
steel bar was used on the outside rail, on which the outer wheels 
of the cars traveled on their flanges. The switches, frogs and 
crossings were made of cast-iron, and a little later, by some manu- 
facturers, of chilled cast-iron of a thickness of 2V< to 3 inches, and 
spiked to wooden stringers, the entire construction being very sim- 
ple. It gave what was considered excellent and long service in 
those days. Mr. Angerer then showed a piece of flat curved rail 
which was in service 19 years in quite an important place in New- 
Orleans. The manager of those days did not have to worry about 
the rail at all, and the track boss only very little. When the cars 
ran oflf the track somewhat too frequently at curves all the latter 
official had to do was to put in a few additional spikes to hold the 
rails down and to gage. Renewals were easily and cheaply made. 
Mr. Angerer said that he was not sure that if it were not for the 
difficulty of holding up the joints and the tendency of the wooden 
stringer to rot, many of the audience would not wish, for thi.^ 
feature of easy renewal, to go back to some modified form of this 
flat rail system, with probably only some better metal than cast- 
iron in the frogs and switches. In fact, the flat rail system itself 
has not entirely died out at the present day, and there are still a 
number of samples of special track work of this kind in American 
electric car service. In the old days, even in the public streets, and 
especially at terminals, special track work was often supplanted by 
other mechanisms, such as transfer tables an<l turntables. A slide 
was then shown of this sort of construction, followed by a photo- 
graph of a car which contained such a piece of special track work in 
itself. The car body was mounted on a truck, on which the car 
could be completely turned around. 

The drawbacks of the llat rail system led to the introduction of 
the girder rail, and in 1877 the first rail of this kind laid in this 
country was put down in San Francisco. In the early 8o's the John- 
son Steel Street Rail Co. made a specialty of rolling girder rails for 
street railways. It was soon followed by the North Branch Steel 
Co.. controlled by Wm. Wharton, jr., & Co., Inc. 

Girder rails with and without a base were then put into use, 
generally mounted on chairs, which in turn were spiked to the 
wooden cross ties, or on the cable railways, which then were largely 
introduced into the principal cities of the country, mounted directly 
on the cast-iron yokes. The special work consisted of curves bent 
from rolled rails corresponding in general form to the girder rails 
used in the straight track, but provided with a guard to guide the 
car wheels— in short, "girder guard rails." They were also mounted 
on chairs. 

Switches, frogs and crossings were of three distinctive kinds: 
iMrst, the old casl-iron or chilled cast-iron work, modified to be set 
directly upon the cross ties without the interposition of the wooden 
stringer, and provided with brackets or pockets on the ends to re- 
ceive the adjoining girder rails. Second, work similar in construc- 
tion, but lighter, made of cast-steel or mitis steel. Third, work 
built up of pieces of girder rail, planed and shaped to suit, and then 
riveted or bolted together, following out the idea of adapting to 
street railway track the practice of steam railroads in the con- 
struction of frogs and crossings out of pieces of rail bolted together. 
I'he first kind continued in favor for some time. The surface of 
the chilled cast-iron was harder than the other two kinds, only the 
joints were not in keeping with the rest. The second kind, espe- 
cially in those days, proved too soft or too porous to warrant the 
greater cost. In the third kind, the built-up work, one great ob- 
jection was that the bolts and rivets became loose, and not being 
accessible as in steam railroad track to receive constant attention 
and tightening up, but being buried in the pavement of city streets, 
could not get the proverbial "stitch in time," so that the work under 
the action of team traffic and the light street car traffic shook apart 
before being worn out. The cable railways and then the early 
electric roads soon demonstrated that something far better was 

In straight track the question was met by heavier and higher 
girder rails, up to 9 in. in height, which could be put down without 
chairs, with longer joint plates and some patent joints that were 
fairly satisfactory. For the curves, guard rails of similar general 
outline were soon provided, in some cases taking the same joints 
as the straight track girder rails. The problem of switch, frog and 
crossing construction was solved for the time being by several dif- 
ferent types of work: First, steel castings made as nearly as 
possible to join up to the rolled rails, somewhat improved in 
quality, but still softer and more porous than the rolled rail. 
Second, steel castings with pieces of the rolled rail electrically 
welded to the ends, to overcome the objectionable inaccurate fit 
of the joint plates on the ends of the first kind, and also to reduce 
the number of joints in a given layout. Third, chilled cast iron, 
with rolled rails cast into the ends, with the joints, and therefore 
as good as the rest of the track, but while hard the construction 
was too brittle. Fourth, rolled rails planed and fitted similarly to 
the built up work, but instead of being bolted or riveted, they were 
united by molten iron being run through and around the rails, 
eliminating the disadvantage of the bolted work, and at the same 
time giving the same metal, i. e., rolled steel rail, on all surfaces 
throughout the special track work. Fifth, a combination of cast 
iron and rolled rails somewhat similar to the fourth kind described 
but with the cast iron in some parts exposed to wear. Some of these 
types are still used in places where the traffic is so light that it 
does not warrant putting down a more expensive kind of work, but 
all these forms have one common point of weakness. The parts 
which receive the greatest wear, where the same surface has to bear 
the traffic of more than one line, or where a narrower surface than 
the width of the wheel tread has to support the weight of the car. 
naturally wear down much faster than the rest of the work, 
and when the wear at these points becomes objectionable, the entire 
piece has to be removed and replaced. This weakness is inherent 
in all frogs, including steam railroad frogs built up of ordinary rails, 
but it is immensely accentuated on street railways by the narrower 
wheel treads which the companies are compelled to use. The width 
of the wheel tread cannot be wider than the head of the rails, ivith- 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

out danger of striking projecting paving stones on the outside 
of the rails, and the width of the raid head is again in many cities 
restricted by ordinance, mostly dating back to the old horse car 
times. This width of trca<l is in most cases insufficient to span the 
groove of an intersecting track at the point of a frog, or of the 
main track in branching oflf at the point of a mate. It therefore 
has always been considered almost necessary in street railway work 
to provide at intersecting grooves a riser or flange bearing. In this 
construction the groove is filled up at its bottom so that the flange 
of the wheel will bear on this filler, and the wheel runs on its 
flange, where it theoretically loses its tread bearing. In castings 
the metal of the casting itself is carried up ; in built-up work separate 
pieces of metal are inserted, or the work constructed from specially 
rolled rails with shallow grooves. But the surface of a wheel flange 
presents a cutting edge rather than a hearing surface, and conse- 
quently these insets in work of this kind are soon cut down, and 
then the wheels commence to pound and quickly destroy the parts 
where they have such an insufficient hearing, or where they have to 
jump across the space of the intersecting grooves. 

The attempt to protect these parts led to what has been known 
for the past ten years as "hard center work," and from that time 
dates the battle royal between the special track work on one 
side and the wheels, increasing weight of cars and frequency of traffic 
on the other side, almost like the battle between armor plate and 
the gun, projectiles and new explosive substances in somewhat less 
peaceful pursuits. 

Two principal ideas were followed in working up this problem. 
The one was to provide a separate comparatively small piece or 
plate, commonly termed the "center," at these points of greatest 
wear, which, when worn out, could be easily renewed without dis- 
turbing the rest of the work. Incidentally, these centers were made 
of a somewhat harder metal than the surrounding parts. The 
otlier idea was to provide a metal in these centers which would 
so much better resist wear that the parts made of this metal 
would remain serviceable as long as the surrounding parts made 
out of the usual Bessemer rail. Various metals were tried, and a 
multitude of methods of fastening the centers into the pieces were 
designed and placed in use. 

In one case the body of a frog was made of cast steel, with a 
recess in the center, into which was set a plate of Harveyized 
steel, with the grooves planed out before Harveyizing; the sides 
of the recess being undercut, and the sides of the plate beveled 
or provided with projections, zinc or similar metal being run into 
the space between the plates and the recess, forming a key to retain 
the plate in place. The plate could be removed by chipping or melt- 
ing out this zinc key. The body of this frog was sometimes made of 
cast iron instead of cast steel, with rails cast in the ends in conform- 
ity with the method described in the earlier girder rail special work 
without hard centers. The zinc key has since been supplanted by 
various holding devices, such as wedges, or other keepers. An- 
other method consisted simply in bolting down the plates. A 
further scheme now practiced, is to cast plates of chrome sleel 
with projections, so that a round cylinder of zinc or other soft metal 
will interlock between these projections and the body of the piece, 
the idea being that this round cylinder of soft metal can be drilled 
out, the lock thereby destroyed and the plate lifted. 

Another idea is represented by a frog in which tlie center con- 
sists of a piece of Tungsten steel, i. e., self-liardening tool steel. 
This steel is placed in the mold in the foundry and the cast steel 
forming the frog or other special piece is cast around it. In cooling 
and shrinking it secures the center permanently in the structure. 
This of course can be done only with a metal like self-hardening 
tool steel, which does not lose its hardness with the heating which 
it receives in the mold. 

Another method is to produce a frog or other special piece with 
a recess for the reception of the center, carefully machine both, and 
then, by heating the main body, expand the recess, insert the center 
and let the main body shrink onto the center similarly to the man- 
ner in which a wheel tire is shrunk upon a wheel. It is self-evident 
that the metal in the center must be machinable, and susceptible of 
hardening afterward like the ordinary tool steel. 

A method, in which incidentally, there is a possibility of the 
renewal of the center, but which really belongs to the second cate- 
gory, consists of a cast center of manganese steel, provided with 
lugs which project through the main body of the piece, and by 
which the center is securely anchored down by means of heavy 

keys or wedges driven through openings in the sides of the body. 
A bed of zinc is interposed between the center and the main body 
to insure a solid bearing throughout. The body of the piece is 
made of cast-iron or cast-steel, with rails cast in the ends. The 
renewal of the plates necessitates the removal of a few paving 
blocks, to get at the openings in the sides in order to drive out the 
keys. After the zinc is partially melted out, but is the inten- 
tion that such renewal should only be necessary in case of accident 
to the center or development of a hidden defect in it, this does not 
present any serious difficulty. In a recent modification of this type 
of work, large bolts and nuts are employed to hold the center down, 
instead of nuts and keys. These bolts and nuts are entirely sur- 
rounded by the zinc, which also forms the bed, in order to keep them 
from turning and rusting. Should the renewal of these centers be- 
come necessary, it can be accomplished without the removal of any 
paving blocks, by melting or chipping out the bolt heads, and un- 
screwing them with a socket wrench. 

Still another method of protecting the points of greatest wear 
without the use of a separate center is found in locally Harvey- 
izing the surface of these parts in ordinary steel castings which con- 
stitute the pieces. 

Mr. Angerer then exhibited several specimens of the various 
metals employed for centers. The first was a piece of Harveyized 
steel center. Harveyizing is a case hardening process of ordinary 
steel, in which, however, the hardness is carried to some depth 
below the surface. The line of demarcation visible on the sample 
shows that the hardness penetrated to a depth of about % in. The 
surface is quite hard, so that a drill will hardly touch it, but right 
below the line it is quite soft. It can easily be drilled below the 
thin, hard shell. The sample showed cracks and a flaking tendency 
of this brittle shell, where it was struck by the blow that broke it. 
The second sample was a piece of chrome steel, in the natural cast- 
ing as used in centers. It is rather soft throughout, and the sample 
was quite porous. A forged piece of the same metal showed greater 
density, but it was not unduly hard, at the same time showing con- 
siderable strength and being rather brittle. The third sample was 
a piece of tungsten steel, which is known to machinists as self- 
hardening tool steel. It is susceptible of being made exceedingly 
hard, so that an ordinary drill will not touch it. It is very brittle 
and sensitive to shock. Mr. Angerer easily broke a piece of this 
iTietal with a small hammer to illustrate this point. The fourth 
sample was regular carbon tool steel. This can be hardened to with- 
stand the drill, but it becomes more brittle as the hardening pro- 
ceeds, and in the large, irregular mass of a center does not seem 
to lend itself well to thorough and uniform hardening. Fifth, nickel 
steel was shown. The speaker stated that nickel steel had not, to 
his knowledge, been used to any extent in centers for street railway 
special work, although it has been used in rails. It is known for 
its great strength, but is also brittle and not as hard as would be 
supposed. It can be drilled quite easily. 

The sixth and last sample shown was of manganese steel. The 
October meeting of the club brought out many interesting points in 
connection with this steel in service, through Mr. Steward's paper 
on the maintenance of elevated track in Boston. Mr. Angerer said 
that he hoped it was with pardonable pride that he made the state- 
ment that the company with which he is connected, after many 
experiments, first realized the merits of manganese steel for track 
purposes, although others had also experimented with it. When 
properly treated manganese steel is generally recognized as the best 
known metal for the purposes described. 

Manganese steel was invented, or discovered, by Mr. R. A. Had- 
field, the great iron master of Sheffield, England. He confided his 
patent rights and processes for use in the United States to the 
Taylor Iron & Steel Co. of High Bridge, N. J., from which Wm. 
Wharton, jr., & Co., Inc., acquired the right for the use of man- 
ganese steel in track work. Mr. Hadfield discovered that an alloy 
of over 6 per cent and less than 20 per cent of manganese possessed 
the remarkable property that while already very hard, when heated 
to a high temperature and suddenly cooled by plunging in water, it, 
in exact reverse to the action of the usual hard steels, became more 
ductile, and tougher, without losing its inherent relative degree of 
hardness. This combination of hardness and toughness, when in 
proper relation, produces its great wearing qualities. Incidentally, 
manganese steel of the composition mentioned is non-magnetic, by 
which property it can easily be recognized, as practically all other 
alloys are magnetic. Mr. Hadfield's first patent covered an alloy 

Jan. is, 1905,] 



with the percentaRC of manganese stated. Tliis patent expired a 

couple of years aRO, and the production of an alloy of this descrip- 
tion is public iiroporty. It has consequently hccn used by a number 
of (lifTcrcut mannfacfurers with success. Mr. Iladfield's invention 
was not alone ihe discovery of this alloy, but also the proper de- 
velopment of its properties throuRli treatment, to produce the hiRli- 
est and best combination of hardness and toughness suitable I" 
such purpose, and for which he obtained a number of subsequent 
patents. The proper Irealment of manganese steel is in itself an 
art which can only he learned by years of experience, somewhat on 
the line, but of course on a higher plane, of the art of the experi- 
enced tool dresser, of producing a good tool from a piece of given 
tool steel where others fail. 

Mr. Angorcr then performed a number of interesting experiments 
before the club on dilifcrent pieces of steel, drilling them for a 
definite period, comparing the holes and impressions, bending them 
by pipe levers, striking them with hammers and testing their mag- 
netic properties with an electro magnet. The drill was driven by 
belt from a small iio-volt motor, and the spindle lever weighted 
so that the same pressure would always be applied to the work. 

Manganese steel is a metal exceedingly difticult to handle in the 
foundry. .Xs its hardness is great and its shrinkage is enormous 
compared with ordinary steel making, the production of intricate 
castings is quite a serious problem. In making the curved rails for 
the Boston Elevated Ry. Co. the molds had to be 20 ft. 7 in. long 
in order to obtain a casting 20 ft. long. The ultimate strength of 
manganese steel is very great, the maximum elongation being 50 
per cent, after proper treatment. The drawback to its more gen- 
eral use for various purposes is that it cannot he machined, and all 
finishing has to be done by grinding with emery wheels. When the 
metal is treated properly it can be bent almost double, while less- 
treated specimens break more or less readily. The drilling test 
produces hardly any impression on the metal, while the same drill 
in the same time of one minute will drill a deep hole in the ordinary 
Bessemer steel rail. 

There are many articles in which manganese steel is used with 
great success, such as stone crusher jaws, dredger pins, and points, 
screens for coal mines, mine car wheels, etc., and of late years for 
burglar proof safes, with which some remarkable tests have been 
made, providing practically dynamite proof construction. Mr. 
.\ngerer then stated that any of the members who may have had 
the experience of a visit, or fear the visit of cracksmen to the car 
barn safe where the day's receipts are supposed to be locked up, 
would undoubtedly be interested in the doings of the Manganese 
Steel Safe Co. of New York. 

The results obtained from the use of hard center work can now 
be pronounced satisfactory in a general way, and probably no street 
railway would consider the use of anything else in important and 
complicated layouts. Some steam railroads have also adopted hard 
center work for their tracks in streets and for sidings. The renewal 
of the centers has sometimes not proven an entire success. If both 
lines crossing the center are about equally worn, a good job can be 
made by the renewal, but where one line is worn considerably more 
than the other, only one line can be made fairly good by the renewal, 
as the ditfcrcnco in wear can in no practical way be compensated 
for in the new center. 

The idea of having the center remain serviceable as long as the 
surrounding parts has been practically accomplished by the man- 
ganese steel centers, except in cases where defects have developed. 
One curious result appeared through the fact that it is impossible 
to construct the center in exact proportion to the wear at each point 
of its surface. These parts of the center which carry the wheel on 
its full tread do not wear down as fast as either the point or the 
parts of ordinary steel beyond the center, so that after some service 
these places appear as hills in the track and make the cars ride a 
little roughly, apparently calling for a renewal of the center, although 
the center is not by any means worn out. A better way to remedy 
this trouble is to grind the high places off from time to time to re- 
establish the surface of the track. 

In special track work the joints have given remarkably little 
trouble, due undoubtedly to the greater stability of curves over 
straight rails, and the great stability of the heavy special pieces. 
The ever-increasing weight of the pieces, however, is a source of 
much worriment to the track man, and the handling of the pieces 
is attended by great difficulty. Modern appliances, such as cranes, 
are now introduced to facilitate this. The bugbear of special work 

is the compromise joints at the end of a layout where it joins up 
to the previous sections of rail used in the straight track. No mai- 
ler how carefully a compromise joint is fitted in the shop to avail- 
able pieces of rail, the rail in the ground is liable to vary from 
these, and an inferior joint is produced. This difficulty has to a 
l.irge exient been overcome by the use of compromise rails, i. e., 
short pieces of the sections to be connected with, joined together 
by some welding process, like cast-welding. 

The weakest part of special work today is the tongue switch, or 
better, the pivot part and Ihe heel of the tongue. The tongues them- 
selves, made of hard forgcfl or manganese steel, with hard metal 
beds, wear well enough, but the pivots and the supports at the heel 
end have to a great extent proved insufticient (o withstand heavy 
service. It remains to be seen what is the best solution of this 
problem. Where the curve is comparatively little used, an un- 
liroken main line switch can often be installed to advantage, and the 
great wear at the heel from the main line traffic be obviated. 

In late years the improvcmcnis in special track work of all kinds 
have mostly consisted in the strengthenin,g of each piece to meet 
Ihe ever-increasing weight of cars and in the finer working out of 
details. The lines of special work layouts, to insure the smooth 
running of cars on curves, have been greatly improved by the intro- 
duction of casements or spirals on the ends of curves, although 
this has to a large extent been overdone. Mr. Angerer then showed 
a slide illustrating one of the simplest spirals, with changes of 
curvature every 3 ft. 6 in., and intended to be used for curves up to 
62 ft. 6 in. central radius. By simply dropping out the first few 
radii a 100 ft. radius switch can be set into this spiral without dis- 
turbing the alignment of the balance. Spirals for curves of larger 
radii arc derived from this base spiral by multiplying the base 
functions by i',4, 2 and 3 respectively, and these four spirals cover 
the entire field up to curves of 500 ft. radius. There are several 
systems of spirals in use, prescribing ten or more different spirals 
to cover this range. Each manufacturer and many of the large 
street railways have systems of their own in regard to spirals, re- 
quiring different calculations for each one to apply them to special 
work layouts; while practically, when laid down alongside of each 
other the lines of all these different spirals for a curve vary less 
than 14 in. at any one point. Some uniform .standard in street 
railway spirals is badly needed. Mr. Angerer stated that he would 
be glad to present this data of a simple spiral to any one of the 
audience who would communicate with him. 

Summing up the development of special track work as used in 
paved city streets, this progress has been marked by four distinct 
periods. First, the flat rail period prior to 1884. Second, the early 
girder rail period, with cast-iron or built-up switches and frogs. 
from 1884 to about 1891. Third, the intermediate girder rail period, 
during the development of electric railways, with work of rails 
cast together, or cast steel in special pieces, from 1891 to 1895, and, 
fourth, the hard center work period. In one place in Boston, Wash- 
ington and Hanover streets, each of the latter three periods has 
licen illustrated. The work of the second period was installed in the 
summer of 1890. The material weighed 82,500 lb. and cost about 
?3,ioo, or an average of 3^ cents per lb. It was worn out and 
renewed with the work of the third period in the spring of 1893. 
having lasted about 2 years and 9 months. The material in this 
layout weighed about 100.000 lb., and cost a little below $5,000, or 
5 cents per lb. It lasted until the summer of 1897, or a little over 
4 years. It was replaced by manganese steel hard center work, 
which has been in service ever since, with tlie exception of a few 
centers and about three pieces out of a total of 76 pieces, which 
were renewed within a year or so. This layout has lasted nearly '14 
years — a gain of about 100 per cent in the service obtained. The 
material weighed 142,500 lb. and the cost in 1897 was about $5,700, 
or only about 4 cents per lb., notwithstanding the expensive metal 
used in the centers. However. 1897 was a year of cheap material. 
Pig iron was then $11 to $11.50 per ton. T-rails sold at $20 per ton 
at the mill and girder rails at $24. Today this layout would, on 
account of the use of a heavier rail and some strengthening of the 
pieces, weigh 155,000 lb. and cost about $7,700, or a little less than 5 
cents per lb. — an increase of over 25 per cent since 1897; while of 
the raw materials, pig iron has increased 50 per cent to $16.50 or 
$17 a ton, and T and girder rails increased 40 per cent to $28 and 
$34 per ton respectively. 

It is impossible to state how long such a piece of work should 
last. It depends on the amount and condition of traffic, weight of 




XV. No. 1. 

cars and passengers, speed, weather conditions and the tendency 
of the wheels to slide or turn at some points. No uniform basis 
can be established. Mr. .Angerer stated that he had tried by means 
of careful impressions taken of track in the street to average the 
wear of manganese steel centers per car, but he found it impossible. 
The results he obtained varied from .0012 in. to .0020 in. of vertical 
wear per 10,000 cars. Mr. Hadfield in making similar tests observed 
a vertical wear of from .0008 in. to .0028 in. per 10,000 cars at dif- 
ferent points of one layout. Variations of from 100 to 200 per cent 
do not admit of any conclusion. A difference of opinion also exists 
as to when a piece of special work should be considered "worn out." 
An illustration was then shown of a piece of special work which 
had sustained a traffic of 2,570,00c cars, and which appeared but 
little worn. On the other hand, the extent to which rails are some- 
limes allowed to wear down in special work is remarkable. 

The ne.xt step in the development of special track work in city 
streets is problematical. Whether it will be work made throughout 
or at least on the entire surface of a metal like manganese still 
seems doubtful. The points of greatest wear would then last no 
longer than they do now. In some special cases such a construction 
might be desirable, but for general use it would seem that the 
period of the hard center work is likely to be extended for a good 
many years to come. 

When the electric street railways branched out into the country, 
where they were not restricted by the regulations of a city or 
bothered by the city pavement, the use of T-rails and the general 
practice of steam railroads were naturally followed. Split switches 
are now commonly used on such track, as are spring rail frogs, 
which are the best kind to lake care of traffic of diflferent kinds of 
cars with large and small wheel flanges on the same track. Where 
team traffic upon the highways is liable to encroach upon the track, 
tongue switches, built up of T-rails and fi.xed frogs have to be used. 

The good results of using hard center work in city streets soon 
called for an adaptation of this idea to T-rail special work. Hard 
centers were bolted in between the rails, forming the frogs or cross- 
ings, or fastened in some other way, similar to the girder rail 
work; or, as the pieces could be made comparatively light, they 
were cast solidly out of hard metal, such as manganese steel. This 
construction lent itself particularly well to complicated layouts. In 
these improvements in T-rail special work the street railways were 
naturally the pioneers. The steam railroads, naturally and rightly 
more cautious in adopting anything new, that on trial niiglu prove 
unsafe for their heavy loads and high speeds, were slow in adopt- 
ing similar methods to increase the life of their crossings and frogs. 
They were first induced, after witnessing a number of e.xtremely 
severe tests in the shop, to try a metal like manganese steel in cross- 
ings of electric railways over steam railroad tracks, when the engi- 
neers of the Philadelphia system suggested that instead of the 
crossings being built up out of numerous rails, the three rails and 
filler usually constituting the steam railroad part of the crossings 
should be made in one piece of manganese steel. These crossings, 
proving eminently successful under the heavier steam railroad traffic 
and high speeds, finally led to the trial of the metal in regular 
steam railroad frogs. A test frog was put into the tracks of the 
Pennsylvania R. R. at Philadelphia in a place in which the ma.ximuni 
life of an ordinary steel rail frog had been not over three months. 
The manganese frog remained in service 4 years and 14 days. 
It was then worn down at the point about 5-16 in., but the rails 
on the ends were worn considerably. .-Kfter being taken out it was 
sent back to Ihe shop; new rails were fitted into the ends; the 
central part was then bent up to the extent of the vertical wear in 
a hydraulic press, and the entire surface was ground level at a 
comparatively small cost. The frog was then as good as new, and 
was put back in the track on June 30, 1904. There are now over 
3,000 of these frogs in use on steam roads, as well as many man- 
ganese crossings. Manganese steel has also been put into the guard 
rails of steam railroad tracks, and tests are now being jnade with 
split switches having manganese steel point rails. 

Mr. Angerer then showed several slides illustrating the manganese 
steel rails on the Boston Elevated, one of which, on a sharp curve 
in the subway, has already outlasted 25 ordinary rails with but one- 
ihird the wear. The Pennsylvania R. R. is also experimentally 
trying manganese steel rails. Before putting manganese steel rails 
into the subway, some of the rails, cast in 20-ft. sections, were sub- 
jected to remarkable tests. A rail was curved cold to 20-ft. radius, 
half of this rail was then straightened out again and curved the 

reverse way lo 20-ft. radius ; the other end was curved down to a 
radius of only 10 ft., and there was not the least sign of a fracture. 

Conduit railways have had to deal with the problem of the slot 
for the admission of the grip or plow in addition to the track rails, 
in connection with their special work. This addition makes the 
special work infinitely more complicated in its construction, as well 
as difficult in installation. The first conduit railways were not 
usually the cable roads, the general construction of the slot part 
being similar to that used in the present electric conduit railways. 
The track portion underwent the various phases described in girder 
rail special work. Various mechanisms are used for the slot switch 
and means for throwing it simultaneously with the track switch. 
The hard center principle has been extended to the point where the 
track crosses the slot, either by a hard metal plate fastened as 
described under hard center work, or by solid manganese steel rails 
joined to the slot rail. 

Very often it is considered advisable to again set up the special 
work on the street before putting it in place, although it has already 
been set up at the factory. As it takes ranch longer to put in a 
piece of special work of this kind, no chances can be taken of any 
delay. Owing to the greater depth of the excavation for conduits, 
many obstructions are met, such as rock and pipes in the street, 
sometimes a perfect network of the latter, especially at busy street 
intersections, where the most intricate special work is usually 

The manufacture of all classes of street railway special work re- 
quires an enormous amount of detail work, of which one who has 
not visited such a manufacturing plant has no conception. The 
manufacture of frogs and switches for steam railroads seems like 
child's play alongside of the manufacture of street railway special 
work, and simply on account of the standardizing that steam railroad 
work has undergone. 

The making of the working plan of each layout involves intricate 
calculations and a careful consideration of all conditions. As it 
finally passes into the hands of the tracklayer, it must contain data 
for properly locating the work in the street, as well as the fitting 
of the work in the shop. Each detail should be designed to suit 
the rolling stock in use at the particular place, and therein lies one 
of the greatest difficulties of the special work manufacturer. There 
seems to be no limit to the different sizes of wheels, wheel flanges 
and wheel bases of cars in use, and yet each of these factors, com- 
bined with the radii of the curves, calls for a different groove. The 
truck of a car on a curve stands on a chord to the circular line, 
and the wheels take a skewed position with regard to the running 
line of the rails. This calls for a wider groove than would be re- 
quired to pass the flange of the wheel on the straight track. Just 
how much wider this should be for a given flange, radius, diameter 
of wheel and wheel base can easily be determined by graphical 
development of the flange on the angle of the skew. A table worked 
out on this principle of the width of grooves called for by the com- 
bination of some of the representative wheel flanges in use, and the 
prevalent wheel bases, together with the radii of curves (the diameter 
of the wheels being omitted as a negligible factor), exhibits the 
great variety in the widths of grooves. The tendency of wheel makers 
of late has been to increase the thickness of the wheel flanges, of 
a given depth, which has proved very troublesome in the making of 
special work. A piece of special work can be made to suit but one 
of these combinations, and other cars with other wheel bases, and 
particularly with other wheel flanges, that are run over the same 
work, will considerably shorten the life of the work from what it 
would be if only one kind of cars and wheels were used on it. It is 
the same case of a piece of machinery which wears faster when 
the working parts fit too tightly. 

Mr. Angerer stated that he was not at this point referring to 
the problem which has developed in late years of running cars which 
because of their speed are equipped with larger flanged wheels over 
the tracks in the hearts of cities, which arc built to receive the 
smaller flanged wheels usually necessary to comply with city regula- 
tions. This problem is yet to be solved. The solution may lie in 
wider wheel treads for both city and interurban cars, but for that 
the tracks throughout the city streets would have to be equipped 
with a rail that would admit of the wider treads. Some cities, like 
Philadelphia, have made a start in this direction. It may also in- 
volve deep but thin wheel flanges for both kinds of cars, with wheels 
of cast steel, probably, instead of cast iron. 

The inspector of special work laying out at the factory must be 

Jan. 15, 1905,1 



the mosl careful, experienced and painstaking man about the place, 
as llic reputation of the maker is at stake. The work must he as 
nearly right as it can be made, to suit the various conditions, as far 
as they have been made known. As an instance of detail difficulty, 
wlierc there were marked changes of grade in the street where the 
work is to be installed, it must be fitted together in the shop, not on 
a plane, but with these grades reproduced, and the rails given an 
extra bend or twist to suit; otherwise a complaint that the rails arc 
twisted is sure to come in. Great care is also necessary in the load- 
ing and shipping Of sonic of these bulky pieces. 

In conclusion, Mr. ■Angorcr called attention to the necessity of 
establishing standards in equipment as far as it relates to special 
track work. Besides the spirals, wheels, wheel bases, etc., 
ahx'ady discussed, there arc now in use nearly 100 sections of 

girder rail in this country, besides many obsolete sclions which 
are no longer rolled. One-fourth of this number of sections would 
cover all requirements and satisfy all city regulations. It lies 

with individual street railway engineers and with the various street 
railway associations to do for the street railways what the Master 
Car Rudders and American Society of Civil Engineers have done 
for the steam railroads. It would be of the greatest advantage to 
the street railways themselves. It would probably enable them to 
buy cheaper, their wants could be more quickly supplied, and the 
life of the equipment itself would doubtless be prolonged. The rcc- 
ominendations of the American Street Railway Association made 
some years ago were probably too radical for ad'/jition. Probably 
more than one standard would be required for difTerent conditions, 
but a very few would meet all the requirements. 

Indiana Electric Railway Association. 

First Kcniilar Mectinj^ Held at Indianapolis, Jan. 12, HIO.S— Fifty ittembers in 

Interesting Papers Read. 


Ihc tust regular nicclnig of the Indiana Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, organized last month, was called to order in the Traction 
& Terminal Bldg., Indianapolis, Jan. 12, 1905, at 10:20 a. m., Mr. 
.^. 1.. Drum acting as temporary chairman. The firsi business trans- 
acted was the election of officers, which resulted as follows: 

President, Charles L. Henry, president Indianapolis & Cincinnati 
Traction Co. 

Vice-President, J. W . Chipman, general manager Indianapolis & 
luistern Ry. 

Secretary. Paul II. Wliite, general manager Indianapolis & .Mar- 
tinsville Rapid Transit Co. 

Treasurer, W. F. Milholland, treasurer Indianapolis Traction & 
Terniinal Co. 

Members Executive Committee: A. L. Drum, general manager 
Indiana Union Traction Co.; C. C. Reynolds, general manager Indi- 
anapolis & Northwestern Traction Co. ; Gardner F. Wells, general 
nuuiagor Tcrrc Haute Traction & Light Co. 

Finance Committee : Charles Murdock, vice-president Ft. Wayne 
& Wabash Valley Traction Co.; W. G. Irwin, general manager 
Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Co. 

President Henry took the chair and introduced Mr. A.. S. Richey, 
who read a paper on "Cost of Electric Railway Power Produc- 
tion and Transmission in the State of Indiana." 

[Mr. Ridley's paper will be found on page 43 of this issue.] 
In discussion Mr. Drum emphasized the necessity of carefully 
considering the relative advantages of diflferent systems, citing two 
examples of bad judgment. In one case a railway and lighting 
company in a city of 100,000 inhabitants, distributing on the alternat- 
ing current system, had for a long time ignored the advice of its 
engineer to substitute the three-wire system, using direct current ; 
but was finally forced by fear of competition to make the change ; 
the result was that by the three-wire underground distribution the 
transmission loss wdiich had been 45 per cent was reduced to only 
12 per cent, the saving more than paying interest on the $300,000 ex- 
pended to make the change. 

In the other case a railway company installed a three-wire direct- 
current transmission system, the trolley wire voltage in one section 
of the city being 500 positive and in the other section 500 negative; 
experience showed that the only saving in copper was that a lighter 
line could be used between the ground return (the neutral) and the 
power house, which was a distance of only 100 ft. This scheme was 
promptly abandoned. 

Mr. Drum believed the solution of the power question was to 
install efficient boilers, engines, generators and transformers. In 
the Indiana Union Traction system there was practically no differ- 
ence in cost between using natural gas under 4 ounces pressure 
at 8 cents per 1,000 cu. ft., and coal at $1.35 per ton. Several com- 
panies were now substituting efficient for wasteful engines and 

Mr. Richey stated in answer to a question by Mr. Shlesinger 
that the better showing on power consumption made by the newer 
lines iif the Indiana Union Traction Co. was to a considerable ex- 

tent due to better bonding, heavier rails, more feeders, better grades, 
and better located sub-stations. In giving figures the urban car- 
miles run had been reduced to the same basis as if entire service had 
been interurban. 

Mr. Drum, as showing the need of care in choosing a basis of 
comparison, cited the case of a company which used that of the ratio 
of wages to coal burned. One station engineer, when called onto 
the carpet to explain his high operating ratio, said he could reduce 
'the ratio if desired ; the wages were as low as possible, but he could 
easily increase the coal consumption. 

The chair expressed the belief that of all the elements entering 
into the cost of power, the item of wages was one of the most serious, 
and that this should be met by using apparatus that would reduce the 
amount of man power needed. 

The meeting then adjourned until 2:30 p. m. 

At I o'clock the party was taken to the power house and shops 
of the Indianapolis Traction and Terminal Co., returning to the 
meeting hall at 2:30 p. m., when the meeting was again called to 

Mr. Thomas B. McMath read his paper on "Track and Roadbed 
Construction and Maintenance, with Particular Reference to the 
Life and Chemical Preservation of Cross Ties. " 

[This paper will he found on page 47.] ' 

Mr. Thomas Elliott, of Cincinnati, stated that eleven years ago 
he had had experience in treating timber with creosote. Ties placed 
in the ground then had been taken up recently and found to be in 
good condition. Those ties had been of pine, costing 17 cents each, 
and had been filled with s gallons of creosote at 8 cents per gallon, 
making the cost after treatment 57 cents. 

Treated ties he considered did not hold spikes so well as un- 
treated timber, and did not stand wear so well. This was no dis- 
advantage, however, for use in city streets. 

Poles and cross arms had also been treated by him with cresote. 
The life of the timber had been greatly increased but its insulating 
power reduced. 

The timber treating plant referred to by Mr. Elliott had cost be- 
tween $5,000 and $6,000, and comprised a treating tank 7 ft. in 
diameter by 40 ft. long, capable of holding 200 ties, two storage tanks 
of 6,000 gallons capacity and the necessary pressure pumps. A 
charge of 200 ties could be treated every 24 hours. 

A green tie would absorb 5 gallons of creosote when under 150 
lb. pressure for 4 hours. A seasoned tie would absorb 10 to 12 
gallons under the same conditions. 

Dr. Louis Duncan, of New York, stated that on some of the New 
York conduit construction with which he had been connected, short 
wooden stringers had been placed between the metal yokes in order 
to support the track rails throughout their entire length. This 
timber had been treated with 12 lb. of creosote per cu. ft., and it 
showed no deterioration after 8 years. He favored the use of cheap 
timber treated in localities where good ties are scarce. 
The chair offered the suggestion that electric railway companies 



IVoL. XV, No. I. 

should plant trees and raise their own ties against the lime when 
it would be impossible to buy good ties. He did not favor using 
poor ties— the freight and labor e.xpended on a poor tie are as great 
as for a good one. " 

Mr. L. M. Clark then read his paper on "The Construction and 
Maintenance of Cars and Equipment." 
[This pajier will be found on page 58.] 

Following .Mr. Clark's paper, there was a general discussion, some 
of the points mentioned being the most desirable length of car. the 
use of rubber cushions between trolley base and car roof to prevent 
noise and reduce vibration that would destroy the connecting wires, 
sleet cutters, and the practicability of providing a water supply for 
car closets. 

In connection with sleet cutters, Mr. Paul H. White described 
the practice in Grand Rapids, Mich., where a section of chain is 
wrapped around the trolley wheel, and reported to lircak a heavy 
coating of sleet in a very satisfactory manner. 

Mr. Norvicl, general agent at Indianapolis for the Indianapolis & 
Northwestern Traction Co., explained tlie rate situation, and urged 
the appointment of a committee to take up the matter of handling 
baggage. He stated that between Indianapolis and LaFayette his 
road made a round trip rate of $2 and on limited trains charged 20 
cents extra each way, making the tcital fare $2.40. If the passenger 
had baggage each way it would cost him 25 cents eacli way, making 
$2.90 for the round trip, while the steam road had met tlie original 
rate for two rides between LaFayette and Indianapolis and now- 
charged only $2 for one round trip or two single trips. 

Mr. J. L. Matson, of the Indiana Union Traction Co., stated tliat 
he had found the mileage made by steel wheels and steel-tired 
wheels to vary from 3,000 to 11.000 miles per 1-16 in. of wear, or 
maximum and minimum for the entire tire of 240,000 and 135,000 
miles respectively. This short life was due to flange wear, Ji-'m. 
flanges being turned down when they calipered 54 '"■ The make of 
wheels was not stated. 

The meeting closed with brief statements from Dr. Duncan and 
the chair on the outlook for single-phase lines. 

Mr. Henry said that he wished to go on record to the effect that 
electric railways would in the future haul heavy freight and lots 
of it. 

He added that his single-phase line would he in partial operation 
within fen days. 

Adjourned at 4:15 to meet Feb. 9, 1905. 
♦ « » 

Charter Members I. E. R. A. 

Indiana Union Traction Co. — Jas. .A. Van Osdol, general attorney ; 
' E. C. Carpenter, claim agent; I. M. McQuilkin, comptroller; A. W. 
Brady, president; Charles A. Baldwin, superintendent transporta- 
tion; Ji.. J. Dunbar, assistant purchasing agent; A. S. Richey, elec 
trical engineer ; R. J. Custer, acting engineer maintenance of way ; 
\V. C. Sampson, secretary; A. L. Drum, general manager; J. L. 
Matson, superintendent motive power ; W. K. Schoepf. vice-presi- 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. — Hugh J. McGowan, presi- 
dent; W. F. Milholland. secretary and treasurer; T. B. McMath. 
civil engineer; Charles Hogate, electrical engineer; P. .A.. Hinds, 
purchasing agent ; E. B. Peck, vice-president Indiana Co. 

Citizens Street Railway Co., Vincennes— B. G. Iludnul, presi- 
dent ; Geo. E. Henry, manager. 

Angola Railway & Power Co. — C. C. Wood, manager. 

Indianapolis & Eastern Ry. — F. M. Fauvre, president ; J. W. 
Chipman, general manager; D. H. Robinson; W. K. McKown, gen- 
eral passenger agent ; C. E. Morgan, auditor. 

Indianapolis & Martinsville Rapid Transit Co. — C. F. Smith, 
president; Henry Eitel. vice-president; P. H. White, general man- 
ager; E. G. Hcndrickson, auditor; H. L. Swartz, master mechanic. 

Consolidated Traction Co. — Edward Hawkins, vice-president. 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Co. — W. G. Irwin, 
vice-president ; Hugh Th. Miller, secretary ; George A. Saylor, su- 
perintendent ; R. O. Boyer, special agent. 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. — Charles Murdock, 
vice-president ; C. D. Emmons, general superintendent ; E. C. Fol- 
soni, superintendent transportation ; M. J. Kehoe, chief engineer ; 
F. C. Rapp, master mechanic. 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. — C. L. Henry, president. 

Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co.— C. C. Reynolds, gen- 
eral manager; L. M. Clark, master mechanic; F. D. Norvicl, general 
agent; K. G. Williams, civil engineer; O. P. Spilman, train dcs- 
patcher; G. K. Jeffries, superintendent. 

Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co.— H. F. Dicke, super- 

Richmond Street & Interurhan Ry.— H. B. Smith, president; Al- 
bert Gordon, superintendent. 

Terre Haute Traction & Light Co.— G. T. Wells, manager. 

Muncie, Hartford S: Ft. Wayne Ry.— L. J. Shicsingcr, superin- 

Robert P. Woods. H. L. Schmock. 

R. W. Waite. J. R Cravath. 

H. E. Dalton. Daniel Royse. 

W. J. Coleman. 

■♦ « » 

The Construction and Maintenance of Cars 
anii Equipment.* 


The subject of this paper covers a wide field, including a variety 
of details and methods, governed by various conditions and cir- 
cumstances. The writer will not attempt to note the changes inci- 
dental to the growth of the American street railway, but will treat 
lightly on the subject in connection with the high speed work of 

The car body involves materials, details of design and dimensions 
to conform to the requirements of the service, the general tendency 
being towards the standard steam railway coach. 

Special attention should be given to the lower side frames to se- 
cure great strength as they form a solid foundation to support the 
upper sides and roof, making the car able to withstand vertical 
strains and blows. The reinforcement of lower front and frames 
for draw bar heads, especially if the cars are intended to ever oper- 
ate in trains, is important, as well as the solid attaching of bumpers, 
the uniformity of dimension and accurate fitting of windows and 
doors, especially in front ends. The interior should be divided into 
two compartments, smoking and passenger, with the addition of a 
third compartment for baggage if required. 

Interior finishes consisting of quartered oak in the smoking, ma- 
hogany in the passenger, and ash in the baggage compartment and 
rear vestibule are desirable. 

The painting of the exterior should be according to M. C. B. 
specifications ; the Pullman Go's, standard color is recommended. 
The side and end windows should be guarded on the outside by 
three to five tubes, preferably of polished brass, held by suitable 
brackets, arranged so that they can be dropped down for the pur- 
pose of cleaning the windows. 

A comfortable temperature inside could be easier maintained at a 
considerably less expense by the use of extra sash provided for side 
windows. Gothic glass for the upper side and deck windows pre- 
sents a pleasing effect. 

The seats should be of the high back, reversible pattern with 
bronze grab handles, upholstered in leather for the smoker, and in 
olive green or crimson plush for the passenger compartment. 

Cars should be operated in one direction wherever possible, a 
better design, convenience and uniform flange wear being impor- 
tant advantages. 

A separate compartment located on the forward end, right side, 
having a rear door, forward and right side windows, controller, 
operating valve, compressor governor, switchboard, etc., should be 
provided for the motorman. Hot water heating systems well in- 
stalled, including heaters of suflicient capacity, arc especially desir- 
able for reasons of economy. 

Other additions include toilet room, water cooler, parcel racks, 
fire extinguishers, etc., together with iron cuspidors, flag receptacles 
and coal boxes. 

There are many designs of trucks on the market adapted to 
various speeds and loads, each possessing its advantages or dis- 
advantages. An M. C. B. truck having heavy side and end beams, 

•Read at the first mv 
tion. Jan 12. 1906. 

■ting of tht Iruliaiia KU"i-trii- Railway Assucia- 

Jan. 15, 190S I 



transoms niul er|iiali/iiiK bars, IhorcuiKlily hiaccd and rcinforceil to 
prevent KcllinK' out of square or alignment, accurately filled jour- 
nal lirassi's, wedges, boxes of pedestals, a good system of springs, 
indoppiident inside bung brakes, non-cbaltering brake bead bangers, 
inside motor suspension, roller side bearings, solid bolster, 33 to 
36-in. wheels, s'A 1° 6^-in. axles, and a wbcci base of from 6 ft. 
to 7 ft. is recommended. Steel tired wbcels are preferable on ai- 
count of possessing a greater factor of safely, flexibility of bandling, 
r|uict running and freedom from flattening. 

.Solid axle gears are also rcconmiended. The mailer of selec- 
tion of ttiotors and gearing largely depends on Ibe reciuiremcnls. 
For motors of 75 h. p. or larger, multiple unit control ba>- the fol- 
lowing advantages over type L-B or R controllers : Ease of han- 
dling on the part of operator; less vestibule space required; better 
service rendered; ability lo operate motor cars in trains. Special 
attention should be given to the installation of electrical con- 
ductors to secure permanence of insulation and protection against 
mechanical abrasion. .All electrical devices, such as switches, cut- 
oiUs, main switch and circuit breaker should be arranged on a panel 
located in the motorman's comparlnienl. 

The matter of brakes, both band and air, is a very important 
det.iil, and should receive careful consideration. The diameter of 
brake cylinder should conform to the percentage of weight of car 
to be controlled. The capacity of reservoirs should be .so propor- 
tioned that a full service application of brakes will cause a reduc- 
tion of pre.s.sure of not less than three nor more than four pounds. 

The capacity of compressors should be sufficient to supply all air 
required for the operation of brakes, whistles and sanders under 
normal conditions and not operate in excess of 30 per cent of each 
hour that the car is in service. High piston speeds are objection- 
able for reasons of greater wear of reciprocating parts, and the 
comparatively high temperature of air supplied to reservoirs, caus- 
ing an excessive amount of moisture in the system. 

The sizes of pipe employed for reservoir and train lines should 
not exceed a volume greater than is consistent with the quick 
response of brakes in emengency application and full release. All 
tees, elbows and other sharp turns should in all cases be avoided, 
whenever possible, as well as water pockets and leaks. The range 
of reservoir pressure should be from 12 to 15 lb., the compressor 
being cut out at a point not exceeding 5 lb. in excess of the emer- 
gency brake cylinder pressure, wliich should correspond to lever- 
ages, braking motor axles 100 per cent and trailer axles go per cent. 

Efifectual hand brakes should be in operative condition on cars 
at all times, and there is no reason why such brakes cannot be 
installed and maintained. 

The arrangement of apparatus under car body, such as compres- 
sor, reservoir, brake cylinder, rheostats, etc., should be such as to 
allow the direct connection of brake staffs by means of chains and 
pull rods to a main lever, which in turn is connected to a multi- 
plying lever chained to cylinder push rod. 

For motor cars operating in trains, automatic air brakes are 
preferable to straight air brakes for reason of smoother and more 
liexible bandling. 

Further additions to equipment include air sanding devices prop- 
erly installed and maintained, oil and tool boxes, retrievers, arc 
headlights, roller bearing trolley bases, illuminated destination signs, 
car telephones, classification signals and markers. 


After a car has been on the road 24 hours, or has run a given 
number of miles, say 200, it should be placed over a pit in the car 
barn and receive a thorough inspection by a car inspector whose 
duty is not to repair, but to report the exact condition of every 
detail on an inspection card, which, when employed in connection 
wjth a motorman's defect card, should show the absolute condition 
of cars and their equipment at regular intervals. An O K should 
be placed opposite defects noted on the inspection card after having 
been repaired, and when the entire car has been O K'd by the 
foreman of repairs, the cards should be sent to the master me- 
chanic's office, from which a record of body, truck, motor, control 
and trolley troubles can be kept. 

.\ftcr a car has been thus inspected and repaired, it should be 
thoroughly cleaned inside and out. Trucks, wheels, motors, com- 
pressors, etc., can be kept in good condition by frequent wiping with 
oilv waste. 

riic electrical equipment and running gear of a car is very im 
portant. The circuit breaker, controllers, contactors, revcrser, 
rheostats, motors and electrical conductors arc delicate apparatu- 
and should receive the best of allentioii. Weak controller and re 
verser fingers, circuit breakers out of adjustment or burned, loose or 
burned contacts, defective insulation, unevenly worn or rough com 
mutators, worn motor bearings, armature field coil and brusli 
bolder troubles can and should be readily located by inspection ami 
remedied at once. 

The treads and flanges of wheels should be w.alclicd, also the 
axles, to know that crystallization is not present. 

All trucks should Iw carefully inspected to ascertain lliat they are 
not out of square, as flange wear is a noted feature, especially with 
companies whose cars are operated around numerous short radius 
curves and over a quantity of girder rail and special work. 

The side bearings should be examined to see that there is a 
clearance on l)Oth sides, otherwise there will exist a displacement of 
weight, causing flanges to wear excessively on heavy side. 

Considering that the car is operated in one direction only, if the 
two axles of a truck are out of alignment with it, flanges on two 
wheels diametrically opposite will wear. If one axle is in align- 
ment and the other out, the flange of lead wheel on side of truck 
having the shorter wheel base will wear very fast. Truck brakes 
should be frequently adjusted and a uniform amount of slack main- 
tained. The tension of release springs should be sufficient to cause 
brakes to release in full. 

All bearings should be regularly lubricated with a good quality 
of oil of a consistency conforming to the season of year. 

Long fibered wool mixed with Japanese fiber in the proportion of 
5 to I forms a reliable and durable packing waste, we having records 
of journal and motor armature bearings which have run over 80,000 
miles on the original waste placed in boxes. 

For gear lubrication, a graphite grease mixed with a cushion of 
ground cork or fiber is recommended. 

The air brake equipment should receive intelligent attention. 

Operating valves and compressor governors should be regularly 
cleaned and oiled once each month. Compressors should be ni- 
spected, cleaned, and, if necessary, oiled at least once a week, brake 
cylinders every twelve months, and at all times the governors should 
be watched to know that the proper reservoir pressures are main- 
tained, that the reservoir gages are correct and all cut-out cocks, 
joints, etc., free from leaks. Chime whistles should be kept clean 
and in tune. Sanding devices should be kept in operative condition, 
and hot water heating systems given proper care to guard against 
deposits of sediment and leaks. 

You can readily understand that the subject of this paper is one 
upon which a great deal more can be said ; but I have attempted 
to set forth only the main ideas that appeal to me in the construc- 
tion and maintenance of cars and equipment. 

Lewiston & Southeastern Electric Railway 
Co., Ltd. 

Construction work on the Lewiston & Southeastern Electric 
Railway's Go's, line has been commenced and the line is now being 
built from Lewiston, Idaho, through the Tamany and Wana sec- 
tions, thence across Mason Prairie to NVestlake. From Wcstlake 
a branch will be built to Xez Pcrces City, passing through the Kez 
Perces Prairie via Ilo and Dublin. The main line continues from 
\Vestlake to Grangeville. Idaho, via Cottonwood and Denver. 
Grangeville will be the southeastern terminus of the road, where a 
water power plant for generating the electricity will be built on the 
Clearwater River. The total length of the line is 110 miles; it will 
be of standard gage and heavy .steel rails will be used in track con- 
struction. At Lewiston the road connects with the Snake and Co- 
lumbia River steamers, giving excellent connections to all points 
on the Pacific Coast. The principal traffic of the road will be 
wheat, timothv hav. lumber and live stock. 

The Spokane Traction Co., Spokane, Wash., has submitted a 
proposition to the postoffice authorities providing for the carrying 
of mail on the Traction company's cars. The boxes on the cars 
w-ill be emptied by the postmen at the nearest point to the post 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 


MR. GEORGE O. NAGLE, general ni.inager of the Wlieeling (W. 
Va.) Traction Co., spent Christmas holidays visiting relatives in 

MR. WILLIAM ROCKWELL, of Amsterdam, N. Y., has been 
appointed superintendent of the Mauch Chunk, Lehightoii & Slat- 
ington Street Railway Co., Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

MR. CLOYD M.\R.SHALL, superintendent of electrical machin- 
ery, in the Department of Electricity, of the Louisiana Purchase 

Exposition, has just been appoint- 
ed superintendent of the power 
department of the Union Electric 
Light & Power Co., of St. Louis 
Mr. Marshall was granted a gold 
medal by the superior jury of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 
appreciation of his services in con- 
nection with the Exposition and a.s 
secretary of the Electricity De- 
partment, a well-deserved distinc- 
tion. Mr. Marshall is a graduate 
of Purdue University and after 
acting as assistant in the elec- 
trical laboratory of the University 
became electrical editor of the 
ci.ovD MARSHALL. "Street Railway Review." In 

1898 Mr. Marshall accepted the 
position of designing and testing engineer for the Jenney Electric 
Manufacturing Co., after which he took up experimental work for 
the Railway Materials Co., of Chicago. In 1901 he became plant 
engineer and later engineer of the sales department of the C. W. 
Hunt Co., New York. Tlie latter position he resigned to accept 
the appointment in the Department of Electricity of the World's 
Fair. Mr. Marshall is widely known as a progressive engineer and 
business man, and he takes with him in his latest advancement the 
best wishes of a large circle of friends. 

MR. DAVID FOX, general manager of the Rutland Street Rail- 
way Co., Rutland, Vt., has been elected president of the company. 
He also retains his position as general manager. 

MR. RUSSELL ROBB, who has been associated with the firm of 
Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., has become a member of the firm. 
Circulars announcing this change are dated Dec. 31, 1904. 

MR. JOHN B. JUDGE has been appointed superintendent of the 
lines of the Consolidated Railway Co. in New Haven, Conn., includ- 
ing the Wallingford extension, vice Mr. Theron R. Hull, resigned. 

MR. CHARLES E. FLYNN, vice-president and general manager 
of the Conneant & Erie Traction Co., Girard, Pa., was a caller at 
the "Review" office on the occasion of a recent business trip to Chi- 

MR. WILLIAM D. BRICKELL has been elected president of 
the Columbus, New Albany & Johnstown Traction Co., to succeed 
Mr. Daniel J. Ryan, who has been elected vice-president and general 

MR. E. S. DIMMOCK, manager of the Cape Breton Electric Co.. 
Ltd., Sydney, N. S., has been appointed general manager of the 
Canton-Akron Railway Co., Canton, O., to succeed Mr. George W. 

MR. H. W. HARRIS, superintendent of the Norfolk (Va.) Rail- 
way & Light Co., has resigned his position to become superintendent 
of the Michigan Traction Co., Kalamazoo, Mich., vice Mr. S. J. 
Dill, resigned. 

MR. WILLIAM C. CARTER, who has been in the employ of 
Stone & Webster at Brockton, Mass., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of overhead construction by the Houghton County Street 
Railway Co., Hancock, Mich. 

MR. C. H. STOCUM, who for some years past has been connected 
with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., has been appointed general 
manager of the Westchester Traction Co., also of the Danbury & 
Harlem Railway Co., with headquarters at Ossining, N. Y. 

MR. S. M. KEEBLE, of St. Louis, was recently tendered a ban- 
quet at the Missouri Athletic Club by representatives of the elec- 
trical industry of St. Louis, the occasion being the resignation of Mr. 
Keeble of the position held by him with the Frank Adam Electric 
Co., to become general sales manager for the Cutter Co., of Phila- 

MR. REAGAN HOUSTON, president and general manager of 
the San .'\ntonio Traction and the Gas & Electric Companies, San 
."Vntonio, Texas, has resigned. He will be succeeded by Mr. Emerson 
McMillan, as president of the corporations, and H. M. Littell, as gen- 
eral manager. 

MR. H.^RRY V. SANGER has resigned the position of general 
superintendent of the Wheeling Traction Co., Wheeling, W. Va., 
and the position has been abolished. Mr. J. Marsh has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of transportation, performing the duties here- 
tofore performed by the general superintendent. 

MR. CH,\RLES SEIBERT has been appointed acting master 
mechanic of the Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon Interur- 
ban Railway Co. in charge of mechanical and electrical departments, 
vice Mr. E. B. Kirk, who has resigned to become master mechanic 
of the Winnebago Traction Co., Oshkosh, Wis. 

MR. A. H, H.'KYW.'KRD has resigned his position as general 
superintendent of the Dayton, Springfield & Urbana Electric Rail- 
way Co. to become general manager of the York County Traction Cc, 
and has been succeeded by Mr. C. A. Alderman, who will also retain 
his position as chief engineer of the Appleyard lines. 

MR. GUY C. BARTON, formerly vice-president of the Omaha 
& Council Bluffs Street Railway Co., has been elected president of 
the company to succeed the late Mr. Frank Murphy. Mr. D. W. 
Wattles succeeds Mr. Barton as vice-president and Mr. F. M. Hop- 
kins, of Columbus, was elected second vice-president. 

MR. H. S. KNEEDLER, advertising manager of the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway Co., Los Angeles, Cal., has been placed at the head 
of an industrial bureau which has just been established by the com- 
pany. The bureau will furnish information of advantage to settlers 
and business men ; pamphlets and circulars containing verified in- 
formation will be published and circulated. 

MR. C. W. WHITNEY has resigned his position as Pacific Coast 
representative of the McGraw Publishing Co., New York, and has 
become identified with the .^bner Doble Co. of San Francisco, engi- 
neers and manufacturers of tangential water wheels and needle 
regulating nozzles. Mr. Whitney will have charge of the Abner 
Doble company's publicity department. 

MR. H. M. LITTELL, general manager of the Rapid Transit 
Co. of Chattanooga, Tenn., has resigned his position to become vice- 
president and general manager of the consolidated street railways 
and electric and gas lighting plants of Austin, Texas, effective Jan- 
uary 1st. Mr. Littell will be succeeded as general manager of the 
Rapid Transit Co. by R. W. King, formerly superintendent of the 

MR. ELMER M. WHITE was on January 1st elected secretary 
of the Street Railway .\ccoijntants' Association of America, to suc- 
ceed Mr. W. B. Brockway. Mr. 
White was born at NorthbriHge, 
Wprcester Co., Mass., .Sept. 14, 
1857. In i860 his parents removed 
to Hartford and his early educa- 
tion was received in the schools of 
that city. After leaving high 
school in 1872, he took a course 
in a business college and engaged 
in bookkeeping until 1877. For 
the next six years he served as 
a traveling salesman. In 1883 Mr. 
White took up estate accounting 
and in 1885 became connected 
with the Hartford & Withersfield 
Horse Railway Co., the predeces- 
sor of the Hartford Street Rail- 
way Co., with which he has been 
identified ever since. In iSgo Mr 
of the Hartford Street Railway Co., 


. White was appointed cashier 
which position he now holds. 

MR. W. L. STRETLOW, superintendent of the Lake Shore Elec- 
tric Railway Co., has resigned that position to become superin- 
tendent of the Springfield & Xenia Traction Co., vice Mr. J. W. 
Parker, who has been appointed superintendent of the Springfield, 
Troy & Piqua Railway Co. Mr. Stretlow has been succeeded by 
Mr. L« K. Burge, who has been appointed superintendent of transpor- 
tation of the Lake Shore Electric Railway Co. 

MR. JOHN F. OHMER, vice-president of the Ohmer Fare 
Register Co., entertained the officers and heads of the departments 
of the company with a banquet at the Phillips House, Dayton, O., 

Jan. 15, i')05.; 



Tuesday, UecLiiilicr 271I1. Mr. (Jlimcr presided ami Mr. F,. B. 
Grimes, assistant general manager, was toastmaslcr. 'I'lic former 
was presented with a silver smoking set by the traveling repre- 
sentatives of the company, while the latter received a cnt glass ink 
well surmounted hy a sterling silver top. 

MR. WILLIAM G. WOOLFOLK has resigned the position of 
superintendent of the Knoxville Traction Co., Knoxville, Tenn., to 
become supcrintendcTit of the Philadelphia & West Chester Traction 
Co., vice Mr. F. C. Davis, deceased. Mr. Woolfolk is a graduate of 
Yale University Engineering School, has had considerable experi- 
ence in the shops of tlie General Electric Co. and in the managemrnt 
of the Portsmouth Street Railway Co., Portsmouth, Va. 

MR. CALVER'l" TOWNLEY has been appointed assistant to the 
president of the Consolidated Railway Co., New Haven, Conn. For 
some years Mr. Towiiloy was general agent of the Westinghonsc 
company, and has had to do with the equipment of the Boston Ele- 
vated system, the Brooklyn elevated and surface systems and the 
Manhattan and subway systems in New York City. lie has also 
been employed by the Pennsylvania R. R. in its heavy traction con- 
struction in New York and Long Island. 

MR. E. S. LEA has resigned as sales manager for the Ue Laval 
Steam Turbine Co., and opened an ofiice at 42 Broadway, New York, 
to practice as consulting engineer. Mr. Lea was one of the first 
to appreciate the importance of the turbine field and has been con- 
nected with the De Laval company for four years. He is a member 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and also an asso- 
ciate member of the .'\merican Institute of Electrical Engineers, and 
of the American Society of Naval Engineers. 

MR. ERNEST GONZENBACH January ist assumed charge ol 
the Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Co., of Sheboygan, Wis., 
as general manager, succeeding Mr. H. A. Strauss, resigned. Mr. 
Gonzenbach is well known in the railway field, especially in connec- 
tion with high speed interurban work, having been electrical engineer 
for the Albany & Hudson R. R. during construction and operation, 
and for the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago during construction. Mr. Gon- 
zenbach resigned as engineer of the Youngstown & Southern Rail- 
way Co. to go to Sheboygan. 

MR. ROBERT J. FLEMING, civic conmiissioner of assessment 
and property of the city of Toronto, Ontario, has been appointed 
general manager of the Toronto Railway Co., vice Mr. E. H. Keating, 
, who will devote his time to matters relating to the engineering de- 
partment of the company. Mr. Fleming was born at Toronto on Nov. 
23, 1854, and after receiving a business education entered into part- 
nership with T. W. Elliott in the coal and wood business, which he 
subsequently abandoned for the real estate business. His municipal 
career commenced in 1886, when he was elected an alderman for 
St. David's ward ; in January, 1892, he was elected mayor, being re- 
elected the following term. In 1894 and 1895 he was unsuccessful, 
but in 1896 he was again elected to the position. Aug. 5, 1897, ho 
was appointed assessment commissioner for the city, which position 
he held until his resignation to become general manager of the 
Toronto Railway Co. 

MR. C. C. LEWIS, who for the past two years has been chief 
engineer of the Schenectady Railway Co., has resigned to enter the 
employ of J. G. White & Co., Ltd., of London. Mr. Lewis has been 
engaged principally to take charge of the work to be carried out by 
this company at Montevideo, Uruguay, in electrifying the tramways 
at that place. Mr. Lewis has had an extended experience of over 
IS years in railway work, having been connected with the Broadway 
cable work, afterwards in Baltimore converting the line of the Balti- 
more City Passenger railway from horse to cable, in Washington on 
the electric conduit work of the Metropolitan lines, and in Buffalo 
as engineer of the International Railway Co. In 1902 he accepted the 
position of chief engineer of the Schenectady Railway Co., having 
charge of the construction and maintenance work as well as the re- 
building of the electric line between Schenectady and .Mbany and 
the construction of the Troy and Ballston line. 

New Publications. 


MR. W. FORMAN COLLINS, vice-president and business man- 
ager of the Electrician Publishing Co., died very suddenly on 
the morning of December 21st. The funeral services were held at 
Trinity Church, Chicago, on Friday. December 23rd. 

JOLIET, ILL.; 4x9 m. Compliments 01 me i.iu/n, i\ni:iur.'\ 
issued to further the material interests of Joliet. This Is a very 
attractive descriptive article of this thriving city situated on the 
Desplaincs River, 40 miles from Chicago. The article is profusely 
illustrated with views of the streets, churches, industries, etc., and 
deals in a general way with the railroads, street cars, industries, 
building material, fuel, light, water power, banks, churches, public 
institutions, parks and building sites of the city. 

held at the Transportation Building, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 12, 13, 1904, is now being distributed among 
the members of the association. As usual the report is published 
in very neat form, and shows an excellent arrangement of subjects, 
including the officers of the association from its organization to date, 
the minutes of the meetings of the executive committee, report of 
the proceedings of the annual meeting, list of members and dele- 
gates, papers read and the discussions, and the constitution and 
by-laws of the as.sociation. The secretary is to be congratulated 
upon the excellence of the publication and upon the despatch 
with which the work has been done. 

AMERICA. Size Sj^xQ in.; 190 pages; appendix 70 pages. The 
report of the eighth annual convention of the Accountants' Associa- 
tion held in the Transportation Building, World's Fair Grounds, St. 
Louis, Mo., Oct. 13, 14 and 15, 1904, contains besides a verbatim 
report of the convention, a list of officers of the association since 
its organization; all papers read before the convention; the report 
of the joint committee on blanks for shop records and accounts; 
the report of the standing committee on a standard system of street 
railway accounting ; the question lx>x ; register of delegates ; consti- 
tution and by-laws of the association; list of members of the asso- 
ciation; index; summary index of previous reports. 

being the sixteenth annual report of the interstate commerce com- 
mission for the year ending June 30, 1903. Published by the gov- 
ernment printing office, Washington, D. C. This work is in the 
same general form as the previous reports of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and shows the classification of railways, equip- 
ment and number of employes. It also gives the complete statistics 
of the capitalization of the railway properties of the United States, 
as well as their earnings and expenses, and general summary of re- 
sults. The work is almost entirely statistical, also the information 
as given in tabular form. The book concludes with two indexes, 
one of which is an alphabetical index of all the railroads in the 
country, and the other a general index of subjects. 

TRICAL ASSOCIATION, ST. LOUIS, MO., 1904- Size, 6x9 in.; 
165 pages. The publication includes, besides the minutes of the 
second annual meeting of the association held in the Transporta- 
tion Building, World's Fair Grounds, Oct. loth, litli and 14th, a 
list of the officers of the association since its organization ; registra- 
tions of members and delegates; list of new members who joined 
during the convention ; papers read before the convention and their 
discussion ; the question box ; the constitution and by-laws and list 
of members of the association. .\ very fine portrait of ex-presi- 
dent Edwin W. Olds, adorns the frontispiece, while a novel feature 
of the cover design is a reproduction of the badges worn at the last 

Hine. The Railway Age, 5x75^ in., 179 pages. Price, $1.50. This 
very interesting and instructive publication has received much favor- 
able comment not only from the press but from many railroad 
officials throughout the country, all of which it deserves. The vol- 
ume consists of 24 letters which originally appeared in the Rail- 
way Age from time to time and touches upon all the branches of 
the operating department in a manner both bright and interesting, 
professional slang of the road being dispersed throughout the chap- 
ters in a most effective manner. While there is a vein of pleasantry 
and humor running through these letters, which makes them bright. 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

and gossipy, the ambitious young railroad man will find invaluable 
information and .instruction therein and keep them for reference 
and refreshment at frequent intervals. 

EDUCATION to the Secretary of the Interior. Advance sheets 
from the United States Bureau of Education. Chapter XXXVI 11, 
Manual and Industrial Training; Chapter XXXIII, Universities. 
Colleges and Technological Schools; Chapter XXXVII, Statistics 
of Secondary Schools. These recent publications of the Bureau of 
Education and the report of the commissioner of education are a 
collection of such statistics and facts as show the condition and 
progress of education in the public schools and colleges of the 
United States. To obtain the items of information required to 
tabulate the statistics of the schools of the United States 25 differ- 
ent forms of inquiry were sent out to school officials and institu- 
tions. The items of information called for in these forms number 
in all 740, and the different schedules sent in to be tabulated amount 
to 19.894. One may judge from this the scope of the report and 
advance sheets. 

Cloth, 10- pages, with maps and illustrations; 6x9!4 in.; published 
by the Commissioners, B. Leighton Beal, secretary. The report 
first deals with the East Boston tunnel, construction work on which 
was substantially completed with the exception of the street cover- 
ing for the Atlantic Ave. station due to a controversy between the 
company and the commission as to which party should bear the 
expense of the installation of the elevators and the necessary ma- 
chinerj'. The report ne.xt deals with the exhibit at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, the exhibit made by the commission at the 
Paris Exposition and the Pan-American Exposition being brouglit 
up to date and sent to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Fol- 
lowing this is the report of the condition of the debt and of the 
sinking funds for the various divisions of the work of the com- 
mission at the date of the report. The report of the chief engineer, 
H. A. Carson, is next given, which is practically a brief sketch of 
progress on the East Boston tunnel during the past year, including 
the details of construction, character of the excavated earth, reloca- 
tion of pipes and conduits, reconstruction of the sewerage system 
and tests of concrete beams. 

Vaughan Abbott, C. E. ; 664 pages; 109 tables; 365 illustrations; 
16 full page engravings and 10 folding diagrams; price $5.00. Pub- 
lished by D. Van Nostrand Co., New York. The fourth edition of 
this book which has been recently published has been entirely 
rewritten and enlarged. After touching upon the elementary prin- 
ciples of distribution in general and properties of wire the author 
devotes several chapters to the" construction of aerial circuits. This 
is followed by several chapters on underground and special rail- 
way circuits in regard to all of which the author goes into consider- 
able detail. The various electric instruments and methods of elec- 
trical measurement commonly used are discussed at considerable 
length. Afterwards the subject of continuous current and alter- 
nating current conductors is considered. A special chapter is de- 
voted to the subject of polyphase transmission and a final chapter 
is devoted to the cost of production and distribution. The author 
has collated various methods of circuit construction which have been 
sanctioned by the best practice and the book is up to date and is not 
burdened with obsolete and antiquated matter. The mathematical 
portions have been treated as simply as possible, the simplest 
formulae being given without any attempt to deduct them and only 
the simplest applications of the calculus are involved. The book 
will be found to cover the field of electrical transmission very 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING, Volume I; The Generating Plant. 
By Francis B. Crocker, Ph. D.; 47 pages; 213 illustrations; sixth 
edition; published by D. Van Nostrand Co., New York. The first 
edition of this book appeared in 1896 and has been used as a text 
book for several years in a number of engineering schools. The 
present edition has been practically rewritten and many illustra- 
tions of the earlier type of apparatus have been replaced and much 
new matter has also been introduced. This portion of the work re- 
lates only to generating plants and therefore the work applies to 
a certain extent to railway, power and other electric plants. After 
a brief history of electric lighting and a chapter on units and meas- 
urements, the work takes up the classification of different kinds of 

lighting plants and their location and general arrangement. The 
books then considers the equipment of the power plant, beginning 
with the building, boilers, engines and other prime movers, and 
follows this with the principles of dynamo electrical machines and 
a number of chapters on the electrical equipment of lighting sta- 
tions. Among these chapters the subjects of storage batteries, 
switchboards, electric measuring instruments and lightning arresters 
are included, covering the entire equipment of an electrical lighting 
plant. The plan adopted in the book is to follow up the sequence 
in which the electrical current is generated, transmitted and utilized, 
and the most modern practice in generating plants for electric light- 
ing is well covered in this book. 

SELF PROPELLED VEHICLES, by J. E. Homans; second 
edition; 644 pages; 461 illustrations; price $2.00. Published by 
Theo. Audel & Co., New York. This book is a practical treatise 
on all the types of automobiles in use at present and is designed 
for the practical information of owners and operators of machines 
who do not care to make more of a study of mechanics than is 
necessary for the handling and operation of their own automobiles. 
As it is obviously impossible within reasonable space to include 
specific descriptions and directions for the management of the 
large number of practical motor carriages now on the market the 
author has confined himself to explaining the theory, construction 
and operation of typical machines as briefly and thoroughly as 
possible and has produced a work which cannot fail to be of use 
to any one handling automobiles. The book opens with a descrip- 
tion of the different types of automobiles on the market and an 
analysis of the advantages of the different kinds of machines. This 
is followed by a historical chapter giving a review of the early 
types of machines, after which the general theory and construction 
common to all classes of automobiles are explained and illustrated. 
Following this are very complete descriptions of gasoline engines, 
electrically propelled machines, steam engines, and boilers. One of 
the most important chapters is that on gasoline vehicle operation 
which is very complete and contains a large number of useful 
hints. The book concludes with a complete subject index which will 
prove of great advantage for ready reference. 

STATES, thirty-seventh annual number, 1,600 pages; 24 colored 
plate street and group maps, and 44 maps of leading railroads ; price 
$10.00. Published by Poor's Railroad Manual Co., 6 Williams St., 
New York. The statements presented in Poor's Manual for 1904 
are arranged in four sections, the first comprising statements of all 
steam railways in the Llnited States, Canada and Mexico; the second 
comprises statements of all the street railways and traction com- 
panies in the United States; the third comprises statements of the 
leading industrial corporations and organizations auxiliary to the 
railway interests; and the fourth contains statements showing the 
finances and resources of the United States and the individual states 
and the chief counties, cities and towns in the country. The intro- 
duction to this book gives the general exhibits of the railroads 
of the United States for the fiscal year of 1903 and shows the 
length of railroads completed on Dec. 31. 1903, to be 207,783.82 
miles, and there was completed since the close of the fiscal year 
897.83 miles. This gives a net increase of mileage of all railroads 
in the United States for the calendar year of 1903 as 4,774.61 miles. 
The general statistical information contained in the present number 
of Poor's manual is of the same character as that of the previous 
issues but has been brought thoroughly down to date. This work 
is too well and favorably known to financiers and the investing pub- 
lic to need special description. It is unique in being the only publi- 
cation of its kind which has been thoroughly successful in pre- 
senting complete and reliable information in regard to railroads, and 
with each succeeding year new matter has been added which con- 
stantly increases the value of the manual as a reference book. 

A contract has been awarded to the Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora 
Railroad Co. for the handling of United States mail between Aurora 
and Joliet, three trips being made daily except Sundays and holi- 

The Pacific Electric Railway Co., Los Angeles, Cal., has just 
finished planting a poppy field 16 ft. wide along its tracks for a dis- 
tance of about two miles between Monrovia' and Alhambra junctions. 
When the poppies begin to bloom they will be widely advertised by 
the railway company. 

J/\N. 15, iy<J5] 

srKi':ii'r railway kevikw. 


J. A. Manna Co. 

Twenly years ago Mr. J. A. Haiiiia cnlcred the street railway 
field as storekeeper for tlic J. G. Hrill Co., and last month the 
eiiiiipaiiy bearing liis name assumed the sales agency for the entire 
output of llie Nilcs Car & Manufacturing Co. in addition to the 
western agency of the Peckham Manufacturing Co., which latter 
he has held for nine years. During this period the lO-ft. to iG-ft. 
horse cars have gradually devolved into the SO-ft. to 60-ft. electric 
iulerurljan cars, and Mr. Ilanna has sold successively Brill, Jevvelt 
and the .Stephenson cars and the McGuirc and Peckham trucks in 
various parts of the country without the loss of a day's time and 
under improved conditions at each change. Mr. Ford A. Richards, 
who was previously coimected with the Peckham company, and has 
been in the employ of Mr, llanna for the past three years, is asso- 
ciated with the new company, and will assist Mr. Manna as sales- 
man. In view of the financial conditions now generally prevailing, 
Mr. Ilanna is optimistic as to the business for 1905, and believes 
that all makers of street railway material will be running at full 
capacity before summer. Tlis decision to take the Niles car agency 
was largely influenced by the advice of a numbir of railway men 
now using Niles cars. As the plant of both the Peckham and 
Nilcs companies are modern and finely equipped for economical 
production and their products are widely and favorably known, it 
would appear, in connection with the large actpiaintance of Messrs. 
Ilanna and Richards, that the new firm will receive a generous 

Electrical Equipment of the WillianishurK 

The electrical equipment of the double track road over the New 
Williamsburg bridge, which is to be operated by the Brooklyn 
Heights R. R. Co., has just been completed by J. G. White & Co., 


of New York, who did this work for Naughton & Co., who had 
contracted for all the track and overhead work. All of this work is 
of standard construction throughout and is of unusually heavy style. 
The Manhattan overhead construction is of steel lattice girders sup- 
ported on steel poles and also attached to the bridge structure proper. 

This work is about 300 ft. long and covers the five cross-overs at 
this terminal. The details of the special overhead trougbing at this 
place are shown in the accompanying illustration. Along the ap- 
proaches to the bridge arc creeled heavy mast arms extending over 
the double track. These arc fastened by special fittings to the bridge 

VIEW uf Kl..\U\\.\i .■.:...■ ......^ ..:.- AijRK. 

structure and the two trolley wires are supported by a span wire 
running under the bracket arm. 

There are about 10,000 lineal feet of single troughing. built of oak, 
fitted with expansion joints at intervals. This is supported every 
20 ft. on transverse girders by cleats and at intermediate points by 
special hangers attached to cross beams fastened to the longitudinal 
girders. The trolley wire is No. 000 phono-electric type supported 
every 15 ft. by specially designed insulating hangers. 

As there is an expansion and contraction of about 14 in. at each 
anchorage a specially designed expansion joint has been devised 
for the trolley wire. This operates very satisfactorily, causes no 
sparking of the trolley wheel and requires no insulated section. The 
joint is 8 ft. in length. 

There are eight miles of overhead positive feeders and seven 
miles of negative return feeders along the track. These are all 
standard weatherproof aluminum cables of 782,000 cm. section. 

On the Brooklyn approach near the bridge tower is erected a steel 
frame switch-house covered with corrugated iron from which point 
the overhead and track feeders extend. On the Brooklyn plaza two 
steel poles are erected for the overhead work. This work was done 
according to the Brooklyn Heights R. R. specifications, necessitating 
special patterns of overhead material. 

The work was constructed for the department of bridges of New 
York city, under the direction of Mr. Kinsey L. Martin, engineer in 
charge of the Williamsburg bridge, and the entire construction 
reflects great credit upon the sub-contractors, J. G. White & Co. 

The street railway of Padua, Italy, is to be taken over by the 

The Board of Health, of York, Pa., has deputed ten conductors 
in the employ of the York Traction Co., to enforce the anti-spitting 
ordinance pertaining to trolley cars. The conductors are authorized 
to make arrests for violations of the ordinance coming under their 



(Vo.. XV, No. 

Park Seats. 

The increasing number of street railway parks and pleasure 
resorts has considerably augmented a demand, already existing in 
connection with stations and waiting rooms, for various pieces 
of iron and wood work which should not only be attractive to 
the eye, but, being necessary for public use, should be strong and 


durable. Among the essentials for park and station requirement are 
benches or settees, several type of which are illustrated herewith. 
The makers of the settees shown are M. D. Jones & Co., 71 and 
73 Portland St.. Boston, one of the oldest concerns in this business. 


and one whose products are found in public and private grounds in 
all parts of the country. 

Fig. I is what is generally known as the Central Park settee, a 
type that the firm has made for over 30 years. This is quite a strong 
design, with cast iron legs and hard wood slats, and is made in 


5-ft. and 7-ft. lengths; the 7-ft. benches have three legs instead of 
two. These settees can be packed knocked down for shipment. 
Fig, 2 is the Jones wrought iron settee, a design that has been 

manufactured for several years. The legs in this type are of wrought 
iron; to these are bolted 11 slats of hard wood, making a seat for 
public use that is very strong and durable. 

Fig. 3 shows the Jones all-steel settee, which is made in the 
standard 5-ft. and 7-ft. lengths, and can be made any length required. 
This type of bench is coming into general use and besides parks is 
especially adapted for street railway, elevated and subway stations. 

Jones & Co. also makes seats of rustic design, using laurel roots 
and cedar. 

M. D. Jones & Co. manufacture all kinds of ornamental iron and 
wire work adapted for public and private grounds, such as small 
and large ornamental vases in iron, ornamental fountains and drink- 
ing fountains, garden borders, wire fences, arches, trellises, rustic 
wood arbors, vases, etc. ; also for conservatories and inside window 
gardens, plant stands, brackets, rustic wood hanging baskets, etc. 
The firm publishes a complete illustrated catalog, ^ent on application. 

Davis C^oinbination Hack Pressure and Relief 


A recent invention of Mr. G. C. Davis, of the G. M. Davis Engi- 
neering Co., 144 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, is that of a combination 
back pressure and atmospheric relief valve, which is illustrated here- 
with. This valve is designed to automatically change from vacuum 
conditions to pressure and from pressure conditions to vacuum, 
thereby obviating the necessity for two valves and the extra amount 
of piping that is often entailed to arrange for running an engine con- 
densing at one time and non-condensing at another. As in the well- 
known Davis standard noiseless back pressure valve, there is also 
embodied in this valve a diflferential semi-balanced disk. The upper 
or main disk is of the full area of the inlet pipe and seats on steam 
metal and babbitt surfaces. The lower or semi-balanced disk has no 
positive seat but operates in a large dash pot and is made tight with 
bronze expansion rings. Tlie diaphragm attachment and accompany- 
ing connections make possible the automatic features, with which 
— in combination with the different seats — it is able to hold a back 



pressure up to 20 lb. or a vacuum of 29 in. witliout changing or ad- 
justing any part of the valve. A lo-lb. weight is required on the 
lever arm, a feature which appeals to the users of single seated 

A large number of these valves have been installed in street rail- 
way power plants in connection with the Curtis turbines, ranging in 
sizes from 12 in. to 24 in., among which may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing : Public Service Corporation, Newark, N. J.; Chattanooga 
Light & Power Co., Chattanooga. Tenn. ; Binghamton Light, Heat &• 
Power Co., Binghamton, N. Y. ; Northern Ohio Traction Co.. Akron, 
O. ; Columbus Railway Co.. Columbus, O.; Saginaw Valley Traction 
Co., Saginaw, Mich. ; Oshkosh Electric Light Co., Oshkosh, Wis. ; 
Meridian Light & Railway Co., Meridian, Miss. ; Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Co., Greenville, N. J. ; International Light & Power Co., EI 
Paso, Texas. 


Fifty new cars are now being built for the Cincinnati Traction 
Co., and larger platforms are being put on 50 of the old cars. 

The Rockford, Beloit & Janesville Interurban company and other 
interurban companies in northern Illinois are arranging a through 
train service between Janesville and Illinois cities to run in oppo- 
sition to the steam railways. 

Jan. is. "VS] 



ScIlli-(-<^n^cI•tiblc (>ais for Jersey <>ciiti;il 
Traction Company. 

riic :n'''iiiii|iMiiyinK illuslr.-ilion shows iiiu' (jf a minilicr of cars 
rccciilly i-iiiii|ilfHil liy llir .1. (1 llrill Co. for tin- Jersey Central 
'I'mctioii (n, I 111'^ .ni' the hiiilders' patcnicfl scnii-converlililc 
type and are for service lielwecn Kcyporl. Matawan and Red liaiik, 
towns of eastern New Jersey, Kcyport lieing on Karitan Ray. 'Vhv 
lines are iS miles in length and an i8-inile extension to Sonth 
.^lnl)oy is nndcr construction. The lines serve a large popidation 
which is considerably increased during the summer season. The 
seating capacity of each car is 40 jiasscngers. the seats heing of the 
step-over type 36 in. long and the width of the aisle 22 in. 'I'he 
windows at the rear of the car, which are raised into roof pockets, 
give an idea of the appearance of the car wlien open for summer 
service. The low window sills, the height being 245^ in. from floor 
to top of sill, arc considered to he a decided advantage in a car of 


this type, and all the semi-convcrtiblc cars of this type are being 
hnilt witli low window sills. The lower sash measures 26^^ in. over 

the frame and the upper 17J4 '"•. '''Oth together weighing 17 


there are ten windows to a side, there is 170 lb. weight of sashes 
when raised in each side roof, three-quarters of which weight bears 
vertically on the tops of the posts. This excess of weight, though 
small, is amply compensated for in the extra strong construction, 
including a heavier letterboard than usual. The general dimen- 
sions of the cars are : Length over end panels 28 ft. ; over vesti- 
bules 37 ft. s in. ; platforms, 4 ft. Syi in. ; width over sills, 7 ft. 
\o]A in. ; over posts, at belt, 8 ft. 2 in. ; from under the side of side 
sills over trolley board, 9 ft. g^ in.; sweep of posts i}i in.; thickness 
of corner posts, 3.54 in. and of side posts 3]4 in. ; from center to cen- 
ter of side post, 2 ft. 8 in. ; side sills, 4 x 7^ in., with 12 x M-in. 
plates on the inside ; end sills, s]4 " 6% in. Most of the load of 
the platforms is carried on angle iron center knees which extend 
well back of the body bolsters, thus relieving the ends of the car 
from platform strains. The cars are furnished with the builders' 
patented specialties, among which include the following: Angle 
iron bumpers, radial drawbars, "Dedenda" gongs, "Retriever" con- 
ductor's bells, "Dumpit" sand boxes, track scrapers, window sill 
arm rests and ratchet brake handles. The cars are mounted on 
Brill No. 27-G trucks with 4-ft. wheel base, 33-in. wheels and 4-in. 

World's Fair Awards. 

In addition to those awards mentioned in the "Review" for Novem- 
her and December, the following were made to the exhibitors at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition : 

J. A. Fay & Egan Co., of Cincinnati, O., which manufactures wood- 
working machinery, was awarded a medal on the fine operation of 
one of its tools. The company had no regular exhibit, but some of 
its tools were shown and operated by other concerns for exhibiting 
their various products, which required some woodworking tools. 

The National Carbon Co.. Cleveland. O., has been awarded a grand 
prize for all carbon products exhibited by this company, including 
carbon brushes for motors and generators, Columbia dry batteries, 
Columbia carbons for long burning enclosed arc lamps, carbon elec- 
trodes and telephone specialties. 

The Shepherd Engineering Co., of Franklin. Pa., has been awarded 
the gold medal for its engines by the Philippine Government Board 
:it the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, for their cNcellency of de- 

sign, workmanship and operation, — the three pointfi most ci^scntial 
in an engine. During the life of the Expo'-ilioii, the Sliephenl com 
paiiy had three of its engines, two simple and one compound, in 
service at the power house of the Philippine Ex|>osition, and, of 
course, it was on the strength of what the Govcninicnl Board saw 
in these engines in aeliial service that convinced them of their sn- 


The Sloan Sleet Cutter. 

The W. K. Garton Co. has just brought <ml a new sleet culler, 
patent for which is pending. It embodies new features and new 
characteristics, and is known as the "Sloan." I'niike *ome other 


devices used for this purpose, there are no loose parts to iojc or 
become misplaced, and it can be placed in position or taken off the 
trolley in a very few seconds. It is very readily applied, and the 
readiness with which it is attached and removed is one of the par- 
ticular features. Another of the very striking and desirable points 
is that of the hump on the back. This serves a purpose which is 
highly appreciated by railway men, viz., that it overcomes the pos- 
sibility of the sleet cutters wedging in the bridles, frogs, crossings 
or other angular points in the overhead construction. Actual ex- 
perience has proven that this cutter will save overhead material and 
construction where other cutters have proven defective. 

This cutter has been in actual service for about one year, during 
which time the manufacturer was eliminating all points of weakness 
and adding those which were found necessary. The sleet cutting 
shoe is detachable and is readily placed in position and held there by 
means of two screws. The cutter is so arranged as to snap into 
place, the hook on the bottom of the cutter conforming to the groove 
in the wheel and the outer end of the cutter being attached to the 
pole by means of a spring snap. These can be carried on cars and 
taken off or detached in a moment's time, and, as there are no loose 
pieces, the likelihood of some part being missing is entirely obviated 
The cutter is very slight, consistent with necessary strength, and the 
general outlines are pleasing and consistent with good construction 
and necessary rigidity. 

Forty Kuhlman Cars for Rochester. 

The Rochester Railway Co.. of Rochester, X. Y., has within a short 
time added to its equipment 40 new car? built by the G. C. Kuhl- 
man Car Co. Twenty of these cars are semi-convertibles built 
under the Brill patents, and 20 have sashes which drop into 
pockets in the side walls. All the cars are mounted on Brill trucks; 
those of the semi-convertible type are carried on No. 27-G trucks, 
while those with the dropped sash windows are on No. 54 type. 
The general dimensions of both styles of cars are the same and arc : 
Length over end panels. 28 ft. ; over vestibules, 39 ft. ; width over 
sills, 7 ft. 5)^2 in. ; over posts at belt. 7 ft. 9 in. The side sills are 
4 .\ 744 in. and end sills 4^ x 6?^ in- : sill plates. 12 x i^ in ; thick- 
ness of corner posts. 3J4 in., and of side posts. 3'/i in. Cherry in 
natural color constitutes the interior finish and the ceilings are of 
birdseye maple. Seats are of the Brill step-over type 36 in. long, 
and the aisles of the semi-convertible cars are 22 in. wide. .All the 
cars are equipped with track scrapers, sand boxes, platform gongs. 



[Vol.. XV, No. I. 

brake handles, and bumpers of Brill manufacture. The arrange- 
ment of seats in the car with windows which drop into wall pockets 
is that shown in the Rochester cars illustrated in the "Review" for 
August, 1903, page 460. Longitudinal seats extending half the 
length of the car are placed at diagonally opposite sides with trans- 
versely placed double seats opposite. This arrangement provides 
a wide aisle and, at the same time, balances the load. The Roches- 
ter Railway Co. operates nearly 250 cars and has a trackage of more 
than 150 miles. The lines enter the city from all directions and 
converge at the business center. Several of the finest amusement 
parks in the country are owned and operated by the railway com- 
pany; one of them is at Sodus Bay and is reached by a line 40 
miles long which traverses the picturesque valley of the Genesee 

New Cars for Torrcon, Mexico. 

Steel Lockers. 

The problem of disposing of wearing apparel of employes while 
engaged in their daily labor has long been a troublesome one for 
the managers of factories, stations, stores and other places where a 
large number of people are employed. The introduction of all steel 
lockers, however, has practically overcome all the objections met 
with in the old style of wooden lockers. The latter have always 
proved unsanitary, and the dust and dirt from umbrellas, boots and 
clothes has proved one of the most objectionable features. The 
lack of ventilation in case the clothing was a little damp soon made 
such lockers mouldy and foul smelling. The pen-dar metal lockers 
made by Edward Darby & Sons Co., of Philadelphia, are constructed 
entirely of steel, thus doing away with the most objectionable fea- 





:::: ;:::: 

1 !■■■■!■■■■ 
a **••■■■■••;• 

*■•• .<•■■■ 


tures of wooden lockers. One of the many forms of lockers made 
by this company is illustrated herewith. The frame and supports 
of these lockers are of angle iron braced and riveted, and the fronts, 
sides and bottom are of open mesh, permitting a free circulation of 
air. The backs and tops arc of sheet steel. Each locker has a shelf, 
nickle plated coat hooks and a three-point combination lock, which 
fastens at the top, bottom and side of the door with one motion. 
Duplicate keys are provided and each set is mastered. They are 
made in groups of any convenient number. These lockers have 
been highly endorsed by Fire Underwriters because, being of open 
mesh, the contents can be inspected at will and any fire starting 
within a locker can be instantly discovered. If necessity for fumi- 
gation should arise an entire locker room can be treated without 
removing a single garment from its locker. They are furnished in 
neat and attractive styles and the great number of these lockers 
installed is ample proof of their desirability. 

The American Car Co. has lately shipped a number of open and 
closed cars to the Tranvias de Torrcon, Me.xico, two of which are 
shown in the accompanying engravings. Torreon is one of the prin- 
cipal commercial and railway centers of northern Mexico and is 
about 400 miles north of the city of Mexico. The closed cars, which 
have 20 ft. 8 in. bodies and are 28 ft. 8 in. over the crown pieces, 
have transverse seats upholstered in cane and are of the step-over 
type furnishing a seating capacity of 32. The lower sashes of the 
windows are arranged to drop into pockets in the side walls and the 
upper sashes are stationary. Double corner posts are used with glass 
set in between, which give a pleasing appearance as well as pro- 


vide extra strength. The distance between the side posts is 29 in. 
and the sweep of posts is 5 in. The width over sills is 7 ft. 5 in. ; 
over posts at belt, 8 ft. 2 in.; side sills, 3]4xsH 'i-J end sills, 
Syi x65^ in. ; thickness of corner posts, 3^ in. ; of side posts, 1^4 in. ; 
seats, 33 in. long; aisle, i8K> in. wide. Folding gates of the Brill 
patented type are provided at the platform entrances and are hinged 
to the car body. The height from rail to platform step is i8]/i in. 
and from step to platform 13 in. 

The open cars are 27 ft. ^ in. over crown pieces. From bulk- 
heads over crown pieces is 3 ft. 2 in.; width over sills including sill 
plates, 6 ft. 3 in. ; over posts at belt, " ft. yi in. ; sweep of posts, 5 in. ; 


from center to center of posts, 2 ft. 8 in. ; side sills, 3J4 x 7 in. with 
7 X i^-in. sill plates ; thickness of corner posts, 3% in. ; of side posts, 
2^ in.; from rail to step, I7!4 in.; from step to car floor, IS'A in. 
All the cars are equipped with angle iron bumpers, ratchet brake 
handles, "Dedenda" gongs, of the Brill make, and the open cars 
have Brill .patented round-corner seat-end panels. The trucks are 
Brill No. 21-E type having 7-ft. wheel base and 33-in. wheels, and 
are equipped with 3S-h. p. motors. 

The employes of the Santa Barbara Consolidated Railway Co., 
Santa Barbara, Cal., have organized a club for the purpose of pleas- 
ure and study. The plan is to lease rooms, which will be suitably 
furnished, and the local instructor of the International Correspond- 
ence School will have charge of the classes in instruction. 

The employes of the York County Traction Co. and the York 
Street Railway Co., York, Pa., have incorporated under the title, 
"Beneficial Association of Street Railway Employes." 

Package and express service has recently been inaugurated on the 
lines of the Stark Electric Railroad Co. between Canton, Louisville, 
Alliance, Damascus and Salem, O., and arrangements are con- 
templated with other electric lines by which Akron, Massillon 
Navarre, Canal Dover, New Philadelphia and Uhrichsville will be 

Jan. 15, 1905.1 



The Lima Insulator. 

I lie W. R. Gartou Co., 118- 132 West Jackson lioulcvanl, Chicago, 
has recently closed a contract with the Lima Insulator Co. of Lima, 
N. Y., to act as its exclusive general western agent. The Lima com- 
pany is manufacturing a high grade of high tension porcelain in 

bearings through holes in (he crank shaft and web to the crank 
pin. From this point the oil is conducted up through a hole in the 
connecting rod to the crosshead pin. A separate set of pipes con- 
veys the oil from the crosshead guides to the valve stem guides. 
The pressure of oil in the bearings under this system will vary from 
12 to 18 lb. per sq. in. The mechanical efficiency of the engine is so 


sulators, giving especial attention to details with a view to securing 
results of the highest standard. 'I'he accompanying engraving shows 
the insulators which are being placed upon the market by the Gartoii 
company, being gas fired, of excellent white and brown porcelain 
and of an attractive form. The W. R. Carton Co. has spent several 
years giving close attention to the requirements of high tension work 
and are prepared to serve the trade intelligently and faithfully in 
tliis particular, and the Lima Insulator Co. will gradually increase its 
facilities until it is able to meet the demand of prompt deliveries of 
the very large increased trade which is anticipated for the coming 

New Sturtevant Generating Set. 

In response to the demand for a high-class generating set at rea- 
sonable cost, the B. F. Sturtevant Co. of Boston, Mass., has de- 
veloped the type, illustrated herewith. 

The general design of the engine embodies all the latest improve- 
ments to the horizontal type. The reciprocating parts are substan- 
tially constructed and counterbalanced with lead load disks. A 
feature of construction is that of forging the crankshaft solid in one 
piece and shrinking the disks onto it. A special arrangement of 
the Rites' governor gives a regulation within 1 to I'A per cent 
from full load to no load, and by a modification of the Marshal! 
valve gear an adjustment of the cut-off from zero to 70 per cent 
is attained. The main bearings, crank pin, valve stem and slides of 
this engine are well babbitted with the Sturtevant white metal. A 
recent and important improvement is that water-shed partition which 
prevents the water from the piston rod stuffing box from reaching 
the interior of the engine frame, and the oil on the reciprocatins; 
parts from being thrown out into the engine room. The main body 
of the engine is enclosed on both sides by movable plates, as may 
be seen from the illustration, and the crank webs are enclosed by a 
cast iron hood having two holes with removable covers, one for thv 
purpose of cleaning the crankpin box while the engine is in motion and 
the other for removing the box without taking od the large hood. 
Between the water-shed partition and the front end of the cylinder, 
is a hand hole for reaching the stuffing box bolts without commu- 
nication to the oil spaces. 

There are two oiling systems for this type of engine, the gravity 
or tank system and that by forced pump lubrication. With the 
gravity or tank system, shown in the illustration, an oil tank sup- 
plies the pipes leading to the parts to be oiled. At each point where 
the oil is delivered is a little gage glass and valve for regulating 
the flow at that point. A valve just below the tank regulates the 
entire oiling system. 

With the pump, or forced lubricating system, a pump is located 
in the base of the engine and is operated by the crank-shaft. Oil 
is delivered from this pump to the main bearings and from the main 

materially increased by this system of lubrication that its demand i* 
rapidly increasing. 

The generator of this set is of the eight-pole type, and is capa- 
ble of carrying momentary over-loads of 50 per cent without any 
shifting of brushes or flashing of the commutator and an over-load 
or 25 per cent for a period of two hours without undue heating. 
.After a continuous run of ten hours at full load, the increase in tem- 
perature above that of the surrounding air never exceeds 40° C upon 


the armature and field coils, and 45° C, upon the commutator. The 
average temperature rise is about 33° to 35° C. Before being shipped, 
the generator is given a break-down test of 1500 volts, alternating 
for sixty seconds between the conductors and the frame of the 
machine to test the insulation. 

The magnet frame is of the very best grade of cast iron, split hor- 
izontally. The pole pieces are of wrought iron with cast iron shoes 
or horns and are secured to the magnet frame by through bolts. 
Any of the pole pieces may thus be removed to repair the field 
coils. The latter are wound up in two sections, with an air space 
between the shunt and scries coils. The shunt winding is of double 
cotton covered magnet wire of highest conductivity, thoroughly in- 
sulated and so treated as to be practically waterproof. The series 
winding is of solid copper bars, insulated in the same manner as the 
shunt coil. 

The armature is of the ironclad, form wound, ventilated drum type. 
having a core built up of charcoal iron plates, which plates, after 
being thoroughly japanned, are mounted upon a cast iron spider 
and securely held in position by end flanges. No bolts pass through 
the armature laminations. The armature spider has an extension 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

upon which is mounted the commutator making tlic armature and 
commutator one unit. 

The armature conductors are solid copper bars, without joints ex- 
cept at the commutator end. When these bars are formed they are in- 
sulated by material not perceptibly affected by heat or ordinary 
atmospheric moisture. 

In the construction of the commutator, only drop-forged or drawn 
segments arc used, these being secured in cast iron shells of spider 
construction and clamped :n place with a steel ring. No cast seg- 
ments of any nature whatever are used. The segments are insulated 
with the best quality of carefully selected mica of a degree of hard- 
ness to allow the mica and segment to wear uniformly, obviating 
trouble from high mica. The end insulation consists of micanite 
rings, and the whole commutator is assembled while hot, under 
great pressure. Carbon brushes only are used, the commutator being 
so proportioned and the brushes of such size as to allow at least one 
square inch of brush area lo every 30 amperes carried. These 
brushes arc carried in holders of most approved construction, each 
mounted upon a self-contained brush rigging so arranged that the 
entire set of brushes may be rotated completely around tlic com- 

Hand wheels are furnished for adjusting the brushes in position. 
these hand wheels being so located that the brushes may be adjusted 
from either side of the generator. 

Westinshouse Railway Motor No. 92.A. 

The Westinghouse No. 92-A railway motor, a general view of 
which is shown herewith, is designed to perform the same class of 
service as the No. 49 motor, but differs from the latter in several 
important details. Its design closely resembles the Westinghouse 
Nos. 9,^ and lOt-B motors. 

The new model is designed for both city and suburban service. 
In city service a double equipment is suitable for operating single or 
double truck cars weighing from 14,000 to 15,000 lb. without equip- 
ment or load. In this service with stops ^ to H of a mile apart a 
double equipment with gear ratio of 14 to 68 will produce schedule 
speeds of 10 to lyA m. p. h, with 500 volts pressure and a straight 
level track. .-X four-motor equipment will operate a double truck car 


weighing 30,000 lb. attaining practically the same speeds just men- 
tioned. The No. 92-A motor has a nominal rating of 35 h. p. for 
one hour but this is only an approximate indication of its suitability 
• for a given service 

.■\ study of the accoinpanyiug curves is necessary to determine the 
suitability of this motor for any particular condition of service. This 
motor has a continuous capacity of 30 amperes at 300 volts or 28 
amperes at 400 volts. A shop test of 24 hours at these loads 
showed that the temperature rise in the windings will not exceed 
75° C. In actual service the better ventilation will reduce this rise- 
in temperature considerably. 

The frame is approximately cylindrical and consists of two steel 
castings accurately fitted, 'fhese are hinged together allowing the 
lower frame to swing downward. The armature may be swung down 
with the lower frame or may be retained in the upper frame. Access 
to the commutator or brush holders is provided by an opening in the 

upper frame which is closed by a dust proof lid. Hand holds are 
provided in the lower field which are closed by watertight covers. 
The four poles project inward at an angle of 45°. These are built 
up of annealed punchings riveted together between wrought-iron end 
plates and bolted to the frame. The field coils are wound with 
copper strap insulated with asbestos and mica and several layers of 
tape. The coils are machine wound and are interchangeable and are 
held in place by flat steel springs. 

" The armature is of the slotted drum type built up of circular punch- 
ings of soft steel mounted on a cast-iron spider. Special attention 
has been given to providing air ducts through the armature to insure 
good ventilation and a uniform temperature throughout. It is 
wound with machine formed coils, heavily insulated, which are im- 
bedded in slots on the armature. 


The commutator is of the straight bar type without necks and 
comprises 123 bars of hard drawn copper. 

The cast brass arms bolted to the upper frame carry the brushes. 
The latter are copper plated carbon and each is 'A^'i'A in. in sec- 
tion. The armature bearings are of large size, each bearing consist- 
ing of a cast-iron bushing in one piece lined with babbitt. Each 
bearing is carried in a housing of cast-iron which is held in place 
by tap bolts through both the upper and lower frames, and turning 
is prevented by a key. These housings contain an oil and waste 
reservoir covered by metal caps held by springs. 

The axle bearings consist of iron shells divided horizontally and 
lined with babbitt. Each is eight inches long and may be made for 
any diameter of axle up to five inches. Lubrication is obtained in a 
manner similar to that of the armature bearings. 

The No. 92-A motor is designed for cross-bar suspension. The 
pinions are forged steel, the gear, which is in two parts, is of cast 
steel, the face being five inches. The gear case is of malleable iron 
in two castings. This is made to bear very hard service and the 
gears may be run in oil if desired. The motor complete with gear 
case weighs 2.320 lb. and a two motor equipment with two con- 
trollers weighs approximately 5,680 lb. A four motor equipment 
with controllers, etc., weighs about 10,900 lb. 

Street railway employes at Binghampton, N. Y.. were recently 
tendered a reception at the Binghampton Public Library in order 
that they might become acquainted with the many valuable books 
on electricity and the many advantages that institution holds out to 

Les Tramways Florentins, which is a joint stock company with a 
capital stock of 8,250,000 lire ($1,650,000), began operation Apr. 6, 
1880, and now has 48 miles of steam and 28 miles of electric road iii 
operation. The traffic manager is Alfredo De Bonia, and the chief 
engineer Domenico Spallicci. 

Jan. 15, 1905I 




DcccidIiit r7lli. MnriiiK a snow .storm, a iiorllilioiiful far on tin- 
.■Mli'iilown & SlatiiiKl"" Streel railway liad a licail-on collision willi 
a siiMlli-homul car, five miles from Allcnlown, Pa. Two persons 
were Uillcd and of the fio passengers on the north-bound car, it is 
slated, very feu c'sca|ic<l injury. 

Deccnilicr 2^t\\, one man was killcil .-mil nine others injured in 
a crash between an outbound Kinlitli .ind ("entral St. car ami a 
Nortliern Pacific switch cnsiiie at Mnnieapolis, Minn. The acci 
dent wa^ due to a misinterjirelation of the signals between the 
crossing watchman, the niotorman and tlie engineer, 

December J.Stli. nine passengers, the niotorman and the conductor 
iif .111 electric car on the Camp St. line were injured at Providence, 
K. I. The car got beyond tlic control of the niotorman going down 
a hill, at llie foot of which the car jiiiii|h-i1 the tr.ick and into a 
pole on Ihe west side of the street. 

December ,^olh, an castbound Wabash freight train crashed into 
a I lalsted St. car of the Chicago Union Traction Co., and of the 10 
passengers five were injured, one seriously. 

December ,10th, in the destruction by fire of the repair shop of 
the Chicago lliiion i'raction Co. at Washington Boul. ant! Harding 
.\ve., two firemen were killed and three injured in fighting the 

Tranvias de Salamanca. 

The Ferrucarril Urbane de Salamanca is the name of the com 
pany which controls the street railway of Salamanca, Guanajuato. 
Mexico. The line, which is l,.soo meters in length, starts at the 
principal square of the town and runs to the Mexican Central and 
Mexican National railway stations, passing through the principal 
streets. The motive power is animal and the equipment of the 
road consists of two coaches for handling passengers and two plat 
form cars for handling freight. The principal offices of the com- 
pany are at Calle del Angel No. 18, Salamanca, and the officers of 
the company are : President, general superintendent and purchas- 

Bad^cs for Intcrhorou^h Einploycs. 

With the opening of the subway division of the IiilerlxjrouKli 
Kapid Transit Co. in New York, the American Railway Snpply Co, 
made S.Hso badges for the company. Among this lot there were 
2,000 employes' coat badges of a particularly attractive design, Ihc 
accompanying illustration showing Ihe design and exact size. It 
is made of fjerman silver, the letters are embossed and the figures 
are brazed on. The entire badge is then finished in o.xydircd silver 



The .\merican r<ailway Supply Co. has its headquarters at 24 Park 
Place, New York City, and manufactures baggage checks, hotel 
checks, luinibcr plates, pay checks, tokens, medals, breast badges. 
cap badges and buttons, and all sorts of stamped and embossed 
metal work. The company also carries a line of numbering ma- 
chines, dating stamps, registering or counting machines, seals, hotel 
trucks, lanterns, ticket punches, metal letters and figures, office mail 
bags and heavy mail bags for railroad use. 

A New Trolley Wire Finder. 

Ihe accompanying engraving is that of a new trolley wire finder 
which has recently been invented by Reed & Balxrock. of 714 Mace- 
donia Ave., Muncie, Ind., and which has just been placed upon the 
market by its inventors. The design of this device is of such sim- 
plicity that its construction and operation may readily be deter- 
mined from the illustration. It consists of a U-shaped piece of 
metal, which fits on the trolley spindle between the harp and the 


iiig agent, Fcdcrico (iarma ; secretary. Enrique .Santa Maria; treas 
iirer, J. Dolores Gonzales ; manager, Pedro Vasquez. 

This company also controls the railway in the hacienda of San 
\ icente, situated in the valley of Santiago, state of Guanajuato 
riiis line i.s 2,250 meters long, principally for service in the hacienda 
of San Vicente, although the company handles business for the 
neighboring haciendas, delivering both freight and passengers at the 
Garma station of the Mexican National R. R., where the line con- 
nects with that railway. The company has for this service a tram 
way car with a capacity for 25 persons, and for freight service two 
platform cars with a capacity of 12 tons each. The traction power 
is animal ; the gage is narrow, being 924 mm. and the rails weigh 
7 kilograms to the yard, these being purchased from manufacturers 
in the United States. .\ fine shaded road leads from the railway 
station to the hacienda of San Vicente, as may be seen in the ac- 
companying engraving. 


trolley wheel. To this is attached the trolley rope so that when it 
i pulled down by the conductor to place the wheel on the trolley 
wdre it throws the finder into a vertical position, as shown. The 
normal position of the finder is horizontal, the weight of the ends of 
the prongs being such as to cause it to return to this position as 
soon as the trolley wheel is on the wire, and the rope hangs slack. 
The device has been tested by local street railway men at Muncie 
and pronounced to be very successful. 

A class of students from Purdue University. LaFayette. Ind.. re- 
cently visited the central power station of the Indiana Union 
Traction Co. at .Anderson and the power house of the Indianapolis 
& Northwestern system at Lebanon, for the purpose of inspecting 
their operation. 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

Type B Single Phase Integrating Wattmeter. 

The newest p^tern of Westinghouse integrating wattmeter is the 
type B, which is designed for use upon single phase circuits of 
7,200 and 10,000 alternations. In all its essential features it com- 
plies with the Westinghouse standard designs which employ the 
principle of shunting. The greater portion of the field due to the 
shunt winding and allowing only a short portion to combine with 
the series field to produce a torque on the disk. 

The accompanying illustration shows one of the new instruments 
with a glass cover, and they are also made with metal covers. It 
is compact in form and the front connections on top of the meter 
case add materially to convenience in installation. It is a sealed 
meter with the original calibration preserve under the makers' 
seal and it requires no adjustment when put into service. It is 
only necessary to connect the line wires to the four terminals and 
to take the initial reading of the meter to put it into use. Four 
binding posts are used for connecting up both sides of the circuit 

The Drumniond Detective Agency. 


to the meter. The shunt connection is permanently made inside 
the meter. 

All the working parts of this meter are attached to a single cast- 
ing which insures strength and rigidity, perfect allignment and also 
reduces the liability of injury from jarring. 

Two magnets are used which permit the adoption of a wide air 
gap, thus eliminating the danger of the disk rubbing. The adjust- 
ments are conveniently located and easily made. At full load the 
disk makes 25 revolutions per minute. The meter records directly 
without the use of a constant and its accuracy is not aflfected by 
reasonable variations in voltage. It is claimed to record correctly 
from two per cent of full load to fifty per cent overload, and under 
all conditions of power factor and wave form. 

The essential feature of the ball bearing of the older types, 
which consist of a steel ball between two cup-shaped sapphire jewels, 
is retained for the lower bearing in this meter. For the upper 
bearing the shaft which supports the disk is drilled out at its 
upper end slightly larger than the pin which is attached to the upper 
screw and at one point its depth its diameter is reduced to form a 
bearing for the pin. At the bottom of the hole is placed a piece of 
felt impregnated with oil and capillary attraction causes the oil to 
creep up and oil the bearing. 

Probably few electric railway officials realize the work, methods 
and results accomplished by a first class street railway detective 
agency. The common error is in the supposition that the services 
of such an agency are only necessary in times of strikes and violence, 
or in cases of special leakages or defrauding, not realizing that their 
value lies in systematic every-day work in the various departments 
of a road, in apparently prosperous and peaceable times. 

This work is divided into three distinct branches, namely, spotting, 
strike breaking and accident defrauding cases. 

The Drummond Detective Agency make a specialty of furnishing 
employes, well skilled in any of the departments of electric rail- 
way work, who apparently arc employed by the road, the same as 
other employes, apparently paid the same as other employes and 
doing equally as good and proficient work. These men associate 
with, work with and become on an equal footing with the road's 
regular employes, thus being enabled to report any trouble brewing, 
dissatisfaction, or threatened strikes, furnishing the officials of the 
road with the names of the trouble makers or agitators, so that by 
laying off tliose employes a serious strike may be nipped in the bud. 

This part of the spotting amounts to strike breaking, although 
the Drummond Detective .'Agency also furnishes men for strike 
breaking, after a strike has been declared. But the proper spotting 
of a system as furnished by this company will usually avert a 

One branch of its work consists in investigating and shadow 
work in cases of defrauding a railway by fake damage suits. As is 
well known there are many instances of injury where large damages 
are paid, when in reality the plaintiflf was slightly injured and in 
-ome instances where the injury was caused other than by the rail- 
way company. 

This agency is located at I Ann St., New York City, and is in 
charge of Mr. .\. L. Drummond, ex-chief of the U. S. Government 
Secret Service. 

« » » 

West Penn Annual Banquet. 

One of tlie many features which have brought the officers and 
employes of the railway and lighting departments of the West Penn 
Railway & Lighting Companies in closer touch with each other, and 
an affair to which both look forward with a great deal of interest, 
is the annual banquet. The companies have recently sent out passes 
to the many employes and friends of the companies passing the 
bearer for the year 1905 along the line of prosperity, health and 
happiness, on the reverse side of which is an invitation to the 
annual banquet which was held in Pritchard's Hall, Connellsville, 
Pa., Wednesday night, December 28th, at 2:00 a. m. Those in 
charge have put forth their best efforts to make this affair more 
enjoyable this year than before, and among other things provided 
special cars from the Uniontown and Iron Bridge barns to convey 
the guests to the banquet hall. 

In order to further stimulate interest in the construction of the 
Cedar Rapids, Waterloo & Northern railway, hundreds of buttons 
containing the picture of a trolley car in the center, above which are 
the words, "Urbana, Brandon, Shady Grove and Jubilee" and un- 
derneath "The Farmers' Favorite Line. United We Stand," are be- 
ing distributed. 

The city council of Cleveland, O., has authorized the Cleveland 
Electric Railway Co. to begin an e.xperimental service for an in- 
definite length of time to determine the profitableness of a 3-cent 
fare within a radius of two miles from the center of the city. No 
transfers will be given on the 3-cent fares and the company has tlie 
right to abandon the experiment at its discretion. 

Newspaper .reports state that the Cripple Creek Central R. R. pro- 
poses to eq\iip its line with electricity. 

The report of the Secretary of the Commonwealth of the state of 
Pennsylvania shows that the street railway business of that state is 
rapidly increasing. During the two years which ended Dec. i, igo4, 
charters were granted to 194 street railway companies as against 
54 granted to steam railroads. In addition to this there were also 
364 certificates granted extending the routes of street railways. 


Vol. XV 


No. 2 

The Iowa & Illinois Railway Co. 

DcHcribiiis the Line, Power Plant, Rolling Stock and Opeiatinu .MctlinJs of the Recently Completed 
Interuiban Line IJetween Clinton and Daxenport, Iowa. 

Tlie new iiitcnirbaii line between Clinton ;nul Davenport, la., was 
fi)rnially opened tn traffic Nov. 20, 1904. 'I'liis roatl, vvhieli is 36 
miles in lengtli, practically parallels the Mississippi Valley for tlie 
entire distance between its terminals and for a nnniber of miles 
rnns close to the Mississippi River, whose nnmcrons wooded islands 
and winding banks make the trip over the new intenirban full of 
interest and offer at freqnent intervals many charming rustic \fiews. 

Starlinp; at Clinton the cars of this company operate arouitrl a 
liicip upon tlic tracks of the Slate Electric Co. for a distance of 

grade 1,200 ft. long on the approach lo a viaduct over the Chicago & 
Northwestern railway at Comanche. The sharpest curve is one of 
three degrees. 

The cuts along the line are rather light, the heaviest one heiiig 
knr)wn as I'inneo cut in Princeton, is alwut 25 ft. deep. Si.\ly 
thousand yards of earth were removed from this cut and used 
in making an approach of one per cent grade. There arc two 
iS-ft. rock cuts on either side of Budd Cretk near Princeton, whose 
combined length is 1,000 ft. The only other cat along the line is 


tine mile. From the loop in Clinton the company operates over 
its own private right of way for a distance of 33 miles to the city 
of Davenport, where it operates over a loop on the tracks of the 
Tri-city Railway Co. for a distance of two miles. 

The population of Clinton is 27,000 and of Davenport, 40,000, 
while Rock Island and Moline have together about 50.000. On 
the route are the small towns of Princeton, LeClaire and Pleasant 
Valley. The rural population in the territory tributary to the line 
is an important item but the greater portion of the traffic is expected 
to be through business and accordingly the line has been designed 
with an especial view to high speed operation. The grades do not 
exceed one per cent except at one point where there is a two per cent 

one at a station called Tile Works where there is a short 25-ft. cuL 
There are several long fills upon this road and considerable trestle 
work, which is being filled in as rapidly as possible. There is one 
fill at ShafTton three-fourths of a mile long and 15 ft. high and 
another south of Le Claire one mile long varying from 10 to 15 ft. 
in height. The most noticeable work of this character is a com- 
bined trestle and bridge at Wapsie, the whole being 3.100 ft. long, of 
which 2,300 ft. of trestle is to be filled. There arc a number of 
other trestles and bridges along the line all of which have been 
designed for carrying a 40-ton car. There is a plate girder via- 
duct 350 ft. long at Comanche, a i50-ft. through truss bridge 
at Wapsie ; loo-ft. through truss bridge over Budd Creek and 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

i 90-ft. through truss bridge and 700 ft. of temporary trestle 
to be filled at Pleasant Valley. The foundations of all culverts 
are of concrete and the smaller ones are built with 24-in. to 36-in. 
pipes with from one to four pipes to a culvert, the pipes being laid 
between concrete head-walls. The larger culverts are open and 
have concrete abutments connected by T-beams. There are three 

ballast is also procured from another crushing plant at 
Le Claire.' .^t present the road is only partially ballasted, but 
the work of ballasting is being carried on as rapidly as possible 
and the roadbed is expected to be entirely completed during next 
spring. The overhead construction is bracket work except at curves 
and turnouts where span construction is used. The poles are 30 
and 35 ft. long, 7 in. in diameter at the top and were selected to 
standard specifications. The brackets are extra long (11 ft.) and 
extra heavy, the poles being set 8J4 ft. from the track center to 
avoid any possibility of accident from this source. All of the ovcr- 



surface crossings, and one over-head crossing with the Chicago & 
Northwestern railway at Comanche. Only one of the surface cross- 
ings, is with a main line road ; the latter is a crossing with the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at Shaflfton, Of the other two sur- 
face crossings one is with a double switch track of the Davenport, 
Rock Island & Northwestern at a place called Quarry, and the 
other is a single switch track crossing with the same line at Bet- 

Roadbed and Overhead Work. 

The track is laid with Illinois Steel Co. 70-lb. T-rails of A. S. 

C. E. section in 30-ft lengths. The joints are staggered and are 

made with six-bolt fish plates. The track is bonded with the 

.\merican Steel & Wire Co's. g-in. U. S. bonds of No. 0000 capac- 

head material was supplied by the Mayer & Englund Co. of Phila- 
delphia. There are two No. 0000 round trolley wires carried in 20-oz., 
iS-in. clinch and soldered ears which are supported in heavy malle- 
able iron yokes ; these are attached to the brackets by short suspen- 
sion. The high tension lines consist of three No. 4 hard drawn 
copper wires supported in the form of an equilateral triangle on No. 
17 Locke glass insulators, the two lower wires being mounted on 
4x5 in. two pin arms and the upper wire on a single pin arm at the 
top of the pole. The lower insulators are on 12-in. locust pins with 
two-inch shanks and the upper insulator is on a i6-in. pin, and the 
wires transposed one-third of a revolution every mile. The poles 
also carry a telephone circuit on wood brackets just below the strut 
from the main bracket, .^t all stations, turnouts, spurs and cross- 


ity, two bonds being placed at each joint. The holes for the bonds 
were drilled on the ground. Spring switches and frogs are used 
throughout the main line track and the switches are provided with 
dwarf target stands carrying standard steam railroad lights. The 
track is laid on No. i oak ties 6x8 in. x 8 ft. spaces 24 in. between 
centers. Crushed rock ballast is used and is laid six inches deep 
under the ties. This ballast is procured from the railway 
companies' quarries at Comanche, where they have erected 
a stone crushing plant for this purpose. Some of the 

ings, jack-boxes are placed on brackets attached to the poles in such 
a position that they can be readily reached from the car. Each 
car carries a telephone which can be attached to the jack-boxes 
at the regular telephone stations and telephone connections can be 
made at any point along the line, by means of emergency poles car- 
ried on each car. The telephone line is transposed at every fifth pole. 
A dispatching system with the dispatcher located at Princeton 
using the Egry triplicate system of dispatching orders will be in- 
augurated. Stromberg-Carlson telephones arc carried on the cars. 

Feb. is, iQOS-l 



In .[(liliiK.ii 111 till' lilies ali'i-acly iiK'iilioiicd there is a No. 
0000 direct feeder wliieli e.xleiids frr.iii I'leasaiit Valley lo NiittiiiK'<, 
a distance of 3.2 miles. 

I'liwer House and .Snh-slalioiis. 

1 lie |)i>wer house of tile Towa & Illinois Railway Co. i.s intcresliiiK 
a.s licini; llie only niie in lliis eoinilry wliieli is operated entirely by 


and tile auxiliaries, 
in tlic accompanying 
the e(juii)meut 

steam turbines for both the principal unit^ 
The power station building which is shown 
illustration is decidedly small for the capacity of 
which it contains. This building is made entirely 
of concrete which was molded in place, the walls 
being 13 in. thick, reinforced by 17-in. pilasters. It 
is situated on Mill Creek, a small tributary of the 
Mississippi, which location is upon the line of the 
road and 31/2 miles from the Clinton terminus. The 
building is divided into three rooms, the first being 
a boiler room 39 x 55 ft., second a generator room 
32 X 55 ft., and third a small transformer room 
10x15 ft. The opening between the boiler and en- 
gine room is provided with a fire-proof rolling steel 
shutter. There is no communication between the 
transformer room and the other part of the building, 
the transformer room being entered only by means 
of outside doors. At one side of the building along- 
side of the transformer room, is erected an independ- 
ent self-supporting steel stack, the foundation for 
which is 14 'ft. sq. by 28 ft. deep, and is built of con- 
crete. The stack is 140 ft. 6 in. high above the floor 
of the building, is 10 ft. in diameter at the bottom, 
7 ft. 3 in. at the top and is lined with sand-lime 
brick. It was built by the Coatesville Boiler Works. 
The entire interior floor space of the building meas 
ures 72 ft. 5 in. x 55 ft. 

The boiler room is equipped with three Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers of 200 h. p. each, and space is left for the addition of 
one more boiler of the same capacity. The boilers are provided with 
tubes for superheating the steam, and also have extended furnaces in 
which the coal is first ignited in front and the fire then pushed back 
to the rear part of the grate. This method of tiring has been found 

to be most advantageous for the grade of soil coal used in this 
part of the country. The boilers arc fired by hand with coal which 
is brought in carload lots lo the boiler house upon a coal trestle 
running back of the boiler room. The coal is delivered at Clinton 
by the steam railroad cars and is drawn over the intcrurban com 
pany's lines by a large express car used as a locomotive. A spur 
track leading to the trestle is built from the main line of the road 
to the power house. Standard size coal cars are easily handled 
by this electric car. 

The steam header extends straight .across the boiler room over 
the rear of the boilers and is connected by means of long bends 
to the boilers on one side and to the turbines in the generator 
room, the latter bends passing through the concrete partition wall 
between the two rooms. The steam header and all the high pres- 
sure piping are supplied with Mitchell rolled joints, and- Chapman 
gate valves are used throughout. The boilers are fed by two 
Barr pumps 7'/z X4'A x 10 in. in size and these pumps are connected 
so as to feed cither the boilers or the house tank. The draft of 
the boilers is regulated by a "straight line" damper regulator, built 
by William P. Dennis, of Philadelphia, and placed in a brick smoke 
flue built along the rear of the boilers and connecting to the stack. 
In the space betsveen the two batteries of boilers is located a Coch- 
ran open heater into which the auxiliaries exhaust. In the basement 
there are two .Mberger pumps, 4J4 x 35^ x 4 in. in dimensions, which 
raise the water from the hot well to the heater. This water is 
obtained from Mill Creek across which a 5-ft. dam has been built 
at the rear of the power house and having an S-ft. wing dam parallel 
with the rear wall of the building. It may be mentioned here that 
the boiler feed and hot well pumps and the air pumps for the 
condensing system are the only pieces of machinery in the building 
having reciprocating motion. 

The two main generating units consist of Westinghouse-Parsons 
turbines direct connected to 400-kw. Westinghousc generators run- 
ning at 3.600 r. p. m. and generating current at 13,200 volts, 7,200 
alternations. These are believed to be the first small turbine units 
built to generate current for 13,200 volts. These turbine units are 
supplied with -Mberger condensers of the dry vacuum system type. 
These condensers arc erected alongside of the turbines on the main 
floor and occupy as much or more space than the entire generating 

The maximum overall length of the turbines is 12 ft. 4 in., the 
maximum width 4 ft. 6 in. and maximum height 7 ft. 6 in. The total 
weight of the turbine is 20,000 lb. These figures include only the 
turbine itself and not the generator direct connected to it. Except 
for the air pumps which are connected to the condensers it is diffi- 
cult to see any motion of machinery in the station, even when it is 


ill full operation as the generator armature revolves so rapidly that 
the motion is unnoticeable. 

The condensers are fitted with lo-in. suctions and each con- 
denser has 2,000 sq. ft. of cooling surface. The circulating pumps 
have 4-in. suction pipes. The circulating water is handled by two 



[Vol. XV, No. 2 

pumps operating at 2,400 r. p. m. ilrivin by 8-h. p. De Laval tur- 
bines which run at 24.000 r. p. m. 

.\ separate view is given herewith of the two exciter units and 
one of the circulating pumps, all of which arc driven by small De 
Laval turbines and the small size of these units is very noticeable, 
occupying as they do but three or four square feet of floor space. 
The two c.xciters are each of 20-kw. capacity and generate at 125 
volts ; the turl)inc speed is 24,000 r. p. m. 

The switchboard is located at one end of the generator room 

suction and discharge pipes are carried in tliis same duct with the 
high tension wiring. The high tension lines which run out of the 
building are supplied with Westingbouse high tension switclies of 
the stick type and the Westingbouse low equivalent lightning ar- 
resters. The high ten.sion wires are carried out through a drain-tile 
which is built in the wall and insulators at cither end keep the 
wire taut through the pipe. On one .'ide of the stack foundation 
a small brick addition has been built which is used fur an oil 
room and for waste and other inflammable material. 


near the exciter sets and stands about 6 ft. from the end wall of 
the building. The generator panels each contain oil switches, three 
ammeters and two voltmeters on the high tension lines, an ammeter 
and voltmeter for the exciter, and one total wattmeter. 

The rotary switchboard includes two panels for the rotary con- 
verter, one containing an ammeter, a power factor meter, a start- 
ing motor switch, a main switch, a synchronizing plug and a General 
Electric recording wattmeter. The direct current panel contains 
a circuit breaker, a direct current ammeter, two single pole 
switches and a rheostat. The rotary converter is located in one 
corner of the building and is used for feeding the end of the 

An automatic oiling .system is provided for the turbine units 
consisting of a pump on the of each machine and which 
is operated in connection with the governor mechanism. These 
pumps are of a comparatively large capacitj and maintain a heavy 
stream of oil through bearings of the turbines and generators. The 
oil then flows by gravity to a reservoir from which it is again raised 
by the pump and used over and over. 

There are two sub-stations upon the line other than the sub- 
station equipment contained in the power house. One of these is 
located at Princeton, almost at the center of the road, and the 
other is at Pleasant Vallev. which is nine miles from the- Daven- 


trolley line near the station. It is a 300-kw. machine 
running at 720 r. p. m. and giving 650 volts direct current. It is 
equipped with an induction motor for starting. The transformer 
room contains three loo-kw. Westingbouse oil-cooled step-down 
transformers, reducing the 13.200-volt current to 393 volts, 7,200 
alternations, for the rotary. 

The high tension wiring from the generators to the switchboard 
IS carried by heavily insulated wires which run in a pipe duct 
built along the center of the floor of the generating room; the 

port terminus. .\n exterior view of the Princeton sub-station is 
shown herewith. This is a small building which is of just sufficient 
size to hold the present equipment. Pleasant Valley sub-station is 
about the same size, but is built of concrete. The e(|uipinent of both 
stations is identical. Each contains a 300-kw. 10-pole Westingbouse 
rotary converter which runs at 720 r. p. m. and is fitted with an in- 
duction motor for starting. The auxiliary apparatus is of the usual 
standard pattern, and neither of the sub-stations contains any un- 
usual features of engineering interest. 

Fp.n. 15. loosl 



Rolling Stock. 
The coiDp^my's rolliiin slock is imiisii.-iily JiaiuKnnu-, ;inil ronsists 
at present of fonr motor cars, llirce trailers, ojie express car, one 
electric locomotive, two flat cars anrl six center dnmp ballast cars. 
Ml of the passenger cars and the express car were hnilt hy the 
John .Stephenson Co.; each class of passenger cars has been stand 
ardizcrl and is absolutely nniform holh in design, decoration and 
equipment, 'i'be motor cars are 56 ft. long, over all, and have a 
seating capacity for Co people. The trailers are 45 ft. long, over all. 
and the express car 40 ft. The motor cars arc momilcd on H:ilil 
win Locomotive Works sl.niilard inolnr irncks Nn i;;.), ,uid ilic 
Irailcr cars on No. I.'S sl.-ind.nd Ir.nlir Iriu'ks of ibi- same make 

dark figured mahogany with dull finish and with panels of mar- 
quetry. The ceilings arc of the semi-empire pattern and arc deco- 
rated in light green with goM striping. The arrangement of the 
interior is somewhat untisual ; the principal compartment occu 
pies a little more than half the length of the car and in front of 
this is a smoking compartment. Between the smoking compart- 
ment and the front vestibule, which is of just sufficient size for the 
motorman's cab, is a baggage compartment. The latter i.<i a small 
room about 8 ft. long having sliding doors at each side and is used 
for carrying trunks and express packages. This compartment is 
provided with two side seats which fold up against the front vcsli- 
linle lint which may be let down for the use of passengers when 

Iowa a ii.m.nois w,\ri,\v,\\ <'<).mpa.\y. 

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r l..:i(l ■■K.|iiipM,..Til U,|.ln,' 
I li.Hd "mlur Work lloue' 

III! n |il;ii >.iiii.|its. Plai',. ifii -tar • iii fn.iit nt liKiit, . nulii^ttiDE; lli"t new part n-p!a^, > p.irl M-rappeil. nr id lb. ra&i ..f li«ai-in^ r*-t>at,l>)tu.<l 

lltiriL'. vanil-lniLI^. .■V.rlLiHlllH>T,.,niir,m.>]lt. work ,,11 t..Ht...^ -'nU h....!.,.^ u.nnp r.-,.niri t.. »»rlt rarv ,.|.. 

The motor cars have 36-in. wheels and the trailers 33-in. wheels; 
these are steel tired wheels having 3-in. treads, %-'m. flanges, and 
are nioimted on sJl.-in. axles having standard M. C. B. journals. 
The locomotive was built in the shops of the Iowa & Illinois Railwav 

The cars are equipped with Westingliouse straight air brakes with 
the exception of the express car wdiich is provided with both West- 
inghousc straight air and automatic air brakes. The automatic air 
brake on this car was considered necessary as the express car is 
at times used tor hauling several cars in a train. The cars are also 
equipped w-itb Van Dorn couplings, radial draw bars and Nichols- 
Lintcrn pneumatic sanders. The exteriors of the cars are painted 
Pullman green trimmed with gold striping. The interior finish is 

the compartment is not occupied with baggage. The seats in this 
compartment will accommodate eight passengers. The cars are run 
with the same end always forward and are only provided with a 
motorman's cab at one end. The rear platform is about five feet 
long. The baggage compartment is on the motor cars only and not 
on the trailers. The cars are all equipped with toilet rooms which 
are lined with sheet lead both on the floors and for a height of 
five feet on the side walls. They are heated by hot water, the 
Baker "Mighty Midget" heaters being located on one side of the 
motorman's cab. The scats are of the Heywood Bros. & Wakefield 
stationary type covered with imitation leather having the backs edged 
with bronze. The curtains are dark green pantasote w-ith fixtures 
made by the Curtain Supply Co. The windows have plate glass, and 



[Vol.. XV, No. 2. 

storm sash which are fitted on the outside for winter use. The deck 
sash and transom sash have green art glass. The cars also contain 
tanks for drinking water, Pennsylvania Railroad standard basket 
racks and candle lamps in bronze. The electric equipment of the 
motor cars comprises four G. E, No, 73 motors of 75 h. p. each and 
G. E. L-4 controllers. 

The lighting is by means of incandescent lamps of which there 
are 45 in the motor cars and 30 in the trailers and the lamps arc 
evenly distributed over the arches of the roof, giving a uniform 
and very ample light throughout the whole car. The rear plat- 
forms are provided with Edwards step-lifts, the steps have Mason 
safety treads and are edged with bronze. .Ml of the swing doors 
arc provided with Blount door checks which insure (he doors being 

terior of the baggage car is all in one compartment painted white, 
having longitudinal benches running each side of the car which 
fold up against the side. The car is neatly finished inside, the 
seats being put in with the idea of using it for passengers in case 
of emergency 

The management of the company has prepared a book of rules 
and regulations for conductors and motormen which arc based upon 
the A. S. R. A. standard rules, but which are modified somewhat, 
especially in the matter of signals, to agree very closely with the 
steam roads' code. Two commendable features of this book of 
rules are that the general ndes cover only 34 pages 3.>4 .x ,i->4 in. in 
size and the book is furnished with an alphabetical index of sub- 


Scb-Station No. _ 

Daily Report for 24 Hours Ending 12 Mid 







W.TTMrT,. CON.r 


..-IT . 

,:"- . 





I. ni. 
















kept closed and prevent any slamming. Electric signal bells are 
provided with push buttons at each seat and International double 
registers are used. Each car is also provided with a wattmeter for 
keeping check on the current consumption of the cars and the 
efficiency of the motormen. 

The express car was specially designed and has some unusual 
features. In addition to the sliding side doors in the center of the 
car, end doors are placed on the front end of the vestibule to one 
side of the center of the car. The vestibules are very narrow, being 
just .sufficient in size to provide a motorman's cab, and there is 
a sliding door in the partition between the cab and the body of the 
car which opens directly in front of the end doors. This leaves 
a straight opening through each end of the car into which rails. 
poles and similar articles which could not be loaded through the 
side doors can be readily slid into the car from the end. The in- 

jects so that the rules covering any particular subject may be 
found at once by referring to this index. Each book of rules is 
numbered and a copy is given to each motorman and conductor 
along with his badge, ticket punches and other articles for which 
the employe gives a receipt. In case of the motorman the outfit 
includes a tool box and such tools which might be found useful in 
repairing temporary break-downs on the road. 

A regular system of wa,tch inspection has been inaugurated which 
provides for a weekly inspection of all watches of the uniformed 
force. On the appointment of a man as motorman or conductor 
he is given an order on the company's official watch inspector to 
have his watch inspected. The regular form on which this order 
is entered is shown in one of the accompanying illustrations. It 
is divided by perforations into three parts, the upper part of which 
simply contains the name, occupation of the man and date. The 

Feb. is, >y>SJ 



second part of tlie order is a memorandum to be retained \>y the 
watcli inspector and the lower part is (lie inspector's report which is 
returned to (he office of the company. The inspector also keeps a 
register which is printed on a sheet 8^ x 141/2 in. on which each em- 
ploye signs his name and inserts the date when his watch is pre- 
sented for weekly examination. These register sheets containing 
the signatures are forwanleil lo (he general manager at the end of 
each quarter. 

A modified Brown system of marking instead of suspensions was 

The following list of meriis and dements shows the marks apply- 
ing to the majority of cases, but as it is impossible to assign definite 
marks for every contingency this liM is siil)ject to change from time 
to time, such changes being posted on the liullctin board. 
Immediate Discharge. 

Disloyalty to company. 

False statements. 

Intoxication or drinking while on duty. 

.Smoking while on duty. 

r. & I. No. IS. .'<K).'l-27-'04. Allen. 



Badge No. 


I).lte. I Di-1)il. Credit 


adopted February isl, for disciplining llie car service employes. 
On the adoption of llie Brown system tlie management offered 
the following reasons for its adoption and explanations of the 
working of (he system: Under the layoff system a man would be 
suspended from duty for breach of rules, thus losing his pay, and 
under that system men who attended to their duties, thus holding 
a first class record, and who performed meritorious acts could 
not receive the recognition justly due them, although a good record 
should be of benefit to them when being disciplined for some 
brcnoh of rules or for an accident. 


Gross, ungentlcmanly conduct. 

Running off interlocker switches without good proof that lever- 
man was careless. 

Disobeying dispatcher's orders or running by signals at danger or 
not indicating clear tracks. 

Merits — 

Securing names and addresses of witnesses who 
saw accident, other than those on accident report 2 to 10 

1. A I. I'orm 42. 4(IO-12-U-'04. Allen. 











By the merit system the man who strives for a good record by 
attending to business or by performing meritorious acts, receives 
from time to time merits which may materially assist him in times 
when he may deserve discipline. 

On the other hand the man who persists in disregarding rules, is 
careless regarding accidents, or is generally inattentive to his work, 
continually lowers his record until as a natural and proper result of 
his unfitness he is discharged. The man who may be unfortunate 
but not intentionally careless nor heedless has through this system 
an opportunity to return to his old standing. 

Assistance rendered in case of accident such as to 
bring commendation from passengers 

Politeness and attention to passengers calling for 
special commendation from them 

Complete and perfect accident reports 

Good judgment and work in handling layouts or 

Special and meritorious acts calling for recogni- 
tion from company 

Careful handling of car 

2 to 10 

2 to 10 






The operation of the system stated briefly is as follows : Each 
man at the start has a clear record and 100 merits to his credit. 
As he receives merits or demerits they will be added or deducted 
from the merits standing to liis credit, and when merits or demerits 
are given him he is notified of the same on a form prepared for 
that purpose, at the bottom of which is a stub which is to be re- 
turned to the company acknowledging receipt of the communication. 
The record is kept strictly private in a small loose leaf ledger to 
which no one except the general manager has access, and it is left 
entirely to each employe whether anyone else knows his record or 
not. This record book is 6 x SJ-'S in. in size and the page headings 
are shown herewith. 

Clear record for one year's service 
Other acts deserving of credit in judgment of 
general manager 
Demerits — 

Failure to turn in report on time 
Missing, first time 

Second time in one year 
Third time in one year 

and loss of day each time if extra 
man takes car. 
Failure to report accidents 
Incomplete and poor accident reports 

2 to 50 



10 to discharge 
I to 5 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 







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Accidents wlicii avoid.ililc in llic opinion of gen- 
er;il nianaKcr lo to discliarge 

TalkinK I" others lli:ui |>i.i]ier ollieers of eonipany 
al)out accidents 20 

l-'ailnrc to make safety stops at crossings 

Unnning crossings witliont proper flagniaii's or 
eondnctor's signal 20 

I'Viilnre to properly Hag radroail crossings where 
re(piiri-(l -" 

{■'asl running over crossings, switches, around 
cnrves. and along streets rcqiiiring slow speed 5 to '20 

Keeping current on when passing over crossings 
except when alisolntcly necessary 5 to 10 

Not ringing gong when passing car 5 

Passing standing car on streets without first 
slopping 10 to 20 

Starting car wilhrnil proper signal except to avoid 
collision 20 

Not obeying condnclnr's signal 5 

l''ailurc of conductor to give proper signals 2 to 10 

l''ollowing car in front too close 10 

I Icadlight and signal lamps not burning 5 

Leaving car without taking reverse lever or noti- 
fying motornian >o 
Reversing car except to avoid accidents 5 to 20 
Careless and indifferent operating of car 5 to 20 
I'ecding current too fast S to 1° 
Not having proper tools S 'o 10 
Running without sand in boxes 5 to 20 
Running ahead of schedule time 10 
l'"ailure to report delays 5 
l"ailure to promptly investigate at once line down 
or obstruction to cars 5 to 20 

Allowing unauthorized persons to ride in front 
vestibule 10 to discharge 

Running away from passengers 5 to 20 

Failure to report trouble with car or appliances 5 

Giving bells too cpiick, before passengers are 
safely on or off 5 to 30 

Inattention to passengers S 

Unnecessary conversation with passengers 5 

Unnecessary conversation with motorman 5 to 20 

Dirty car 5 

llntidy condition of dress 5 

Reading on duty 10 

Silting down on duly except as provided in 
bulletins 10 

Profanity on duty 10 

Failure to announce stations, streets and transfer 
points 5 to 10 

Errors in punching transfers and cash receipts 5 to 10 

Other acts detrimental to the service in opinion 
of general manager 2 to discharge 

Every man will be given an opportunity to appeal to the general 
manager against any assignment of demerits which he may consider 
unjust, but such an appeal must be made within five days of his 
notification of the same. 

The rules covering accidents are practically the same as those in 
force on most street and 'interurban railways, but the form for acci- 
dent reports has been considerably condensed and is made out on a 
sheet 6;j X 7 in. in size which calls for the following specific informa- 
tion : 

Date Time of Day Weather 

No. of Car Conductor Motorman 

Place where accident occurred. 

Name and address of person injured or owner of property dam- 

Position of person or vehicle injured at time of accident. 

Nature and extent of injury. 

In what position did person fall? 

Was person or persons under the influence of liquor; 

Direction in which car was going. 

At what speed Was motor reversed? 

Was car starting, stopping or running? 

Direction in which other vehicle was going. 

Position of conductor at time of accident. 

Position of motorman at time of accident. 

Was the motornian sounding the gong or blowing whistle as a 
warning of approach of the car? 

Condition of track. 

Condition of street. 

Condition of car, motor, trucks and brakes. 

Under these questions are a number of blank lines with the general 
instructions to give full details of the accident. This is signed liy 
the conductor and motornian of the car. On the back of the card 
are spaces for the names ami addresses of passengers and other wit- 
nesses. The idea of condensing the accident report to this extent 
was this: In many cases where a very large number of questions 
arc asked and the outline of a human bcwiy is used for marking llie 
parts of the body injured, the motorman or conductor is apt to be- 
come confused by the number of the details called for and it is be- 
lieved that by condensing the inquiries so that they inclnrle only the 
most essential points and by giving the men an opportunity to ex- 
plain the accident in their own language, a more comprehensive re- 
IKirt will result. 

Power House and Car Barn Reports. 

Owing to the fact that the power plant of the Iowa & Illinois 
Railway Co. is unique and that but little data on the cost of 
operation of a station using steam turbines throughout is available, 
the management has prepared a very complete set of forms for keep- 
ing account of the performance of the stations, the e.xact output of 
the plant measured at the sub-station switchlwards, the cost of sup- 
plies and the amount of labor charges. 

The first form to be considered is the power house daily report 
which is shown in one of the accompanying illustrations. This, like 
all of the other forms, is arranged for binding in loose leaf ledgers 
and the size of the sheet is 21 x 12 in. It is arranged for hourly 
readings of all the station instruments and includes the time in serv- 
ice of each machine, switchboard readings of each instrument, pres- 
sures and temperatures of steam, vacuum, draft, water, flue gases 
and air, and readings of the feed water meter. The supplies of coal 
burned, ashes removed, lubricating oils and miscelloneous supplies 
are entered and from this data are figured the summary of operations 
for each day. The form also includes a space for the number of 
hours of labor to be charged for each day's operation. While the 
form provides for hourly readings of all meters, the wattmeters, 
water meters and some other instruments are read at intervals of six 

The form of the daily sub-station report is also shown herewith 
and is practically the same as the switchboard division of the 
power house report. These two forms are filled out daily and for- 
warded to the general office where the different values are figured 
out and entered on a monthly power house report, the heading of 
which is shown herewith. .\t the bottom of this report are four 
lines which are used for entering the total, average, maximum and 
minimum values of any heading for the month. By means of these 
reports it is intended to keep a very accurate record of the per- 
formance of the power plant, and the results tabulated will at the end 
of a year's operation include very complete and valuable data on the 
economy of this type of station. 

There is a duplicate form used for entering materials received 
which is filled out by any authorized person who receives and opens 
goods, the original being sent to the office and the duplicate being 
held by the person who signs for the goods. This form is checked 
with the materials order and with the invoice and is then filed 
with the duplicate order. In taking goods from the store room a 
requisition in duplicate is used which gives the quantity and de- 
scription of the goods, the account to which they are to be charged 
and the place where they are to be delivered. After these goods 
liave been used should there be any surplus it is returned together 
with a return requisition in duplicate giving the quantity, descrip- 
tion, account number and requisition number on which they were 
drawn. By means of these requisitions and return requisitions the 
storekeeper is able to keep track of the exact amount of material 
withdraw-n and returned to stock. 

There are three useful forms used in connection with the track 
and overhead repairs, all of which are 10 in. long by 4 in. wide, 
made into pads which can be conveniently carried in the pocket. 
One of these is used by the inspector of track and overhead work 
who enters each day a report of the section of the line inspected 
and notes the general conditions 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

When any trouble is reported the foreman of the section gang 
takes charge of the repairs and each day reports the work done and 
the number of men employed and enters this on one of the forms 
mentioned. Both of these inspection and repair reports go to the 
roadmastcr who attaches them to a daily report which is sent to the 
office. The roadmaster reports the work done on each section, also 
the conditions on each section reported by the inspectors, the tronblc 
reports attended to, and any other information which may refer to 
the work of his department. 


The city tickets, transfers and passes are of the usual form. The 
tickets sold on the cars are of the duplex pattern. A color scheme 
is employed for these tickets, red being the color for northbound 
cars only and blue being used only on southbound cars. The sin- 
gle trip ticket southbound is printed in blue, the duplicate part being 
given to the passenger as a receipt for his fare. The single trip 
northbound ticket is ex.ictly the same except that it is printed in red. 

I HI Farm No Jj i«o r« rt 'oi Alteo 

Iowa & Illinois Railway Co. 




ORDER OF EXAMINATION. To be rctaln«d by tn»p«cloi 

Dear Sir : Thv hourer 

Plfaie exaniitie hiiwotch aniUfU is. In every respect, up to minlraum 
quitcfl by Ihe Compnny, vir A grailf e<iii«l to what is known amcMig America 
jewel pfllCDl regtiUl.>r. brcK'"-' n»lrsprini!. leversel. ndjusled to heal, cold i 
repair bs will, lu yout juilgment. enable i( to run within the maiitninn variat 
per week for Ihe oeil Si« moolhsen^uing, fill up and sign the atlached certi 
tbls office OD or before the teoth of the mooth foUowinK this date 

is employed ns 

.Geti 'I Mntuiger. 

Illicate 10 b: returned I m mediately BV INSPECTOR to official Issulnz same. 

Iowa & Illinois Railway Co. 

This C^rtUles llnil 
the watch o/ 

. / erann'aeft 

occupation ^ 

employed on the Division, and found it to be 

e(/ual to the standard of excellence required, and in Kuch repair as will 
tn my judixment enable it to run {a'itll proper usaf^e) n'itltin a furiation 
not to E-YCJ£EI> THIRTi' seconds per n-t-cA. 

. . Accepted 

Rejected and reason n-hy 

No. of Mofcment 

Maker and Crude 

No. of Caf^e and Ifesiriplion 

The round trip tickets are also duplicate tickets and the conductor 
sells and takes up only red tickets on northbound cars and blue 
tickets on sounthbound cars, thus the southbound round trip ticket 
is sold on the northbound car and is printed in blue, and the north- 
lx)und round trip ticket is sold on southbound cars and is printed in 


The officers of the company are: G. E. Lamb, president; F. W. 
Ellis, 1st vice-president; G. W. Bawden, 2d vice-president; J. D. 
Lamb, treasurer; R. B. McCoy, .secretary; P. P. Crafts, general 
manager; J. .\. McCampbcll, master mechanic. 

The contractors and engineers for the entire equipment of the road 
and power plant are Pepper & Register, Philadelphia. The superin- 
tendent of construction for the contractors is Mr. W. P. Boright. 

Mr. Crafts, the general manager of the company, has had a long 
experience in interurban electric railway work. He was for six years 
manager of the Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway Co., and other 

properties and for a considerable portion of this time was connected 
with Stone & Webster, of Boston. Later he was for two years man- 
ager of the Saginaw Valley Traction Co., resigning to become man- 
ager of the Iowa & Illinois Railway Co. 

Mr. Crafts has done a great deal of valuable work for the new road 
in systematizing the work of all of the departments, and the various 
forms which have been described and which cannot fail to be of the 
greatest value in showing all of the operating conditions and costs 
are due to him. 


New England Street Railway Cluh. 

The fifth annual meeting and banquet of the New England Street 
Railway Club was held at Hotel Brunswick, Boston, Mass., on the 
afternoon and evening of January 26th. The following officers 
were elected : President, Edward E. Potter, general superintendent 
Union Street Railway Co., New Bedford, 
Mass. Vice-presidents for the States: Paul 
Winsor, assistant to president Boston Elevated 
Railway Co.; Norman McD. Crawford, man- 
ager Hartford Street Railway Co. ; L. N. 
Wheelock, manager Claremont Railway &' 
Lighting Co. ; A. J. Crosby, superintendent 
Springfield Electric Railway Co.; J. E. Thiel- 
sen, superintendent Providence & Danielson 
Railway Co. ; George E. Macomber, general 
manager .\ugusta, Winthrop & Gardiner Rail- 
way Co. Secretary, John J. Lane, editor 
Street Railway Bulletin, Boston. Treasurer 
N. L. Wood, with C. N. Wood Electric Co., 
Boston. Executive Committee: J. H. Neal, 
Boston; H. E. Farrington, Chelsea, Mass.; W. 
D. Wright, Providence, R. L; E. A. Sturgis, 

Worcester, Ma^s. ; C. E. Sprague, Boston; John C. Bradley, Wor- 
cester, Mass. ; F. .\. Barbey, Boston. Finance Committee : E. E. 
Potter, New Bedford; James F. Wattles. Boston; M. C. Brush, 
Newtonville, Mass. 

The banquet was held in the dining room of Hotel Brunswick, 
music being furnished by the First Regiment orchestra. In the 
unavoidable absence of the newly elected president, the club was 
called to order by Vice-President Winsor, who introduced as toast- 
master of the evening Mr. Dan Prendergast, of the Boston Elevated 
Railway Co. Speeches were then made by Mr. George W. Bishop, 
member of the Massachusetts board of railroad commissioners ; 
Prof. George F. Swain, of the Boston Transit Commission ; Mr. 
Howard F. Grant, general manager Seattle Electric Co., Seattle, 
Wash. ; Mr. F. T. Smith, Vermont board of railroad commissioners ; 
Mr. E. P. Shaw, president Massachusetts Street Railway Associatioii ; 
Mr. B. F. Cladbourne, Maine board of railroad commissioners; and 
Mr. A. C. Whittemore, New Hampshire board of railroad commis- 
sioners. The club now has a membership of 576, of wliioh 60 have 
entered during the past year. 


Slag for Ballast. 

Slag from the blast furnaces of the Thomas Furnace Co. is now 
used in ballasting a part of the interurban tracks of the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Co. It is interesting to note the manner 
in which this blast furnace refuse is now rendered fit for ballast, 
because formerly it was necessary that the large pieces of this 
material be crushed by mechanical power in a way similar to that 
now used in the crushing of rock ballast. A pit or cistern 30 ft. 
deep and 20 ft. in diameter has been dug about 50 ft. from the 
skimming trap near the mouth of the furnace. The hot slag is led 
in a stream so that it falls over the edge of the pit. As the 
hot material falls it encounters a stream of cold water from a 4-in. 
nozzle under a head of about 60 ft. The mingling of the two 
streams, one of hot slag and one of cold water chills the slag so 
that when it reaches the bottom of the cistern the material has 
an entirely distintegrated form. The individual pieces of slag are 
now about a size which would pass through a ' S-in. screen and can 
be readily handled in a drop bucket from an overhead crane and 
thus easily loaded on the ballast cars. This material has all the 
characteristics of the ordinary slag ballast except the size of the 
individual pieces of the material. 

'm. IS. I'PSi 



Development of Automatic ('oiiplers for 
l:;ieetiic (;ars. 


I li.oi- I'l-'c'ii ixtiiK-slcil iii;iiiy limes to give my experience on tlie 
oniipling (incstion, and while In enver my entire experience would 
lake a great flenl "f space, I shall try to give the leading points of 
interest in llu- i'nildvving brief statement: 

ft is well known hy all (hat the coupling qneslion is a perplexing 
one. From an oHicial report just received from the United States 
Patent Oflke it ajipears that up to the present time ajjproximately 
,^,(V)5 automatic couplings have been patented; of these devices 
mil over a dozen ever made any money. 

It will take some explanation to tel! what il has taken lo hring 
an automatic coupling to the present perfection of the Van Dorn 
couplings, that will couple automatically within 1-32 of an inch, and 
under no conditions can he disengaged in tr.iin service. Il has 
taken years of study and thousands of dollars to reach this result. 
1 was mechanically inclined from my youth, and learned a trade. 
1 commenced my car-huildiug experience in i>%7. I went to Omaha 
in ].Sf)8, and was in the car department with Ihe Union Pacific 
when ihe company was building overland to the Pacific Coast. I 
was sent out to the front with the construction gangs, and stayed 
there until the road was completed to meet the Central Pacific, 75 
miles west of Ogden in Utah, where the golden spike was driven 
May 10, i86g. The experience that I had while in tliat capacity 
was a great help to mc in later years, but after the completion of 
the road I remained with the same company in the car department 
for some five years, and during that time I had work in building 
all kinds of cars from a hand car to the heaviest freight and 
passenger cars, and had a long experience in truck building, and 
also with the freight couplings that were in use in those days. 

I had not given the coupling question much consideration until 
the early part of the 8o's, when steam roads first commenced their 
inquiry for automatic couplings. I took out a patent on a style 
that I considered adapted for this class of service, and exhibited 
some of the couplers when the roads were making preliminary 
examinations for couplings, and I had samples at all their experi- 
mental tests. The greatest test ever given was at Buffalo, N. Y., 
about the middle of the 8o's. The railway companies issued a cir- 
cular inviting all who had automatic couplings to equip at their own 
expense two cars and deliver them at Buffalo for a test, and prom- 
ised a thorough and impartial test. 

There were 140 different styles brought to Bufifalo for this pur- 
pose, and they were all given a severe test. Each style of coupler 
was given two tests, one on straight track and one on the shortest 

The test was as follows : The cars were brought together at a 
slow speed, three miles an hour, and as a rule they would all make 
this coupling. The next time they were brought together quickly, 
and hit hard, and in the concussion or rebound a great many 
couplers would fail, especially those that were of the gravity lock, 
trunion, or any style of drop lock pattern, unless they had three 
or four inches play. The third time the cars came together still 
more quickly, and as soon as the couplings came together the engine 
was reversed and started in the opposite direction; there were 
very few that made this coupling. 

When the test was over there were only 17 out of the 140 that 
made all the couplings, and my coupling was one of the 17. 

When the tests were over there were a great many styles that 
seemed to have great merit. As the railroad companies generally 
were so interested in adopting an automatic coupling, many leading 
officials of the different roads were present to witness the tests, 
froin presidents down ; but no two could agree on the merits of 
any one style tested. The different companies did agree that they 
would pick out what they considered the best and equip a large 
number of trains for further trial, and two or three of the roads 
that were represented were so sure that some of the couplings 
tested had great merit that they would take no chances in adopting 
them as a standard. They did so and equipped thousands of cars 
before they found out their mistake. While some of the other 
companies co-operated with the different coupling firms and equipped 
a good many thousand cars with the different styles, and spent all 
the way from $10,000 up (f am told some spent as much as $100,- 

(XioJ, after the couplers were in service two or three years ihcy were 
all dropped except those that were on the lines of that now known 
as the M. C. B. type. 

There were two or three of these M. C. .B. types at the Buffalo 
lest; but no decision was reached as to type of colliding until after 
the brake tests at Burlington, la., which were, as Interesting as the 
coupling test. At Burlington it was thoroughly demonstrated that 
to use air brakes or any automatic brakes there would have to 
be a tighter coupling than the old pin and link, and all the 
trains at this test that had not the M. C. B. type of coupling were 
wedged up between the buffers with wooden blocks. 

The style of coupling that I had at the Buffalo lest. was not the 
same as we use now, but was on similar lines, and would make a 
tight lock. A tight lock in those days was considered out of the 
question, though 1 never agreed with others on this point. I always 
considered a tight lock preferable as I bad seen so many breakages 
and disengagements in train service that were caused by excess of 
slack. I kept a close watch on all the styles of couplings that were 
put into service after the Buffalo test to learn the results, and 
when there were so many failures I followed them up to learn 
what caused them to fail. I found that the mechanism was not cor- 
rect, and while the couplings would give good service when they 
were new, when they began to wear they would disengage. The 
majority of them had entirely too many parts; there was none 
tested but what had three parts to one of mine. 

When I came into the field to build couplings for street and ele- 
vated roads, I knew that their requirements would be a tight lock, 
and I knew from experience that lo make a tight lock all the parts 
would have to be on what I style a "fixed fact," and that is the 
line on which our style of couplings arc now built. I had from the 
outset for street and elevated service the correct principle, but I 
had not at the start the correct mechanical construction. And with 
all my former knowledge it took me six or seven years with coup- 
lings in actual service to develop all the weak points and to correct 
the mistakes. I had, comparatively speaking, to build a new design 
and all the couplings that we build at present are styled our 1902 

One of the greatest problems was when the elevated roads 
changed from steam to electricity. I soon learned that a coupling 
that would stand up under the steam locomotive service would not 
stand with the electric motor system, and I also learned that a 
coupling that would stand under the older electric motor system 
would not stand under the multiple unit system. Then when the 
elevated roads changed from the older electric motor system to the 
multiple unit system there were things developed that deceived the 
majority of experts as they were under the impression that the 
multiple unit system would develop only a slight drawbar pull, as 
the trains would run for long distances with pin? pulled and not be 
disengaged. 1 never thought this to be the case, and I never built 
any style of coupling or draft rigging lighter for the multiple unit 
system than I did for the older motor system. It has been proved 
after a few years of test that it takes about 50 per cent additional 
strength in a coupling for the multiple unit system than for the 
older system. 

I have brought the efficiency of the draft rigging up to the stand- 
ard of the coupling, and I have given this question as much study 
as I did the coupling question. Anyone who is familiar with this 
style of work knows that to make a perfect train service we must 
have a perfect draft rigging, and our draft riggings are now so 
perfect and built on such simple and strong lines that it is very 
essential for the draft rigging and the coupling to go together. 

Railroad men often make serious mistakes in ordering equipment 
without first advising with the manufacturer as to the conditions 
under which the equipment is to work. In the case of our com- 
pany we greatly prefer to have our customers' engineers confer with 
us. giving us the length of car, weight of car. number of cars in a 
train, the curvatures, etc., before placing the order for couplings, 
as we would then know what to recommend, and the roads would 
be sure to have couplings capable of withstanding the conditions 
of their service. We now have 21 different patients, and this was 
brought about by the different conditions on different roads, and 
the different capacities required, ^\'e keep in advance of the require- 
ments as we have couplings now made of which the capacity is 
double that needed for any requirements that we have -- '••» i""" 
called upon to meet. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Northwestern Electrical Association. 

The thirteenth anmial convention of the Northwestern Electrical 
.Association was held in Milwaukee, at the Hotel Pfister, January 
iSth, 19th and 20th, about 100 delegates registering. 

The meeting was opened with an able address by the president. 
T. F. Grover, of Fond du Lac, Wis. The report of the secretary- 
treasurer, Thomas R. Mercein, of Milwaukee, showed the associa- 
tion to be in a healthy and growing condition. The secretary stated 
that the Legislative Committees in Indiana, Illinois and Iowa had 
forwarded reports of progress but no reports had come from Wis- 
consin or Michigan and that the Minnesota Legislature had not 
convened since the last meeting of the association. The commit- 
tee on advertising reported that it was meeting with success in 
its efforts to standardize the publicity literature used by the central 
station companies of the Northwest. With the report of the 
membership committee, the names of a large number of new mem- 
bers were proposed and voted into the association. A greeting 
was presented from the Milwaukee .Citizens Business League in- 
viting the convention to Milwaukee for the next annual meeting 
The rest of the first day of the convention was spent in listening 
to the reading of the following papers: 

"The Successful Joint Utilization of Several Small Water Powers 
by the Janesville Electric Co.," by W. B. Jackson, of Madison, Wis., 
consulting and constructing engineer for the Janesville Electric Co 

"Direct Current V'ersus Alternating Current Distribution," by O 
M. Ran, chief electrician of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Co. 

"The Rating of Arc Lamps." by Prof. George D. Shepardson of 
the University of Minnesota. 

"Distribution and Dollars," by C. II. Williams, superintendent 
of the Madison Gas & Electric Light Co. 

Then followed a lecture on "Efficient Salesmanship" by the Mil- 
waukee manager of the Sheldon School of Scientific Salesmanship- 
In the evening the delegates attended a theater party. 

The morning of the second day was occupied in listening to a 
paper on "Series Alternating .A.rc Lamps," by E. P. Warner, of 
Chicago ; an executive session and the annual election of officers 
The following is a list of the officers of the Northwestern Electrical 
.Association for the year 1905 : 

President, C. H. Williams, Madison, Wis. 

First Vice-President, R. N. Kimball, Kenosha, Wis. 

Second Vice-President, H. Almert, Oak Park, III. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Thomas R. Mercein, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Directors, P. H. Korst, Janesville, Wis., Ernest Gonzenbacb, 
Sheboygan, Wis., and H. S. Gille, St. Paul, Minn. 

The afternoon was devoted to the reading and discussion of 
professional papers. 

First was "High Tension Practice," by W. T. Goddard. Accom- 
panying this paper were stereopticon views showing the methods 
used by the Locke Insulator Co. in the manufacture of insulators 
for high tension work. There were also shown views illustrating 
the different types of pole line construction both in the United 
States and abroad. In connection with pole top construction and 
the choice of pins and insulators Mr. Goddard stated that many 
engineers seem to feel that the continuity of high tension service 
is better insured by the use of wood rather than iron pins, but, 
on the contrary, he favored the use of hollow steel or iron pins 
in preference to those of wood, explaining that the added factor 
of safety due to the difference in the strengths of the two material.s 
would more than offset any insulating qualities which the wood 
might have. 

Next came a paper on "Single Phase Railways and Their Pos- 
sibilities," by Clarence Renshaw, of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Co. During the reading of the paper [The sub- 
stance of this paper was published in the "Review" for Dec. 20, 
1904, page 958— Ed.] views were shown illustrating the single 
phase railway motor, its separate parts and its use on cars. In 
the discussion of his paper Mr. Renshaw explained in detail and 
showed views of the catenary form of trolley construction. The 
following question was asked regarding the safety to passengers 
when operating a single phase system with a difference of poten- 
tial of 3,000 volts between the trolley and the track rail: In case 
the track should be covered with dirt so that the wheels were 
insulated from the rail would there not be a great chance for a 
passenger being injured in boarding or leaving the car due to the 

difference in potential between the ground and the frame works of 
the car? Mr. Renshaw stated that this condition could hardly oc- 
cur in city or interurban work because the 3.000 volts pressure 
would pierce any ordinary amount of dirt or ice which might hold 
the w-heels off of the rails, thus equalizing the potential and re- 
moving any cause for danger. 

Mr. Norman McCarty, of Indianapolis, Ind.. next read a paper 
"The American Diesel Engine." This was in substance the paper 
read at St. Louis by Col. E. D. MeiT and which was pulilishcd 
in the "Daily Review-" Oct. 14, 1904. page 792. Mr. McCarty added 
some interesting statements re- 
garding the cost of power when 
using crude oil in the Diesel en- 
gine, stating that : 

"An installation of 50 engines, 
aggregating 6,000 b. h. p., and rep- 
resenting 25 separate and distinct 
plants, in service from six months 
to five years, has so demonstrated 
the fuel economy that the Amer- 
ican Diesel Engine Co. offers 
ihe following formula to any 
user of power, by which he may 
determine for himself the exact 
cost of fuel from his operating 
conditions, under the supervision 
of his own attendants and for any 

length of time he may desire, c. 11. willi.\ms. 

the result of which it is ready to 

guarantee, assuming that the plant has averaged one-half load for 
the time under consideration : 
"For electrical transmission, 365 A B-^ 8 = cost of fuel per year; 
"For mechanical transmission, 365 A B -^ 10.75 = cost of fuel per 
year ; 

"In which A is number of kilowatt hours, or brake horse power 
hours per day, and B is cost of oil fuel in cents per gallon. 

"For example, assuming that an electrical installation delivers 
1,000 kw. hours per day, with oil fuel at 3 cents per gallon, we 
have I 

(1,000 X 365 X $.03) -^8 = $1,368.75 as total cost of fuel per year 
of 365 days. 

"But as the Diesel plant requires no boilers and eliminates the 
extra expenses of the fire room it should be credited with this 
necessary charge against a steam plant, so that assuming the charge 
for water, labor and depreciation of boilers 'for a steam plant of 
this size at $2.50 per day, or $912.50 per year, the cost of fuel for 
the Diesel would be only $1,368.75 — $912.50, or $456.25 per year 
in excess of fire room charges (exclusive of coal used) necessary 
for steam, and the total coal bills for a steam plant must be kept 
within this amount if it would meet the operating expenses of a 
Diesel plant. But an average steam plant delivering 365,000 kw. h. per 
year would probably require under actual operating conditions 1,100 
tons of coal at, say, $3.00 per ton. or $3,300, and assuming the 
labor and supplies in the engine room of each plant as equal, the 
Diesel would make a saving of $2,843.75 per year, or at least 30 per 
cent of the cost of installation." 

As explained in the discussion which followed, the essential fea- 
tures which distinguished the Diesel engine from all other prime 
movers are : 

"l. As all oil fuels have practically the same calorific value, the 
cheapest is equal to the highest priced for the purpose intended. 

"2. The fuel consumption being controlled automatically by the 
governor, the consumption on variable load approaches very much 
nearer the theoretical requirements than when dependent on manual 
control, as in a steam plant. 

"3. The medium for compression being pure air and non-ex- 
plosive, no back-firing is possible. 

"4. The ignition being caused by the heat of compressed air. 
no ignitors are necessary, and no mixtures or explosions tolerated 
"5. The ignition and combustion is gradual and continuous, with 
a surplus amount of air to maintain complete combustion. Con- 
sequently no carbon is deposited and no fouling of valves or cylin- 
ders possible." 

The Diesel engine, Mr. McCarty stated, costs about $65 perb. h. p. 
placed, and weighs about 400 lb. per b. h. p. The engines are built 
in sizes up to 1,000 h. p. and are guaranteed to regulate within 

Feb. is, 1905.] 



llie standard limits for pnr:illrl ri'Kulalion of allcriiatiiiK current 

An intercstiuK paper ciilitled "Motor Adaptability" was next 
rc-ad by Mr. J. W. Sclmstor of tlic University of Wisconsin. 

A vote of tlianl<s was Riven tlic retiring officers after which the 
convention adjourned until the following morniiiK when a few 
rcniaininR Inisiness details were completed. 

The evening of the igth was cnjoyahly spent at a banquet, fol- 
lowed by a vaudeville entertaiTinient, 

A large and instructive exhibit of railway and lighting supplies 
was a pleasing feature of the convention. This exhibit, together 
with the reception rooms provided by the supplymcn for their 
friends, filled the entire parlor llonr of the Hotel Pfistcr. 

t)ne of the interesting features of the meeting of this association 
was the exhibit made by the National Electric Co. Milwaukee 
being the home of the company, it made special arrangements for 
the reception ,nul iiilerl.iinnieiil of its friends attending the con- 
vcittion and exhibited at the llotel Pfister, the headtpiarters of the 
association, sonic of its specialties. Some bromide enlargements 
liimg on the walls gave an excellent idea of some of the larger 
electrical machinery made by the liriii ; the Lundell universal mo- 
tor, of which the special feature of •construction is a magnetic cir- 
eiiil entirely composed of laminations, was exhibited and a nicely 
printed bulletin giving a detailed description of this new motor was 
brought out especially for this convention; a publication entitleil 
tlie "National Electrical Catechism" was presented to each visitor 
.iiid as a souvenir of the convention a very handsome watch fob 
was given away, bearing as a charm a bas-relief representation of 
the company's trade mark. Invitations, which included tickets over 
the Milwaukee street railway system, were given to the members 
of the association to visit the works of the National Electric Co 
In addition to the manufacture of electrical machinery, the recent 
order for 700 Christensen air brakes for the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Co. was being filled and their manufacture seen at the 


♦ « » 

Chattanooga Electric Ry. 

The Chattanooga Electric Railway Co. is operating .?H miles of 
track serving a total population of about^persons ; within the 
corporate limits of Chattanooga is a population of about 30,000. 
The company has 16 miles of track. There are operated two lines 
of 6 miles in length and four which are 3, 3^, 4 and 5I4 miles long, 
respectively. For all of the lines excepting about 2 miles the fran- 
chises are perpetual. 

The company has an extraordinarily large number of grade cross 
ings with steam railroads, and ihc total number of grade crossings 























Transfer Agent will return (his Coupon to 
the General Manager's off ice with Daily Re- 
port of Transfer Tickets 


Ol O' Oi 0» (Ui Oi C" O' C" Cif 01 it- tt- tt- *fc ►*». Ji rfk »t* )l^ 

<^(O00^iOSOlJ^C0tO»-- O O 00 

Cs <S* !*>. ic w ►- 

including a few with the Rapid Transit Co. is 98. There is now 
under construction a viaduct over the tracks of the Nashville, Chat 
tanooga & St. Louis Ry., which will eliminate a most dangerous 
crossing on the line to the company's pleasure resort, Olympia Park. 
The cost of this improvement is $58,000. which is distributed as fol- 
lows: Chattanooga Electric Railway Co., $17,000; County of Hamil- 
lon, $17,000; Cincinnati. New Orleans & Texas Pacific Ry. (three 
tracks), $17,000; Nashville. Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. (one track), 
$7,000. The construction is being done by the county according to 
plans approved by the railways interested. 

Other viaducts or subways are contemplated, and when these are 
completed the cost and danger of operating will be greatly reduced. 

Two important extensions to its existing lines are now contem- 
plated by the company ; both arc to reach Government Parks. One 
of these extensions involves building five miles of track to reach 
riiickamauga Park, which is eight miles from Chattanooga; of this 
one mile will be within the park limits, the War Department granting 
a revocable permit. I he other line will call for nine miles of ncv/ 
track and will reach the top of I^iokout Mountain. 

The Lookout Mountain line will rcfpiire building some nine miles 
of track, all of which will be on grades of from 3 to 4 per cent. 
This line will follow the rontc of the Cliattanr^jga & I^iokont Moun- 
tain R. R., which was formerly fipcrated as a steam railroad; tin- 
rails and tics of the old steam track were removed some years ago 
and the Chattanooga Electric Railway Co. will rebuild this for opera- 
tion by trolley. 

The company operates regularly about 35 cars and has an ideal 
transfer arrangement. A transfer station is maintained near the 
eenlral point of Chattanooga, into which all cars operated run. A 
passenger paying his fare on any car is entitled to enter the transfer 
station with the car and being inside the station may remain as 
long as he chotjses and then leave by any other car. Wailing rooms 
are maintained here and also a ticket office. Persons other than 
liassengers 011 incoming cars pay fare before entering the station. 
.\s a car leaves, the transfer agent counts the number of passengers 
on hoard and rings up the proper number of fares on the register 
and then punches on a duplicate ticket the route and nuinlicr of 
passengers entered up on the car; one section of this ticket is de- 
livered to the conductor ^ his voucher for the fares appearing on 
his register wdien leaving the station and the other section is turned 
into the general manager's office with the daily reports of the trans- 
fer agent. No transfers arc issued at any other point on the line, 
thus protecting the company against abuse of the transfer privilege 
while passengers receive every facility that can he asked within 

I he company has w> power house of its own. but buys current 
from the Chattanooga Electric Co. The officers of the company arc : 
President and treasurer, J. H. Warner; secretary. T V Will- • su- 
perintendent, J. W. McFarland. 

Electric Omnibus Line in Italy. 

"We have many times reported in these columns the interesting 
experiments made by different constructors to develop a practical 
system of electric traction on ordinary roads; and at the l>cginning 
of the year we described in all its particulars the Canton system 
which gave so much promise. 

"We learn that the Socicta Italiana per Industrie Electriche (the 
Italian Company for Electric Industries) of Spezia, which holds 
the concession for the electric omnibus service without rails from 
.Spezia to Portovcnere. has decided to adopt on this line the 
jointed trolley system of the firm of C. Frigcrio & Co., of Milan 
(which has just assumed the task of making practical application 
of the Canton system), and has closed a contract with the Society 
for the construction of a suitable plant. The service will be begun 
with three coaches of an absolutely new type worked out by the 
Frigerio firm, and of the capacity of 16 persons each. 

"The construction of the double line about 16 km. long has been 
intrusted to the Socicta Italiana per Trazionc Elettrica Ing. Meriggi 
Diaz & Co. of Milan, specialists in this kind of work. They have 
in fact worked out a new type of suspension with quadruple insula 
lion between the two lines, which will certainly give the best results. 

"The insulation adopted, which being used on a coast line, must 
be of a special composition, is that of the Ohio Brass Co., of 
Mansfield, O., a name on which the greatest reliance may be placed 

"We .shall follow with interest all the details of the construc- 
tion and operation of this plant, whether as regards the coach 
and the special system for taking the current, or as regards the 
line: and we shall not fail to keep our readers informed in regard 
to it. 

"Meanwhile we observe with pleasure that the first important 
installation of this kind has been intrusted to two Italian firms, 
and hence we judge that we shall be able to secure from the re- 
sults of this great and complex experiment of traction without 
rails, models for future plants of this kind which in Italy are des- 
tined to solve a very important problem." — L'Elettricita, Milan, 



[Vol. XV. No. 2. 

Paris Metropolitan Railway Co. 


The Utility of the Paris Metropohtan railway, a service already 
indibpeiisablc to the majority of the Parisian travelling public, has 
been greatly enhanced by the opening of line No. 3, extending from 
Courcelles (Avenue de Villiers) in the northwest to Pere La- 
chaise in the eastern part of the city and serving the principal 
boulevards. The line has a length of nearly five miles and in- 
creases the total length of the Metropolitan lines in service to 20 
miles. The newly opened line presents several points of interest, 
in addition to its being the line on which the traffic is expected to 
be the heaviest of the three now in service. The actual length of 
the line is 7,485 meters (4.87 miles) making, with the terminal 
loops, a total of 8,932 meters. Of this length, .some 1,845 meters, 
or a fifth of the total, consists of gradients, the steepest of which 
is 4 per cent ma.ximum. The curves, except at terminal loops. 
are never less than 75 meters radius. 

The line, entirely underground, includes 15 stopping places, in 
addition to the two termini at Courcelles and Place Gambetta and 
the average distance between stations is 466 meters. The service 
of trains, with a capacity of 800 passengers and a maximum weight 
of 160 tons, has necessitated more powerful equipments than those 
in use on the first two lines. The heavy traffic expected on this 
line has caused the adoption of the train control system, the trains 
comprising five cars, the first, third and fifth being motor cars. 
Two types of equipments are at present in service on this line, 
one the well-known Sprague-Thomson-Houston type with "bridge" 
control and the other being the Westinghouse pneumatic rontro! 
known as the turret system. 

The Thomson-Houston equipments, some ninety in all, have 
been supplied by the French Thomson-Houston Co. The motors 
are of French construction and are known as the TH-io, rated at 
175 h. p. Two motors per car are used. The gear ratio is 2.44. 

Chances of fire are thus reduced to a mininumi, although the body 
of the car remains of pitch-pine, no attempt having been made to 
supply fire-proof cars, the company apparently relying upon the 
above mentioned dispositions to safeguard the passengers. The 
motor cars arc placed one at each end of tin- train and (ine in the 


middle and it is stated that this plan has offered f'le most ad- 
vantages in making up and running the trains, the starting and 
acceleration motion being smoother than with two motor cars 
coupled at the head of the trains. 

The cars with which these motor tijuipments are used are 14.5 
meters long and weigh 25 tons empty ; they have seats for^ 46 pas- 
sengers and standing space for 30 more. These cars are the first 
cars of the Metropolitan to be mounted on double trucks, and also 


The whole of the train control apparatus, excepting the motors 
and collecting device, is arranged inside a cab at one end of the 
car. This cab is built entirely of incombustible material, and is 
insulated from the rest of the car. In it are installed contactors, 
reversers, rheostats, air compressor and switching and controlling 
apparatus. The wiring is bare, as far as possible, otherwise is 
encased in asbestos and enclosed in iron tubing. The collectors 
and shoe fuses, couplers and leads are the only electrical material, 
besides, of course, the motors, located outside the motorman's cab. 

the first to be equipped with train control. These two features are 
stated to be giving perfect satisfaction to the company. 

The Westinghouse equipments comprise 200-h. p. motors, and 
the turret controller is mounted in an insulated cab, similar to 
those of the Thomson-Houston type of equipments. Some ninety 
of these equipments have been furnished and most of them are 
already in service on the new line. The feature of this type of 
control, as is well known, is the suppression of the soo-volt train 
cable, the control circuit being operated in conjunction with com- 

Feu. is, 1905] 



pressed air by means of a is-volt battery. The trains comprise five 
cars, two or three being motor cars. 'I'lic length of these motor 
cars is 13 meters and they have capacity for 74 passengers of whom 
about 45 would stand. 

The maximum lengtli of trains is 72 meters, the station-platforms 
being only 75 meters long. At rush hours a .^minute headway 
will be given to the trains, when the service is well in hand ; at 
other times, as for instance early morning and late evening, a 5 
10 8-minute service is niaiulained. 


Section II — 4. 



From the accompanying map it will be seen that the lines now 
open form a divided irregular ellipse, the division being made by 
line No. 3. Line No. I extends from Vincennes to Porte Maillot, 
and line No. 2, following the northern outer boulevards, makes 
junction at the Place de la Nation and at the Etoile. Line No. 3 
originates in a loop at Courcclles, beneath the Pare Monceau, mak- 
ing there a junction with line No. 2, and proceeds to the Gare St. 
Lazare and the Opera, and follows at a short distance the central 
boulevards as far as the Place de la Republique, whence it proceeds 
to Pere Lachaise Cemetery, passing below line No. 2 with which 
it again makes junction. Place Gambetta is reached a short time 
after leaving Pere Lachaise Cemetery. 

The line is one of the most important of the network of the 

Circle — South part (approaching completion). 
Courcclles — Mcnilmontant (now open). 
Clignancourt— Porte Orleans (now building). 
Houlcvard Strasbourg— Pont Austerlilz (com- 
6. Cours Vincennes — Place d' Italic (commenced). 
Other Lines— 7. Palais Royal— Place Danube. 

8. Autcuil— Opera. 
Only the northern portion of line No. 2 is in service. The 
southern portion is practically completed, consisting 
mostly of overhead construction. To make a junc- 
tion with the northern part, two bridges over the 
Seine, one at Passy, the other at Bercy, arc under 
construction and will be ready during the first hall 
of 1905. The service over the whole of the circular 
line No. 2 can then be immediately commenced. This 
line forms a sort of inner circle around Paris. The 
outer circle may be called the present steam line of 
the Petite Ceinturc, running close to the walls, which 
line will probably be electrified at a future date and 
its system included in that of the Metropolitan. At 
present the inefficiency of its service is proverbial. 

In addition to the cars of a length of 14 meters 
and 13 meters, as above outlined, there have recently 
been placed in service on line No. i (Vincennes- 
Porte Maillot) a number of shorter cars (10 meters) 
mounted on double trucks. Line No. I was con- 
structed under the first regulations affecting the Met- 
ropolitan system, which included a stipulation that 
the cars of other railway companies were not to be 
permitted to run on the Metropolitan, and a narrow 
gage and small size of tunnel were insisted upon to 
attain this end. .-Mthough the narrow gage was sub- 
sequently increased to the present, which is slightly 
above the standard railway gage, the size of the tun- 
nel was unchanged, and owing to numerous 
"iharp curves on line No. I. a double truck car of 10 meters is 
tlie maximum length allowable thereon. 

These cars are equipped with the so-called double-unit equip- 
ments of the Thomson-Houston Co., permitting two motor- 
cars to be coupled at ends, middle or at one end of train. Others 
have Westinghouse equipments of the type already iff service but 
improved and modified according to the latest practice of that com- 

Recent sub-stations opened include Barbes, Etoile and Pere La- 
cliaise. All these are similar in equipment, with the usual step- 
down transformers and rotary converters, the latter of French 




Paris Metropolitan and has enormously increased the receipts of 
the system. Line No. 3, in fact, ranks next in importance to line 
No. 4, now constructing, running north and south through the city, 
serving the Halles, or central markets, a very busy quarter. 
The system of the Metropolitan is thus designed : 
Section 1 — i. Porte Maillot — Vincennes (open since 1902 ■>. 
2. Circle — North part (opened in :go2). 

construction and with an output of 750 Inv. One or two of the 
sub-stations are provided with buffer batteries. There are now 
five sub-stations. 

The chief construction features of line No. 3, beyond the No. 2 
terminal loops, are the passage beneath the Canal St. Martin and 
the Opera station. The Canal St. Martin is underground for a 
portion of its route, where it crosses line No. 3. The subsoil is 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

aquiferous and the canal has no artificial bottom. Two months only 
were allowed the contractors for llie interruption of traffic on the 
canal and during this period it was emptied and the ferroconcrete 
bottom constructed under that part crossing linr No. 3, which 
passes some 14 ft. below the bed of the canal. 

The Opera station also presents considerable interest, as here 
three lines of the Metropolitan system will cross at levels of 6, 
II and 16 meters respectively below the road level. These are 
lines Nos. 3, 7 and 8, the two latter forming the lower levels, as 
yet only on paper. Line No. 3 is the uppermost of the three tunnels 
and in order to avoid interference with the traffic thereon, when 
the time comes to place lines Nos. 7 and 8 into service, the whole 
of the tunnel construction forming the stations has been made. 
The foundations were made by means of compressed air caissons, 
tliree piers being sunk to a level of 18 meters. The masonry work 
is largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel superstructure sup- 
porting the street. The stairway (30 ft. wide) descending to the 
ticket office is the only e.xtcrior sign of the immense work which 
has been undertaken below, occupying some 18 months to com- 

The cost of line No. 3, construction of tunnels, approaches and 
stations, but not of the track, equipments and operating mechanism, 
has been 2,610 francs per lineal meter, this figure including the 
cost of construction of the Opera and Canal St. Martin sections 
This line is the cheapest of the three lines in service, the first two 
costing slightly above this amount per lineal meter and consisting, 
in part of viaduct, whereas line No. 3 is entirely underground. 

Line No. 4 is being pushed energetically and runs from Porte 
Clignancourt in the North, due South to the Porte d'Orleans. A 
tumiel, the plans for which have been approved, has just been let 
to contractors and will allow the passage of the line beneath 
the Seine. At this point are numerous bridges and an overhead 
construction for line No. 4 could not be entertained, especially in 
view of the pro.ximity of the Louvre and other public buildings, 
the artistic requirements of the city being high. 

The remaining lines of the Metropolitan concession are for the 
most part on paper only. Plans have been approved and portions 
of lines Nos. 5 and 6 have been given out to the contractors, after 
the manner in which the first lines were constructed. The work 
is done, where possible, on the cut and cover system and there is 
in consequence considerable disturbance to traffic. In parts where 
the depth or the traffic preclude the use of the cut and cover system, 
the earth is transported from the tunnels by means of compressed 
air locomotives. 

The whole of the construction work for the Paris Metropolitan 
railway is carried out under contract for the municipality, which 
retains the ownership of the timnels, stations anxl buildings. .\ 
lease of 35 years is granted to the Paris Metropolitan Railway Co., 
which lays tracks, equips stations, signals, etc., and supplies rolling 
stock. In practice, a proportion equal to about 30 per cent of gross 
receipts is paid to the municipality by the operating company, serv- 
ing as payment for the capital expended on the construction of tlie 

Power is supplied to the Metropolitan railway from various 
sources: (i) from Bercy power station, owned by the railway 
company, containing two 1.500-kw. direct current units, three 1,500- 
kw., 25 cycles, three-phase units, and a 1,560 am- 
pere-hour battery. (2) From power stations situated outside 
the city and owned by private companies, one being situated at 
.■\snieres, another at Moulineaux ; a third is being constructed at 
St. Ouen, and is interesting from the fact that it will contain, 
when completed, some 35,000 kw. of turbine driven machinery, 
of which about 18,000 kw. is now being installed, consisting of three 
Brown-Boveri-Parsons turbo-alternator groups, 5,500 volts, 25 cycles, 
three-phase, another group of 3,000 kw. and necessary turbo and 
engine driven motor-generator groups. Twenty Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers are installed for this machinery. 

The two Metropolitan lines in service, of a total length of 15 
miles, carried during the first nine months of 1904 a total of 91,- 
400,000 passengers. The opening of line No. 3 has made a large 
difference to the receipts and passengers carried and the figures for 
the last 10 days of 1904 are as follows; Total passengers, 4,920,- 
000; receipts, 853,000 francs. 

Total passengers carried during 1904 amount to 117,550,500; re- 
ceipts, 20,348,950 francs; as against 100,107,619 passengers carried 
in 1903 with 17,290,850 francs receipts. 

The Cleveland, Wooster, Mt. Vernon & Coliini. 
bus Railway Co. 

The Cleveland, Wooster, Mt. Vernon & Columbus Railway Co. 
has recently been incorporated under the laws of the state of Ohio 
for the purpose of constructing, maintaining and operating an elec- 
tric railway system between the cities of Cleveland and Columbus. 
O. The charter granted to this coinpany covers the handling of 
passengers, freight, express and mail traffic; the furnishing of light, 
heat and power and the operation of a telephone and telegraph line. 
It is the intention of the promoters of this line to at first construct 
a standard gage electric railway from Wooster to Columbus, with a 
branch to Mansfield, O. ; the line from Wooster to Columbus, 
appro.ximating 105 miles, and the branch to Mansfield, 12 mile.%. 
Starting from a connection with the Cleveland & Southwestern 
Traction Co. at Wooster, the proposed line will traverse the conn- 
lies of Wayne, Holmes, Ashland, Richland, Knox, Licking and 
Franklin, touching in their order the cities and villages of Mill- 
brook, Shrcve, Custaloga, Big Prairie, Lakeville, Loudonville, 
Perrys\ ille, Newville, Butler, Ankenytown, Fredericktown, Mt. 
Vernon, llunts, Utica, Homer. Johnstown and Columbus. At New- 
\ille the line branches off to Mansfield, touching Douglass and 
Washington. The population of the cities and towns that will be 
touched by this line is approximately The road will be 
constructed with a view to high speed service, of standard gage, 
with heavy steel rails, steel bridges and well ballasted. There will 
be no grade crossings with other railroads and, for the greater por- 
tion, the line will be on private right of way. The general offices 
of the company are at Mt. Vernon, O., and the officers of the com- 
pany are: President. F. W. Jones; first vice-president, J. J. Vail; 
second vice-president, E. F. Shelley; general counsel, J. B. Graham; 
secretary, J. A. Tilton. 

York (]ounty Railways Beneficial Association. 

The permanent organization of the York County Railways Bene- 
ficial Association has recently been perfected and application for a 
charter has been made to the secretary of state. The association 
was founded by the employes of the York Street Railway Co. and 
the York County Traction Co., of York, Pa. The objects of the 
association are to increase the spirit of fraternalism among the 
employes of the different electric railways in York County and to 
create a fund to provide for members of the organization in time of 
sickness or death. The sick benefit will be $5.00 per week, while 
the death benefits are. in case of the death of a member, $100 
payable to the wife or mother, and in the event of the death 
of a wife or mother of one of the members, $50 payable to the 
member himself. Upon joining the association members will not 
immediately become entitled to benefits but will be required to wait 
a certain period, and if a member leaves the employ of the com- 
pany he will be entitled to benefits so long as he continues to pay 
dues and assessments. The amount of initiation fee, dues and as- 
sessments has not yet been determined but it is the intention of 
the organization to discontinue assessments as soon as the funds 
of the association will permit. The officers of the association are: 
President, William Shaeffer ; vice-president, J. H. Mellinger; treas- 
urer, Ellis W. Lewis ; recording secretary, R. S. J. Sitler ; financial 
secretary, S. H. Ludwig; trustees, Milo Glassick, Lee Seachrist 
and Howard Freed. 


Improvements at Birmingham. 

The Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co. is pl.inning a large 
amount of rebuilding and new work for the coming season. The 
improvements will include cc^al 'lianSling apparatus, coal storage 
bins and mechanical stokers af the power house ; extension of gas 
mains in all directions, a viaduct over the railroad tracks in Besse- 
mer, a terminal in Bessemer with a freight house, waiting station and 
electric light offices; the relaying of the South Bessemer line be- 
tween Powderly and Bessemer with 70-lb. rails, and the addition 
of 10 new motor cars, several new trail cars, a new freight motor 
car, new freight box cars and a general overhauling of the electric 
light distribution circuits and the replacing of many of them with 
heavier copper. Mr. T. A. Emery, of Birmingham, is general man- 
ager, and Ford, Bacon & Davis are engineers. 

The Indianapolis & C^incinnati Traction C]o. 

Description of the First Sinj»lc.Pliasc Electric Railway Built for (commercial Operation. 

A very few years ago Ihe proposal lo operate an electric railway 
ijo miles ill length from a single power Iiotisc without the use of 
rotary converter snb-stations would have been pronounced com- 
iiiercially impossible, yet at the very beginning of the present year 
wc find such a line approaching completion and a considerable jior- 
lion of it in operation. This has been made possible by the develop- 
ment of a single-phase alternating-current railway motor. 

The single-phase traction system is an American one, the applica 
lion of alternating current to railway work in Europe having in- 
solved polyphase induction motors, and in the "Review" for August, 
lyoj, we had the pleasure of describing the Westinghouse single- 
phase railway motor. This motor was recognized as possessing 
many points of theoretical advantage for railway work and its test 
in practical operation has been awaited with keen interest. 

The first single- phase electric railway to be built as a commercial 

t'lilure inslalialion of coal-crusliing and aiilomatic coal-handling 
machinery, with overhead hunkers which will feed directly to the 
boiler grates. The boiler room occupies one-half of the present 
building. The rest is divided into two parts, the larger room being 
known as the main engine room, while the eastern portion of the 
building is set apart as a high-tension chamber. 

The generating equipment consists of two soo-kw., 2,300-voll 
Westinghouse alternators of the revolving field type, wound for 
3-phase, 25-cycle current, and direct connected to cross compound 
Corliss engines, built by the Fulton Iron Works, of St. Louis. The 
operating speed is 94 r. p. m. The engines are of the double-cylinder 
vertical type. Both engines and generators are designed for an 
overload capacity of 50 per cent. Each engine is equipped with an 
independent jet condenser made by the Dean Bros. Steam Pump 
Works, of Indianapfilis Water for condensing purposes is supplied 


undertaking is that of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 
of which Mr. Charles L. Henry is president and general manager. 

Starting from Indianapolis, the road will pass through the towns 
of Irvington, Julietta, New Palestine, Reedville, Founlaintown, Mor- 
ristown, Gwyiinvillc. Arlington, Rusbville, Glenwood, Connersville, 
Duiilapsville, O.xford. Hamilton and Cincinnati. It has already been 
constructed as far as Rushville, Ind., and, in the course of the pres- 
ent year, will be extended to Connersville. It is the intention of 
ihe company to push through to Cincinnati at the earliest possible 
date. At the present time about 20 miles of road are in operation. 
and the new system has been shown to be a complete success and 
lo thoroughly justify Mr. Henry and his consulting engineers, Sar- 
gent & Lundy, in adopting Ihe alternating current for this important 
■ 'peration. 

The central station from which this railway w'ill be operated is 
located at Rushville, adjacent to the tracks of the Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton & Dayton Railway Co., and distant about 41 miles from Indian- 
apolis. The building is a fire-proof structure of brick, concrete and 
steel, with well-lighted interior, and skillfully arranged for future 
enlargement as the operations of the company are extended. The 
present equipment includes three 350-h. p. Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 
which are at present fired by natural gas. Provision is made, how- 
ever, for the burning of coal if at any time the supply of gas 
becomes insufficient, and arrangements have been made for the 

by a large mill-race through an underground tunnel running under 
the basement floor. 

The 2,300-volt, 3-phase. 25-cycle current from the generators is 
led direct to two pairs of 250-kw. air-blast transformers, which are 
connected according to the Scott 3-phase 2-phase system. The sec- 
ondary windings are arranged for 2-phase operation at 33,000 volts, 
at which potential the current is delivered to the transmission lines. 
A pair of motor-driven Sturtevant fans provide the air necessary 
to ventilate these transformers. 

The generators are separately excited by direct current at 125 
volts. Duplicate exciter generators have been installed, one of 
which is direct connected to a Westinghouse steam engine, the 
other to a Westinghouse type C induction motor. 

The switchboard controlling panels are located in the main engine 
room, but the switches, transformers and other similar apparatus 
have been installed either in the basement or in the high-tension 
cnamber. The main bus bars are in the basement and are supported 
upon a masonry structure of most approved design and construction. 
Live bars are separated by barriers of "Alberine" stone. 

The power house was built according to plans and specifications of 
the consulting engineers, Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, and all of the 
equipment was purchased under their specifications and installed 
under their supervision. The electrical apparatus was all furnished 
by Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 




[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

A pair of 300-kw. transformers of the Westinghouse oil-insulated 
self-cooling type located in the power house reduces the 33,000-volt 
current from the main transformers to a potential of 550 volts, and 
feeds that portion of the trolley line which is located within the 
limits of the city of Rushville. 

Other portions of the trolley are fed at a potential of 3,300 volts, 
obtained from the 33,000-volt transmission lines through reducing 
transformers which arc installed in transformer stations conven- 
iently located along the road at intervals of from to to 12 miles. 
.•\t this time three of these transformer stations have been con- 
structed, one near Indianapolis, another at Reedville and a third 
at Gwynnville. The buildings are very small and compact, meas- 
uring but 21 ft. by 23 ft., but their construction is thoroughly sub- 
stantial and is fire-proof throughout. The walls are of brick laid 
in cement mortar and mounted upon foundations of concrete; the 
floors are of concrete laid upon steel beams. The doors and win- 
dows are protected by steel shutters. The equipment of each of 
the transformer stations so far installed consists of two 300-kw. 
oil-insulated step-down transformers of the Westinghouse self-cool- 
ing type, 33,000 to 3.300 volts, together with disconnecting switches 
and suitable lightning-protecting apparatus, including low-equiva- 
lent lightning arresters and static interrupters. Provision has been 
made in each station for a third similar unit when required. The 
transformer stations contain no automatic switches of any type. 


through rotary converter sub-stations and direct-current railway 

At this time the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. is giving 
an hourly service between Rushville and the neighboring towns 
towards Indianapolis, and the work is being completed rapidly with 
a view to running through cars into the larger city. There are at 
present 10 cars which were built by the St. Louis Car Co. The cars 
are 55 ft. over all, and divided into three compartments; one ar- 
ranged to carry baggage, the center compartment as a smoker, and 
a main compartinont with a seating capacity for 38 people. The 
cars are handsomely finished in mahogany, with plate glass win- 
dows and art glass in the ventilators. The trucks are of the M. C. 
B. type, made by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and have steel- 
tired wheels 36 in. in diameter and 6-in. axles with 5 X 9-in. 
journals. The electrical equipment consists of four 75-h. p. single- 
phase alternating current Westinghouse railway motors of the com- 
mutator, series wound type, mounted two to the truck. The equip- 
ment includes the Westinghouse unit switch system of multiple 
control, so that the cars may be operated either singly or in trains. 


but arc controlled altogether from the main central station. They 
therefore require no attendance and need be inspected only occa- 
sionally when in operation. 

The transformer stations were planned by Sargent & Lundy, and 
erected under their supervision, the electrical equipment being fur- 
nished by Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. The discon- 
necting switches in each station were made from designs specially 
prepared for this service by Sargent & Lundy. 

.As has been stated, the main section of the trolley will be fed 
at a potential of 3,300 volts, while in the city of Rushville 550 volts 
alternating current will be used. As, however, within the city of 
Indianapolis the cars must operate over the already existing lines, 
which are equipped for direct current at 550 volts, provision had 
to be made for operation with both direct and alternating current 
and at a trolley potential of both 550 and 3,300 volts. This single- 
phase system, the first to be put in commercial operation, therefore 
serves to e.xemplify the adaptability of the new type of motor for 
operation upon both direct and alternating-current circuits and to 
illustrate the flexibility of the system in regard to voltage. 

In the drawings for the power-house wiring there is shown a 
2-phase 4-wire circuit, in addition to the single-phase circuits which 
connect the power house with the transformer stations. This power 
circuit illustrates an arrangement whereby it is proposed in the 
future to operate the electric railway now running between Indian- 
apolis and Shelbyville from the Rushville station. The Indianapolis 
and Shelbyville line is owned by the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Co. and is at present operated from its own power house 


As these cars are to be operated by both direct and alternating 
current, the rheostatic system of control was adopted. The motors 
are geared for a maximum speed of 45 miles per hour and are 
arranged for a schedule speed of 30 miles per hour, which has 
been adopted for local service. Stops will be made at all of the 
cities and towns and at the principal crossings of the country. To 
properly take care of the through service, additional "limited" cars 
will be run at an early date. These "limited" cars will be equipped 
with four 150-h. p. motors and will be arranged for a schedule 
speed of from 50 to 60 miles per hour, as, under the provisions 
of the various franchises under which the company operates, they 
will not have to make stops in the country or in the smaller towns 
and will be required to make only one stop at each of the larger 
intervening cities. It is expected that when the road is completed 
from Indianapolis to Cincinnati these "limited" cars will make the 
through trip from the center of one city to the center of the other 
in three hours' time. 

The road has been built with a view to handling heavy freight, 
even to the extent of handling long trains, and it is confidently 
expected that the use of a high voltage on the trolley wire and 
the sliding contact bow trolley will make such a service possible 
without experiencing the difficulties which have heretofore been en- 
countered when a heavy freight service has been attempted with 
direct-current operation. 

Each car is equipped with two trolleys — one of the bow type 
designed for high potential service; the other, a modified form of 
the union standard trolley, intended for use on the direct-current 

Frb 15. i^PS] 



line in Indiannijolis niifl llic Inw-voItaRC allcrnating-ciirrcnt line in 

'Che roadway is believed Id lie etiiial lo that ot any line in the 
country. The track is graded in accordance with the best practice. 
cuts and fills having been made wherever necessary lo avoid excess- 
ive or frcrinent grades. I'dr a distance of nearly 50 miles frnni 
Indi.mapolis there is no grade in the line to exceed I'/j per cent, 
.md. while from that point on toward Cincinnati the country is less 
level and in some cases straight lines have been preferred even at 
the expense of slightly increased grade, it is confidently expected 
that, with the true aliginueut secured and the low grades cncoun- 

105-rr. RRinr.E OVER Bir. sfgar crfek. n'far new Palestine, iNn. 

(ercd, greater speed can be ni.iiutaincd willi comfort and safety to 
passengers than on any steam road now operating in that vicinity. 
So far as has been yet determined, the heaviest grade will be 4 
per cent. 

The roadbed is graded 28 ft. wide on lop tor a double track, with 
slopes on fills and in cuts oV V/z to i, and upon a grade line that 
puts the track in most instances above the level of adjacent lands, 
so as to avoid trouble on account of snow. In" the construction of 
the roadway, bridges, etc., provision has been made in every case 
for double track, though but one track has been laid at the present 
time. The bridges across all streams are constructed in the most 
approved manner, either with concrete steel arches or witli steel 
girders and stone abutments. The upper structures have been built 
of the very best steel construction by the Indiana Bridge Co., of 
Muncie, Ind., and are made of sufficient strength to carry trains 
of cars having a gross weight of 100 tons per car. Though all abut- 
ments have been built for double track, the superstructure at the 
present time is arranged for one track only. It will be noted that 
provision has been made for the heaviest demand in respect to size 
of cars and length of trains likely to be experienced in the near 

Wherever possible the track has been laid upon the company's 
private right of way. Where the land is level and there are no con- 
siderable fills or cuts, a right of way four rods wide has been se- 
cured, but wherever peculiarities of construction made it desirable, 
a wider right of way has been obtained. In all of the smaller 
towns the private right of way has been continued through, and the 
road has been constructed upon streets or highways only in cities 
, of such size as to make it necessary. Wherever possible, curves 
have been avoided and such an alignment has been secured between 
cities and towns as will permit of very rapid running with entire 
safety to passengers and equipment. In most instances the right 
of way has been protected by a woven wire fence erected under 
an agreement with the land owner whereby he maintains the fence 
and keeps all gates closed. Wherever such agreements have not 
been secured the right of way has been fenced with barbed wire 
In most cases the company has also been granted the right to cut 
and keep out any timber on adjacent lands which might interfere 
with its wires and fences or with the operation of the road. 

I'he track is laid with 70-lb. T-rail in "jo-ft. lengths, connected 
with Weber rail joints and Ohio Brass No. 0000 lO-in. copper 
bonds, with Js-in. terminals under the plates so as not to be exposed. 
Cross bonds are put in every half-mile and long bonds under all 

special construction. All switches and other special devices have 
been furnished by the Buda Foundry & Manufacturing Co., of Chi- 
cago, the construction throughout following the highest standards. 
Turn-outs and cross-overs arc constructed so as to avoid danger 
of open switches. The ties arc mostly of first-class white oak or 
burr oak, though a few of chestnut have been used. They all 
measure 6 X S 'n. by 8 ft., and are laid 3,280 to the mile. The 
bridge ties arc of long leaf yellow pine. Ciravcl ballast has been 
used throughout the whole line, and is generally laid 8 in. under the 
ties and level with the top of the rail. In the streets of Kushvillc 
an l8-in. layer of broken stone has been placed under the ties. 

The high-tension tran.smission lines are composed of No. 4 bare 
copper wire. A single-phase circuit leads to each transformer sta- 
tion. The high-tension wires arc supported on large porcelain insu- 
l.itnrs, held by iron pins to strongly constructed cross-arms, mounted 
upon a separate line of poles which are set near the edge of the 
right of way. 

■Mong the private right of way the trolley wire is suspended 
from poles set in the center of the grade 100 ft. apart, with a 
bracket made of angle iron loo|)cd at the end so as to carry a large 
Hat insulator from the top of which is run a 7-16-in. steel stranded 
cable or messenger wire. The trolley is formed of No. 000 copper 
wire and is carried 8 in. under the messenger cable, to which it is 
attached every 10 ft. with specially made steel clamps. This form 
of construction is known as the catenary suspension. The steel 
messenger cable is drawn tight. The insulators are large and strong, 
and even if one is broken the steel cable would remain suspended 
from the top of the bracket. As the trolley is attached to the steel 
cable every 10 ft., breaks will seldom occur, and, even if one 
should take place, not more than 10 ft. of trolley wire would be loose. 
The catenary construction provides a practically level trolley, with 
no sudden bends at the insulators, such as is often found with the 
ordinary suspension. This point is of particular advantage in high- 
speed service. The trolley wire is suspended 18 ft. above the track. 

Where the tracks are in the streets, the poles are set on the sides 
of the streets and the trolley suspended from span wires. Other- 
wise, the construction is the same as along the private right of way. 

The overhead material for the entire line construction was sup- 
plied by the Westinghouse company according to designs and speci- 
fications of Sargent & Lundj-. 

The entire system is provided with two metallic circuit telephone 
lines, one of which is reserved exclusively for the train dispatcher; 


the other line is intended for general company business. Each car 
carries a telephone, so that communication can be had with the train 
dispatcher at intervals of 2,000 ft. Telephone wires are carried 
on porcelain insulators on cross-arms near the tops of the trolley 
poles. The wires are transposed every 500 ft. in order to avoid 
disturbance by the current in the transmission lines. 

The poles are all of selected white cedar; those for the center 
trolley construction are 40 ft. long with 7-in. tops, and the side 
poles for the high-tension lines are 35 ft. long with 7-in. tops. All 
poles are set 6 ft. in the ground and are carefully tamped; 30-ft. 
poles are used for the streets in the cities where there are no feed 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

wires and the poles arc used only to support the span wires; while 
on the other side, where the high-tension lines run, the poles vary 
in height from 40 ft. to 60 ft. so as to carry the transmission lines 
above the shade trees. All the side poles along the streets are 
neatly shaved and painted and are set in concrete. The 6o-ft. poles 
are of Idaho cedar, and are smooth and straight as if turned in a 
lathe. The entire pole line was constructed under the direction of 
Mr. A. A. Anderson, general superintendent of the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction Co., and under the immediate supervision of 
Mr. Oscar D. Emery. The work is of a most excellent character 
and attracts the attention of the most casual observer. 


The Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. was organized Feb 4. 
1903, under the laws of Indiana. It is managed by a board of seven 
directors, consisting of Charles L. Henry, Indianapolis, president 
and general manager ; Ephraim Marsh, Greenfield, Ind., vice-presi- 
dent; Wm. L. Taylor, Indianapolis, secretary; Endorus M. John- 
son, Indianapolis, treasurer; James W. Fesler, Indianapolis; Theo- 
dore P. Rose, Muncie, Ind. ; Wm. M. Frazee, Rushville, Ind. 

The general office of the company is at Rushville. It is a three- 
story frame building with a slate roof and was constructed from a 
residence which was purchased in the first instance to enable the 
company to make an easy curve around the corner. , The building 


is now equipped with fire-proof vaults, heated with steam, and 
lighted from the company's own power station and is arranged 
with ample accommodation for the general officers of the company. 
Waiting rooms and baggage rooms are also provided. The execu- 
tive officers of the company are located in the Traction & Terminal 
Building at Indianapolis. 

Under the provisions of the franchises of the Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co. interurban lines are allowed to enter the city 
over the tracks of the city company by such roads as the city desig- 
nates, upon payment to the city company of an agreed or ascertained 
compensation. The Traction & Terminal company has made a uni- 
form agreement with interurban roads for entrance into the city 
over its tracks whereby the interurban road pays 4 cents for each 
passenger carried while on the city lines. This agreement entitles 
the interurban line to all of the privileges of the Terminal Station, 
where all, the interurban roads of Indianapolis enter. 

The Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. has franchises of a 
most favorable character in all of the cities and towns through 
which the line passes. 'I'hey uniformly run for a period of 50 years 
and contain no objectionable features regarding the pavement of 
streets, the erection of iron poles or the payment of a franchise tax 
to the state or town. The franchises in the cities of Rushville and 
Connersville permit the company to run "limited" cars, making only 
one stop in each city. In all of the smaller towns the franchises 
specially provide that "limited" cars need not stop at all. The fran- 
chises also provide for the carrying of freight, express and mail 
matter under reasonable regulations of the various cities and towns. 
.^11 private rights of way and franchises outside of cities and towns 
run in perpetuity. 

The most interesting feature of the new installation, made possible 
by the use of the alternating-current system throughout, is the ab- 
sence of the rotary transformer sub-station and the consequent 
small amount of feeder copper required. The No. 0000 copper 
trolley wire is supplemented by no feeder and the only lines required 
are the No. 4 high potential transmission lines which connect the 
main power house to the transformer stations, The system there- 
fore makes possible a great saving in copper and does away entirely 
with the expense usually incident to the operation of sub-stations 
and which may be regarded on an average as amounting to the 
wages of three men, aggregating not less than $6.00 per day for 
each sub-station. The adoption of the alternating-current system 
makes possil)Ie for the three transformer stations already installed 
between Indianapolis and Rushville a saving in wages amounting to 
$6,570 per annum. It is estimated that for the 10 stations which 
will be installed between Indianapolis and Cincinnati a total annual 
saving of $22,000 is thus made posible in wages alone. In addition 
to this there will be a large sum of money saved in the maintenance 
and repair of machinery. 

President Henry, whose foresight and courage made possible the 
trial of the alternating-current railway motor in so large an opera- 
tion, is one of the pioneers in the development of modern electric 
traction. In 1897 he built the first interurban line in Indiana, and 
under his management the Union Traction Co. in 1900 united a 
.system of lines extending from Indianapolis via Anderson to Mun- 
cie, from Anderson via Alexandria to Marion, and from Alexan- 
dria to Elwood, with about 100 miles of line. 

Manganese Steel. 

Editor "Review" : 

I noticed that in the January number of the "Review" you report 
the December meeting of the New England Street Railway Club 
and the paper which I read at that meeting. While I appreciate 
the quite full report, there is one quotation of what 1 said which 
is incorrect, and as it is somewhat important, I would be obliged 
to you if you would correct it in your ne.xl issue. 

.^t the beginning of page 55 you make me say that as the orig- 
inal patent of Mr. Hadfield on the alloy containing a certain per- 
centage of manganese had expired and the production of the alloy 
was therefore public property, "a number of different manufac- 
turers were using it with success." This is not correct, or at least 
it might be misleading. What I did say was that Mr. Hadfield's 
original patent covering an alloy with a certain percentage of 
manganese had expired a couple of years ago and the production 
of an alloy of this description was public property, of which a 
number of manufacturers in various lines in which manganese 
steel had been eminently successful had taken advantage, but that 
Mr. Hadfield's invention was not alone the alloy, but the proper 
development of its properties by treatment, which treatment is still 
protected by subsequent patents, and which patents, as stated pre- 
viously in the paper, were controlled in the United States by the 
Taylor Iron & Steel Co., of High Bridge, N. J. 
Yours truly, 

V. .^ngerer, Vice-Pres.. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 24. 1905. Win. Wharton, Jr.. & Co., Inc. 

A suburb of Revere Beach, Mass., is known as Streetcarville. 
This name originated from the large number of residences consisting 
of old horse cars, which a local transportation company sold at $10 
each, and which are arranged in regular street formation. 

Feb. 15, JQOSl 



Meeting of A. S. K. A. Executive (Committee. 

Uii Fcliruary .3(1 ami 4tli, llie executive committee of the Amer- 
ican Street Railway Association licld a mecling at the Holland 
House, New Yorl< City, at wliicli were also present representatives 
of tlic Accountants', the Mechanical and Electrical, the Claim Agents 
and the Manufacturers' associations. The principal purpose of this 
mecling was In consider plans for the re-organization and possible 
amalgamation of the various street railway associations with th.- 
American Street Railway Association. Mr. W. Caryl Ely, president 
(if the American Street Railway Association, briefly summed up the 
action taken at St. Louis, wliich was in favor of a re-organization of 
the American Street Railway Association, and emphasized the need 
nf careful consideration before any definite action be taken. Mr. Ely 
stated that his mind was open as to what should be done, and that 
he believed that the best result would be obtained by submitting the 
question to a sub-committee representing all the associations. As a 
basis to work upon he highly approved the plan suggested by Mr. 
Richard McCulloch of St. Louis, which is given herewith. 


Bi-fore street railways attained their present importance, the 
president, manager, superintendent or operating head of the rail- 
way dirctcd its every detail and was interested in every part of the 
work, from the care of horses and the construction of track to the 
accounting and financial problems. At that time he took part in the 
discussions at the general meetings of the American Street Rail- 
way Association because he foil familiar with all the questions there 

With the growth in size, importance and wealth of street rail- 
ways, however, these conditions have changed, the diflfcrent depart- 
ments now being under the direction of specialists. The super- 
intendent of transportation is no longer interested in accounting 
propositions, and the master mechanic does not care to sit through 
a discussion on transfers. This is shown by the fact that for sev- 
eral years there has been a poor attendance, a general listlessness, 
inattention and lack of discussion at the general meetings of the 
main association, while quite the reverse has been the case at the 
meetings of the accountants and mechanics. 

To prevent the breaking up of the association by the further 
secession of organizations of specialists, and to enable the asso- 
ciation to perform the good of which it is capable, the following 
plan of organization and meeting is proposed : 

L The annual conventions shall combine general meetings of 
the American Street Railway Association together with meetings 
of certain .sections to which the consideration and discussion of 
papers and technical questions shall be allotted. The following sec- 
tions are suggested. 

It is presumed that the presidents, managers, directors, etc., would 
attend the meetings of this section, and if deemed advisable its 
meetings could bo held in executive session. 

This section is for superintondents, and such questions as trans- 
fers, time-tal)Ies. inspection, etc.. would naturally come before it. 

'I'his section would perform the work now done by the .Account- 
ants' Association. 

This section would consider questions relating to the construction 
and maintenance of cars, trucks, motors, etc., which are now taken 
up by the Mechanical and Electrical Association. 

Matters regarding the construction and maintenance of power 
plants, high-tension distribution, low-tension feeders, overhead con- 
struction, together with the consideration of new systems for the 
supply of power, would come before this section. 

I hi'i section would discuss building and track problems. 

In the meetings of this section, those interested with the settle- 
ment of damage claims could get together and compare notes. 

II. The necessary changes in the constituticm and by-laws of 
the association shall Ix; made that the officers of the association 
shall consist of a president, vice-president, permanent secretary and 
treasurer. The permanent secretary shall be the executive officer, 
statistician, keeper of records, etc., performing similar duties to 
the secretaries of the various engineering societies. 

The executive committee shall consist of the president, vice- 
president and treasurer of the general organization, together with 
the presidents of the different sections. 'I'his executive committee 
shall perform the work of the present executive committee and 
shall have the power to increase or diminish the number and scope 
of the various sections as it may deem advisable. 

III. Sinudtaneous meetings of the various sections may be held 
. al the annual conventions, but meetings of related sections should 

be so arranged that a delegate who is interested in questions com- 
ing before more than one section may have the opportunity of at-, 
tending the meetings of several sections. For instance, the man- 
ager who would attend the meetings of Section A should have 
his choice of the other sections. The meetings of the superinten- 
dents and roadmasters should be held at different times so that one 
delegate may attend both sections. The same arrangement should 
be made for the master mechanics and the power plant men, and 
for the accountants and claim agents. 

A printed program of the meetings of the various sections, to- 
gether with the papers and topics to be brought up at each meeting, 
should be distributed in advance of the annual convention, and this 
program should be strictly followed, so that a delegate may come 
to the convention knowing what questions he wishes to discuss and 
how to dispose of his time to the best advantage. There is no 
reason why the meetings of the sections should not begin at 9 a. m 
and continue, with a recess for lunch, until 5 p. m., and if the busi- 
ness cannot be completed during the day sessions there is no reason 
why a certain section may not hold a night session. 

There will be ample time for a delegate to examine the exhibits 
when his particular section is not in session, or the executive com- 
mittee may assign a day for this purpose. 

In order to illustrate the application of the scheme thus out- 
lined, the following program for the year 1905 is mapped out, 
the dates being chosen at random : 

Tuesday, Sept. 26, 1905. 
g a. m. to 12 m. General Meeting of the Association. 
Call to Order. 
.\(ldrcss of Welcome. 
President's .\ddress. 
.Abstract of reports of Secretary, Treasurer and Executive Com- 

Reports of Committees. 
General Business of the Association. 
Appointment of Nominating Committees. 
2 p. m. to 5 p. m. 

Meeting of Section B (Transportation). 
" C (.Accounting). 
D (Rolling Stock). 

Wednesday, Sept. 27. 1905. 

g a. m. to 12 m. 

Meeting of Section F (Roadway). 

" " C (Accounting). 

E (Power Plants). 

2 p. ni. to 5 p. m. 

Meeting of Section B (Transportation). 

" " " G (Claims). 

D (Rolling Stock). 

Thursday. Sept. 28. 1905. 
g a. m. to 12 m. 

Meeting of Section .A (Finance, Legislation, etc.). 
2 p. m. to 5 p. m. 

General Meeting of the Association. 

Unfinished Business. 

Report of Nominating Committee. 

Election of Officers. 

The following is a resume of the allotment of time: 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Section A — Finance, Legislation, Organization, etc 3 hours 

" B — Transportation 6 " 

" C — Accounting 6 " 

" D — Rolling Stock and Car Equipment 6 " 

" E — Power Plant and Power Distribution 3 " 

" F— Buildings and Roadway 3 " 

" G — Claims and Damages 3 " 

Total time spent in meetings of sections 30 hours 

'lime allotted for general meetings of association 6 

This division of work will give 30 hours of section work during 
a three days' session of the convention, and allowing one hour and 
thirty minutes for the discussion of each topic or paper. There 
is time for the discussion of 20 subjects, which about quadruples 
the capacity of the present organization. It is unnecessary to dwell 
on the fact that the topics would be discussed by men who are in- 
terested in the questions and that, as the meetings would be smaller. 
discussion is apt to be freer. The above outline is merely given as 
an illustration of what might be done under this scheme and with- 
out any intention to limit the sections to the time allotted to them, 
or to establish any arbitrary limit to the number and scope of the 
sections. This should be established by the executive committee of 
the association from time to time. 

Precedents for this method of disposing of the business of large 
conventions exist among the educational associations, notably the 
.American Association for the Advancement of Science, which has 
for a number of years conducted very successful meetings on this 

Mr. McCuUoch made some further explanations of the plans sug- 
gested by him, dwelling upon the fact that the general scheme was 
one which had been found to work well in connection with the 
.-Knierican Association for the Advancement of Science, many of the 
members of which were interested in the work of more than one 
of the sections of the association. 

Mr. W. G. Ross, president, of the Street Railway Accountants' 
Association, expressed approval of a great many of the features of 
the plans suggested by Mr. McCulloch, but said be was opposed to 
having his association placed as a part or section of the parent asso- 
ciation ; he wished to retain the name and identity of that associa- 
tion, which bad been in existence since 1897 and had got into close 
touch with steam railroad commissioners of the country. Mr. Ross 
did not believe that the work of the secretary's office of a combined 
association could be done in a satisfactory manner by a general 
secretary, as there was in connection with the work, of the Account- 
ants' association alone enough work to keep one man busy. Mr 
Ross also touched upon the desirability of having the matter of in- 
dividual membership in the various associations considered. 

Mr. C. F. Baker, president of the American Railway Mechanical 
and Electrical Association, expressed ideas similar to those of Mr. 
Ross. The Mechanical and Electrical association is an association 
of engineers and independent in a way of the American Street Rail- 
way Association. It needed financial assistance, however, to make 
it the benefit it should be to its members and the railway companies 
they represent. Its secretary should be a technical man familiar 
with the line of work undertaken by the as.sociation. As the pres- 
ident holds office for only a year, whereas the secretary is habit- 
ually re-elected, it is the secretary who should be the active exec- 
utive officer of the association. 

Mr. H. H. Adams spoke along the same lines as Mr. Baker. 

Mr. W. H. Dibbs, president of the Claim Agents' Association, 
stated the progress it had made since the St. Louis meeting and ex- 
plained the manner in which his association had already proved of 
great assistance to its members by aiding in exposing fake accident 

Mr. D. M. Brady, chairman of the Manufacturers' Association, 
spoke at some length as to the attitude of that body, which was 
anxious to co-operate in every way with the American Street Rail- 
way Association. Mr. Wm. Wharton, Jr., also addressed the meet 
ing as a representative of the Manufacturers' Association. 

Mr. H. H. Vreeland criticised the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation for its backwardness in still adhering to horse car methods 
in conducting its business while the business of the members was 
conducted along modern lines with advances commensurate with the 
change of conditions. Mr. Vreeland referred to the various associa- 

tions in the steam railroad field, particularly the American Railway 
Association and the Master Car Builders' Association. He also calls 
attention to the need of an association bureau charged with the col- 
lection of general information and its distribution to those in need 
of it. 

.'Ml the speakers expressed approval of the principal features of 
Mr, McCulloch's suggested plans and approved of the suggestion to 
submit the matter to a sub-committee. On motion a sub-commit- 
tee to consist of four members of the American Street Railway 
Association and one from each of the other associations, with Pres- 
ident Ely as chairman ex-officio, was appointed. This committee 
comprises : 

American Street Railway Association — W. Carly Ely, chairman 
ex-officio; Richard McCulloch, C. G. Goodrich, E. C. Foster and 
VV. E. Harrington. 

Street Railwa.v ■'\ccountants' .\ssociation of .\merica — W. G. Ross ; 
Frank R. Henry, alternate. 

.American Railway Mechanical and Electrical .Association — H. H. 
.Adams ; E. W. Olds, alternate. 

.American Association of Street Railway Claim .Agents — W. A. 
Dibbs; \V. 11. Renaud, Jr., alternate. 

American .Street Railway Manufacturers .Association — W. H. 
Heulings, Jr.; Wm. Wharton, Jr., alternate. 

The association decided to hold the 1905 convention at Phila- 
delphia during the week beginning Monday, September 25th. Head- 
quarters will be at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. 

Handling Express by Electric Suburban 


The writer submitted a paper to the Canadian Electrical Asso- 
ciation in ig02 upon "Electrical Suburban Railways," in which he 
took the ground that steam railroads will, in the near future, 
handle their suburban and short distance interurban passenger 
traffic and mail, express, baggage and light local freight by elec- 
tric motive power. In this paper the writer submitted statements 
showing the results from passenger traffic, of carrying out this the- 
ory upon the existing steam railway running between Quebec, Ste. 
.Anne and St. Joachim, a distance of 25^ miles. These results 
showed that during the -year 1889-1890, the first year's operation. 
95.563 passengers were carried and in 1899-1900, 261,175 passengers 
were carried ; this under the old regime of steam railroading. 
The next year, 1900-1901, under the electric motive system, 537,- 
933 passengers were carried and last year, 1903-1904, 877,310 pas- 
sengers were carried, of which number 155,980 passengers were 
carried by steam trains. (By way of explanation, it is neces- 
sary to mention that the same number of steam trains, arriving and 
departing at the same hour, are being operated now as in 1899-1900.) 
.And the passenger receipts, which averaged $38,246.47 a year during 
the II years of steam operation, last year amounted to $96,943.47; 
from this it will be noted that the average fare per passenger has 
decreased from 18.17 cents to 11.05 cents, showing that the more 
frequent service permits of and encourages the residents along the 
railway to visit from village to village, which under the old 
system was not so frequent and at the time, as there has been no 
apparent increase in population, accounts for the large increase in 

In 1900, the writer issued instructions to all agents to make a 
report of all parcels, hand valises, baskets, canes, umbrellas, etc., 
which were handled by them, to be taken charge of and for which 
no charge was being made ; in other words, the agents were taking 
charge of these parcels merely as an act of courtesy and without 
responsibility. The results showed that large numbers of parcels 
were being left, and an inspection of the reports showed that these 
parcels at the Quebec office principally consisted of groceries, meat, 
laundry, etc., whereas at the wayside stations, they consisted of 
vegetables, cut and uncut flowers, fowls, laundry, etc. Conse- 
quently, in the spring of 1901, parcel offices were opened at each 
station and agents were instructed not to accept the care of any 
packages without making a charge of 5 cents for each article for 
the first 24 hours, and a similar charge for each additional day. 

•Rend hi'foni the CnniKllaii Street RaUway Association, Derember. I!tii4. 

Feu, 15, '905 



and a supply of piirccl checks was at Ihc same time issued. This 
luovemcut created considerable opposition from the regular pas- 
sengers who, by reason of their having had a privilege for over 
II years, now claimed it as a right; as a consequence, receipts 
which were aiiticipatcil frcjin agents' reports to amount to several 

are arrived at according to classification arranged by the Canadian 
Freight Association, the diflcrcnt railways of course having their 
own rates lint abiding by the classification made by the association. 
Rule 30 provides for such articles as the Quebec Railway, Light & 
Power Co. is now carrying under the express, baggage and light 


()mV,m IIAILWAY, MlillT AM) I'OWKR CO. no. 2001 




!,ntiiiU uf Cur 

No. 0/ Car 

NoTi.— Coniluclori In WByllllllng Prelgbl Witt nol«4Mr lb» o4d pAQDdl-nlitn IhrYriclien U S or over, call il l#il pwMda . 
wbcn it It uDdtf 6 caII it 4 


Consignee and 



Description of Articles 






-— -— 




■ ■ " 1 


liiiiidroil iliillars ,i yc;ir did not aninuiU tii $100, and a careful watch 
at Ihc (lilTcrcnl stations reveali-il llu- fact that residents would 
bring a parcel to the station, wait the arrival of some friend and 
then request their friend who was traveling to take charge of it 
and bring it citlicr to or from town. Grocers in town would be 
telephoned to frnin say Mrs. B. to meet a certain train and hand 
her parcel In Mr, II. who would take charge of it, Mrs, B. some- 

local freight department, as follows: Small consignments of one 
class, or including articles of several classes, will be charged at 
actual weight, according to the classification of each article, but 
no single shipment will be taken for less than too lb. ist class, ex- 
clusive of cartage. The minimum charge is 35 cents, with an 
additional charge of 10 cents for each cartage performed by the 
railway company's cartage agents. Thus it will be seen that the 




TV* lliilh.^11 .<llt I 

Rull»u>. .ui'b : 

- D«tC - , . - 190 

RECEIVED f.o.ii 

th« undcfn'onlioitcd Property, in app.^rcnl good Order addressed lo „ - - 

to bo icnt Ijy Ihe said RAilw.ty. AUt>jci;l to jho terms .ind conditions os slated Above, and upon the olltcr Sldo. 

Writlil j nmm 


FlIKM 1! i2 


times and generally meeting Mr. H. at destination to take the parcel 
from him. This condition naturally led to the establishment of 
an express, baggage, and light local freight department, thus at- 
tempting (perhaps earlier than anticipated) the last theorem laid 
down in the paper read to the Canadian Electrical .Association, 
previously referred to (the carriage of the mails having been pre- 
viously arranged for). 
Under steam railway rules, as is generally known, freight charges 

: : M 


:; ForlrunsJioiUil.imoj llur rl,.ii(;. > 

Shipped by^ 

Advanced -.- 
Total $ -^ 


Rer^ivrd payment for the Company. 

FORM II ,54 — CRIGINAL IS S'/i X 3l4 IN. 

company was unable under this tariff to convey any parcel, no 
matter how small, for a less charge than 35 cents— in many cases 
more than the value of the package of rhubarb or other vegetables 
that were being sent to town. It was therefore necessary to make 
not only new rates suitable to the special requirements of the dis- 
trict, but also to make new rules and regulations regarding this 
class of traffic; these rules and regulations came into eflfect Dec. 
I. 1902, the tariff being as follows: 

Any station to any station, for all parcels, small boxes, etc. ; 
From o to 10 lb., 5 cents ; over 10 lb. to 20 lb.. 10 cents ; over 20 lb. 
to 30 lb., 15 cents; over 30 lb. to 50 lb.. 20 cents; over 50 lb. and 
not over 100 lb.. 25 cents. 


HOTE.—Mgant will ha particular to nott tlia authority bf which any donation is made from TarHf Ratot : olhtrwitt the proper rate will bo tubttitutod. 

and thojiqont held retponsible for the deficiency. 




Train No. 




Description of Articles 




Cor I To 
Clmg«s I Collect 





[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

The rules governing the service ,Trc as follows : 

E.xpress Freight. — All goods weighing less than 100 lb. offered 
for shipment, will be carried on any regular passenger or electric 
train, with all despatch possible. 

Each parcel, bo.\, etc., must be properly packed and addressed 
in full before a receipt (Form B 32) is given to the sender. Fresh 
fish, fresh meat and any other perishable articles must be prepaid. 
.\ny dangerous articles will not be accepted except on special orders 
from the superintendent. 

.•\gcnts will use Form B 33 when way-billing, which must be 
iTiade in duplicate, one copy of the way-bill to be given to the driver 
of the electric train or the baggageman of the steam train, and the 
goods must be forwarded by the first train due after the goods have 
been accepted for shipment; the other copy of the way-bill will 
be kept by the agent and accounted for in the same manner as 
regular freight. 

Agents receiving express freight will issue Form B 34 and notify 
consignee as quickly as possible, and when goods are delivered a 
receipt must be taken on Form B 33, opposite article for which re- 
ceipt is required. Way-bills received will be accounted for in the 
same manner as regular freight. 

Conductors of all regular trains may accept goods for shipment 
at any flag station, using Form B 31 for billing express freight. 

Any article weighing over 100 lb. to be carried by the regular 
freight trains only and under Canadian freight classification rules. 
These regular freight trains are operated by steam in the usual 

Forms B 31, B 32, B 3^ and B 34 are shown herewith. Form B 
33 is in book form, and is duplicated with carbon paper. 

.-\gents were instructed to despatch all parcels under the fore- 
going regulations by the first passenger car at any time of the 
day or night, to give them'tn charge of the motorman on electric 
cars and the baggageman on steam trains, and informed that no 
excuse would be accepted for not despatching by the first train. 

The public immediately took advantage of the facilties thus of- 
fered and the parcel office, while still open for the accommodation 
of travelers, is practically not made use of. The receipts from 
this source of revenue the first year amounted to $300; and last 
year they practically doubled. And the service is still meeting the 
appreciation of the public. Passengers in the villages along, the 
line, instead of purchasing from small stores near their residences, 
travel to town, purchase goods from different stores, have one parcel 
made of their purchases and sent to the station, to be forwarded by 
express to destination, instead of having it deposited in the parcel 
ofiice and having the trouble to call for it and transport it them- 
selves ; and again, from the villages, vegetables of all kinds, cut 
flowers, etc., are during the summer being daily expressed to town 
to supply the hotels, boarding houses, etc., in the city. 

In conclusion, it is pleasing to be able to state that during the 
two years in which this business has been in operation, only three 
complaints of delays have been received, and not one single pack- 
age has been lost or gone astray. 

Of course it will be noted that the conditions mentioned are dif- 
ferent from those on most suburban electric railways, by reason of 
the company having no agents at the different stopping-places; this, 
however, is a point which in the writer's opinion, can in most 
cases be overcome by the managers of the different roads interested. 
It seldom happens that there is not some responsible man or 
woman residing close to the stopping place or flag station, in which 
case arrangements could most probably be made whereby these per- 
sons would be willing to take charge of the packages for a smail 
consideration or commission. 

The Union Terminal Railroad Co., Cincinnati. 

The first authorized statement of the plans for a new union 
passenger station and a subway across the center of the city of Cin- 
cinnati has been announced by the Union Terminal Railroad Co., 
which has been in existence nearly a year. The new union depot is 
to be situated between Court St. and the canal and extending from 
Walnut St. to Elm St. The plans of the company include the con- 
struction of a passenger station; the building will be eight stories 
high, 214 ft. wide and 500 ft. long. Under the surface of the street 
passenger and freight tracks will be run; there will be six tracks 

running cast and west, each of which will be approached from tlic 
main waiting rooms by means of a separate stairway. The center of 
the building will be a hollow square, with a 60-ft. dome surmounting 
the subway. Three main entrances are provided for and two drive- 
ways, while the baggage, freight and mail rooms will extend along 
the canal end of the building. Room is to be provided for street 
cars and express companies and also arrangements made so that the 
interurban lines which are near the site can run into the building. 
The plans for this depot have been made by D. H. Burnham & Co., 
architects, of Chicago. 

The Passenger Terminal Construction Co. will be incorporated 
for carrying out the plans as already proposed by the Terminal 
company. Mr. George R. Scrugham, who recently retired as presi- 
dent and general manager of the Interurban Railway & Terminal 
Co., of Cleveland, O., which operates over 100 miles of interurban 
electric railways, will be president and general manager of the con- 
struction company and will personally have charge of the construc- 
tion work, which it is stated will cost $10,000,000. 

Appleyard Situation in Ohio. 

.\rthur E. .Appleyard & Co. have agreed to a reorganization of 
the Ohio electric railway companies known as the Appleyard sys- 
tem. The plan calls for the formation of three companies with 
stock aggregating $8,500,000 which shall issue bonds to the same 
amount. This agreement must be signed by 55 per cent of the 
creditors before it becomes operative. The combined capitals of 
these companies amount to $9,350,000 and they have issued bonds 
amounting to $5,215,000. 

. The plan provides that the Ceneral Market Street Railway Co.. of 
Columbus, which operates 16 miles of track, shall be reorganized as 
one company ; that the Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati Railway Co., 
which operates 35 miles of electric and steam road between Daytoq 
and Lebanon, shall be reorganized as a separate company, and that 
the Uayton, Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Co., the Colum- 
bus, London & Springfield Railway Co., the Urbana, Bellefontaine & 
Northern Railway Co., the Columbus, Grove City & Southwestern 
Railway Co., and the Springfield & Western Railway Co. shall con- 
stitute the third company, which shall be known as the Ohio Union 
Railway Co. 


A Peculiar Accident. 

The evidence in a suit for damages brought by the owners of 
the schooner Frank W. Benedict against the Portsmouth, Dover 
& York Street Railway Co., of Portsmouth, N. H., shows a rather 
peculiar accident. On Sept. 10, 1903, the Benedict tied up at Cutts' 
wharf, Kittery Point, with a cargo of coal consigned to the Ports- 
mouth, Kittery & York Street Railway Co., predecessor to the 
present company. According to the plaintiff's claim, the consignee 
failed to provide a safe berth for the schconer, as on September 
i6th the vessel came in contact with the feed wire and her star- 
board side was badly burned. A further claim is made that the 
wire with which the schooner came in contact was not properly 
insulated. The defendant company claims contributory negligence 
on the part of the captain of the vessel. A portion of the Bene- 
dict's cargo was discharged and to conveniently remove the rest 
the schooner was hauled forward, which brought it dangerously 
near the company's feed wires and the martingale of the steamer 
was hauled up to clear them. This was done when the tide was 
high aiid the captain was notified that the martingale should be 
liauled up still more, so that the schooner might drop away from 
the wharf. The company claims that the warning was disregarded 
and that the schooner fouled the feed wire as a result. 

The second number of the Interurban Monthly, published at 
Champaign, 111., in the interests of the Illinois Traction System, has 
made its appearance. In this number are included the time tables 
of the Illinois Traction System and the steam railroad connections 
at the various cities on the Illinois Traction line, and a reprint of 
the article on the McKinley Syndicate properties of Central Illinois, 
which appeared in the "Street Railway Review." 

New York & Stamford Railway Co, 


TravcrsiiiK niiic-li tlio same rnulc thai was follnwcd by the old 
mail and road coaclics of a century or more ajjo, tlic New York 
& Stamford railway forms a connecting link between the suburban 
branches of the Metropoblan Street Railway Co., of New York 
City, and the Stamford Street Railway Co., which in turn makes 
direct connection with the street railway lines running into the 
city of New Haven, Conn. 

The Stamford Street Railway Co. being owned and controlled 
by the New York. New Haven & Hartford Railroad Co. is not a 
part of the New York & Stamford Railway Co's. system as might 
be supposed from the names of the two companies. (Note by 
author: Since ilir foregoing was written announcement has been 
made that on Jan. i, 1905, this entire electric railway system was 
purchased by the Consolidated Railway Co. at an amount reported 
to be about $1,500,000. The Consolidated Railway Co. is controlled 
by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Co.) 

The latter company is an entirely independent corporation and is 
llu' result of a combination of old Port Chester Street Railroad 
Co., the Larchnmnt llorse Railway Co. and the Greenwich Tram- 
way Co. 

The system is a single track having an extreme lenglli of about 

ibrough the village of Larchmont. From Munroe's descendants 
the property passed into the hands of E. K. Collins, the once well 
known manager of the American Line of steamships to Europe. 
Early in 1872 this tract of land was purchased by a few individuals 
who desired to build for themselves attractive country homes in 
what they considered a most desirable location and to control 
sufficient property to forever insure the permanency of their plans 
against intrusion. These men organized themselves into what is 
known as the Larchmont Manor Co., which platted the land for a 
suburban place of residence by laying it out into regular-sized lots 
and by imposing certain restrictions in every deed of conveyance. 

Towards the end of 1872, the plans of the Larchmont Manor Co 
had so far matured as to suggest the construction of a line of 
horse railroad from the New Haven railroad station to the sound, 
a distance of about one mile. 

A small wooden railroad station had been built in 1853 on the 
east side of the railroad bridge, by an association of gentlemen 
calling themselves the Chatsworth Land Co. This little building 
standing in the unrelieved loneliness of the Chatsworth woods, 
excited the derision of passengers on the New Haven railroad 
trains for many years, because lack of patronage prevented the 


20 miles extending from Larchmont on the west to Stamford on the 
cast and passing through the townships of Mamaroneck, Harrison, 
and Rye, and the villages of Larchmont, Mamaroneck, Harrison, Rye 
and Port Chester, all in the county of Westchester, N. Y. In 
Connecticut it traverses the township of Greenwich in the coimty 
of Fairfield and connects the villages of East Port Chester, Green- 
wich, Cos Cob, Riverside and Sound Beach. 

Touching as it does the old Post Road, over which our fore- 
fathers had to make the three or four days' journey by horse 
when they wished to go from New York to Boston, this electric 
road marks the result of a most interesting evolution of transporta- 
tion by means of public conveyances from the early coaching days 
to the present period of rapid transit by means of electric power. 

As this road runs through a section of the country which not 
only abounds in picturesque scenery, but also in landmarks and 
reminiscences of considerable historic interest, it perhaps may not 
be inappropriate to make mention of a few of these points before 
passing to a general description of the road itself, its equipment 
and the service which it renders the people at large in the com- 
munity through which it passes. 

The lands about Larchmont were originally in the possession of 
Peter Jay Munroe, who is credited with having planted the rows 
of fine old elm trees along the Boston Post Road as it passes 

railroad company from establishing a regular stopping place. The 
Larchmont Manor Co., being possessed of this station building, 
made it the terminus of its horse car line. 

In constructing this horse car line, which was the beginning from 
which the present New York & Stamford Railway Co's. system 
started, it was necessary, from reasons of economy, to lay the rails 
upon the ground, in truly prairie fashion. The equipment of the 
road consisted merely of car No. I and one pair of horses. This 
original car is in existence today, and is kept in the company's 
car barn as a relic. 

Sarting with this very modest beginning it was not long before 
new franchises were obtained and this horse railroad was extended 
through the village of Larchmont and the towns of Mamaroneck 
and Harrison. 

In the first week in July, 1898, the Port Chester Street Railway 
Co. started operating. This road was from the first equipped elec- 
trically, and the power plant which was installed for the operation 
of this road, although enlarged to meet the increased demand upon 
it, today supplies the power for the entire system, a combination 
of the three separate roads. 

At the commencement the equipment consisted of but three cars 
and the line was limited to the village of Port Chester only. Later 
a branch was installed on Westchester Ave., then .->.n e>;tension was 



[Vol. XV. Nu. 

run to Rye Village, then to Harrison to connect with the Larch- 
mont Horse railway. 

The company's line is double tracked from the power house at 
Port Chester to Rye Beach, and also for about half of its leng'h 
in the village of Larchmont. There are other sections of double 
track in other parts of the line, but these cover short distances 
only, and are used merely for switching purposes. 

Some portions of the line have been constructed on private prop- 
erty in order to secure suitable right of way, in which instancer. 
the company controls these rights of way. At the terminus of the 


road at Rye Beach the company owns sufficient ground to pro- 
vide a terminal loop and storage tracks. 

Adjoining this property the company has leased a piece of ground 
for a term of years and has erected a terminal station; in addition 
to these improvements for the Rye Beach business it has leased 
a large grove and after thoroughly draining it has erected a dancing 
pavilion, band stand and other buildings for amusement purposes. 
This grove is free to the patrons of the line and during the summer 
season extra service is put on this branch road to accommodate the 
heavy travel and special trolley parties 

The management of the company has been very conservative and 
its method of dealing with accidents and other items of a similar 
nature has always been extremely liberal. 

The Greenwich Tramway Co., although a part of the New York 
& Stamford Railway Go's, systein, is a separate company organized 

a distance of about one mile, this being the only portion nf the 
Greenwich Tramway construction which had received the approval 
of the Connecticut authorities at that time. In September this line 
was extended through the village of Greenwich to the Soldiers' 
Monument on Putnam Ave. and down the famous "Put's Hili" 
to Cos Cob. [It should be noted that the car line does not actually 
follow the direction of the trail taken by General Putnam when 
he escaped from the English officers down the sheer hillside.] 
Extensions were then added to Miamus and Sound Beach and 
finally to Stamford. 

This then makes a through line from Larchmont to Stamford ot 
about 20 miles, the running time being about one hour and thirty 
minutes. The entire amount of trackage covered by this system, in- 
cluding the main line, branches, double tracked portion and switch 
sidings, is about 30 miles. 

It is an interesting fact that a traveler on this road in glancing 
init of the car windows will occasionally see along the route some 
of the old mile posts from which distances were reckoned a century 

The track equipment throughout is of standard gage, the rails 
being in some places 7C-lb. T sections, and in others loi-lb. girders. 
The latter construction is used in the towns where brick pavement 
has been used. 

The total rolling stock at the present time consists of 10 open 
I /-bench double truck cars, equipped with air brakes and seating 
102 persons; 20 open single truck cars; 12 closed single truck cars; 
I parlor car; i wrecker car; i construction car; I sprinkling car; 
3 snow plows, and 3 gravel cars. In addition to these cars the 
company is operating and has charge of 10 open and 7 closed single 
truck cars of the Greenwich Tramway Co. 

The power station is at Port Chester. The equipment comprises 
two Rice & Sargent engines rated at 700 h. p., each direct connected 
to a G. E. 8oo-kw. generator, one Buckeye engine of 700 h. p. 
direct connected to a 425-kw. G. E. generator and one Green engine 
of 350 rated h. p. direct connected to a 225-kw. G. E. generator. 

I Ilj. 3. — FIKST C.\K 11UI.>K 1;LILT IN iSQQ. 


under an old charter. The former, however, is operated by the 
latter and the same interests are identified with both. The road of 
this company lies wholly in the state of Connecticut and extends 
from the bridge over Byram River to the Boston Post Road at the 
western end of the city of Stamford. 

In August, 1901, the consolidation of the interests of the two 
roads was effected and in that same month the new company com 
menced to operate a portion of the Greenwich Tramway line from 
Byram River to Byram Shore Road in East Port Chester, Conn . 

These generating units supply direct current to the line at the power 
Citation switchboard at a potential of 550 volts. In addition to these 
machines there is also a 75-kw. alternator belt driven by an Arming- 
ton & Sims engine; this is used for lighting an amusement park at 
Rye Beach. 

The boiler plant, which is in practically a .separate building from 
the engine and dynamo room, is equipped with a battery of nine 
water tube boilers of 145 h. p. each, made by the Pacific Iron Works 
of Bridgeport, Conn. 

Fku. 15, '905.1 



Adjacent to the power station at Port Chester, are located two 
car harns, an office building and a repair shop. This last is imme- 
diately back of the office buildinR which is shown on the extreme 
right of the illustrations. 

All of these Iniildings are heated by exliausl steam from the 

Ry means of a siding connecting with the tracks of the New 
Haven railroad, all coal and heavy freight may be brought directly 
In the power station building. 

In Larchmont the company also has a car barn measuring 50 x 
150 ft. 

All of the company's buildings are of recent construction. When 
designed great care was taken to provide structures that would not 
only be substantial and adequate for their present needs, but also 
for reasonable increases in the future. 

The oldest building now in existence is that shown in Fig. 3, 
which is the first car barn built by the new company in 1899. This 
engraving sliows the substantial construction which was adopted 
from the first. 

As in the history of most roads, there were many difficulties 
which this company had to surmount in the laying out and the 
work of constructing its lines, but those who were instrumental in 
putting tlie project through feel well repaid for their labors as the 
road today forms a connecting link between two very important 
railway systems and traverses a country which has proved suf- 
ficiently desirable to attract the most active attention of two 20 
million dollar corporations, each of which has been organized for 
the express purpose of building a four-track system from the Con- 
necticut line to a suitable point at which connection can be made 
with the surface traction and rapid transit systems in New York 
City. No matter what may be the outcome of the development of 
these two tremendous enterprises this road, which has already 
passed through its development period and is now on a substantial 
financial and operating basis, is bound to be benefited. 

To put this road through was not an easy undertaking, as it was 
necessary to bring the interests of those owning each of the three 
companies, which the consolidation includes, into the new company 
in such a manner that all should feel satisfied and interested in the 
future interest of the enterprise. 

The country through which the road runs being more or less 
open in character the engineering difficulties encountered in con- 
structing the line were not exceptional. In some places, however, 
the matter of obtaining clear right of way made it necessary to em- 
ploy measures which would not ordinarily have been followed. 
Fig. 4 shows a double reverse curve which was introduced to con- 
nect the line on one street with that on another, the former run- 
ning at right angles to the latter, over an L-shaped piece of prop- 
erty which had to be purchased by the company as it was impossible 
to obtain the necessary privilege to extend the tracks until they 
meet at their natural intersection. 

Pacific Coast Water Powers for Operation of 

"The use of Pacific Coast Water Powers in the Electrical Opera- 
tion of Railroads" was the title of an interesting paper read before 
the Pacific Coast Railway Club, on January 21st, in San Francisco. 
The paper was presented by Mr. Robert McF. Doble, consulting 
engineer of the Abner Doble Co., of San Francisco. Mr. Doble dis- 
cussed the relative advantages and disadvantages of steam and elec- 
trically hauled traffic. In speaking of the power required for the 
electrification of several of the California roads particular reference 
was made to the conditions on the Pacific Coast where available 
water powers are distributed at frequent intervals all the way from 
southern California to British Columbia. But a very few of these 
magnificent power development opportunities are now utilized. In 
speaking of electric traction in California particular reference was 
made to the Los Angeles & Redondo Railway, Pacific Electric Rail- 
way of Los Angeles, and the North Shore and the Key route sys- 
tems of San Francisco. The North Shore railroad is of special 
interest by reason of its being the first and only third rail line in 
California and because of its being operated from the Alto sub-sta- 
tion which is the terminus of one of the longest transmission lines 
in the country. The Alto station is 180 miles from the hydro- 
electric plant at Colgate, and 250 miles from the new De Sabla 

power house. Mr. Doble concluded his paper by eimni^ 
distinguishing characteristics of some of the leading hy 
power stations and systems of California, special reference ' 
made to the new De Sabla power house, of the California G: 
Electric Corporation, where is now operating an 8,000-h. p. tangen- 
tial water wheel, the largest single water wheel ever constructed. 
This station regularly supplies power to San Francisco and other 
points over 300 miles distant. 


Annual Report of the Ottawa liilectrii: Kail- 
way Co. 

The annual report of the Ottawa Electric Railway Co., of Ottawa. 
Canada, for the fiscal year ended Dec, 31, 1904, and submitted at 
the nth annual meeting, held Jan. 30, 1905, has been published in 
pamphlet form. The gross receipts for the year were $384,939.64; 
net earnings, $139,097.70. During the past year $54,926.54 was ex- 
pended for betterments, which included the work of replacing old 
40-lb. and S2-lb. rails with new 80-lb. rails and the double-tracking 
of Elgin and Archibald Sts. from Sparks St. to the Swing Bridge, 
and Dalhousie and St. Patrick Sts. from Rideau to King St. A 
1,300-h. p. motor generator set was installed in a new power house 
built by the company. Last winter the company experienced the 
worst snow storms since the opening of its line and the cost of snow 
clearing amounted to $20,186 for the year. Forty-two acres were 
added to the company's park at Brittannia-on-the-Bay and the audi- 
torium moved from Victoria Park to Brittannia-on-the-Bay. Twelve 
new open cars have been ordered and will be ready and fully 
equipped for the opening of the summer season's business which has 
been largely increased during the past season. The report also in- 
cludes a statistical statement for the years 1892 to 1904 and a com- 
parison of the year 1894 with 1904 will be interesting. 

1894. 1904. 

Gross receipts $129,484.02 $384.93964 

Total expenses 83,324.64 275,840.98 

Net profit 46,159-38 109,098.66 

Passengers carried 2,797,281 8,717,205 

The officers of the company are : President, T. Ahearn ; vice- 
president, Peter Whelen ; secretary-treasurer, James D. Fraser; audi- 
tor, R. Quain. The board of directors included the president and 
vice-president and Warren Y. Soper, George P. Brophy, Hon. 
George A. Cox and Thomas Workman. 

« • » 

Pratt & Lambert Convention. 

The managers, superintendents and salesmen of Pratt & Lambert 
have lately held an interesting convention of four days length at 
their Buflfalo plant, about thirty-five representatives being present. 

The firm of Pratt & Lambert began making varnish in a very- 
modest way as early as 1S46, and has grown steadily and healthily 
until now the capitalization of their combined manufacturing plants 
is in the neighborhood of $6,000,000. This firm, whose business is 
the manufacture of oils, varnishes and paints, is now operating three 
complete factories in this country, located in Chicago, Buflfalo and 
Long Island City, N. Y. Pratt & Lambert have branch sales houses 
at St. Louis, San Francisco and New York City. With these com- 
bined plants they are the largest makers of varnish in the world. 
The main office of the company is at the Buffalo factory. Asso- 
ciated with Pratt & Lambert is the firm of Robert Ingham Qark & 
Co., Ltd., which operates varnish factories in London, Hamburg and 
Paris, where are manufactured the well-known high-grade "Britan- 
nia" railway varnishes. 
' « « » 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., has been presented by the 
American Locomotive Co. with a pair of full-size model locomotive 
cylinders, sectioned to show the piston valve construction. This 
model formed part of the company's exhibit at the World's Fair. 
St. Louis. 

A very attractive calendar is that issued by the Ft. Wajiie, 'Van 
Wert & Lima Traction Co., on which is mounted a photograph. 
4 X 5!/2 in., showing the first electric car from 'Van Wert to Lima, 
over the elevated crossing of Pennsylvania R. R., Dec 31, 19Q4. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 






4.S-47 Plymouth Place, Chicago, ill. 
Cable Address: ' 'Winfleld. ' ■ l-one Distance Telephone, Harrison 754. 

New York-39 Cortlandt Street. Cleveland— 303 Electric Building. 

London— Byron House, 82 Fleet St. 

Austria, Vienna— Lehmann & ^Ventzel, Karntnerstrasse. 
France, Paris— Boy veau & Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Rue de la Banque. 
Italy, Milan— Ulrico Hoepli, Librairia Delia Real Casa. 

New South Wales, Sydney— Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland [South), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch. Limited, Queen Street. 

Address all Communications ai:d Remillaticts to Kenfield Publishing Co., Chicago, 111. 


We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertafning either to companies or officers. 


If Tou contemplate the purchase of anv supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to The Review, stating what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 

Vol. XV 

FEBRUARY 15, 1905 

No. 2 


The Iowa & Illinois Railway Co. Illustrated 7i 

New England Street Railway Club So 

Development of Automatic Couplers for Electric Cars. By 

W. T. Van Dorn 8l 

Northwestern Electrical Association 82 

Chattanooga Electric Ry 83 

Electric Omnibus Line in Italy 83 

Paris Metropolitan Railway Co. Illustrated. By M. Vingoe... 84 

The Cleveland, Woostcr, Mt. Vernon & Columbus Railway Co.. 86 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. Illustrated 87 

Meeting of E.xecutive Committee, American Street Railway 

Association 9' 

Handling Express by Electric Suburban Railways. By E. A. 

Evans 92 

Union Terminal Railroad Co 94 

New York & Stamford Railway Co. Illustrated. By Putnam 

A. Bates 95 

Annual Report Ottawa Electric Railway Co 97 

Editorial 98 

Annual Meeting Chicago City Railway Co 102 

February Meeting of the Indiana Electric Railway Association. . 103 

Interurban Passenger Traffic. By L. J. Shlesinger 103 

The Newman Properties Association 105 

Piping and Power Station Systems — IV. By William L. 

Morris 106 

Wear of Steel Tired Wheels — How to Eliminate Excessive 

Flange Wear. By W. G. Price 109 

Annual Meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Association. ... no 

Choice of Prime Movers. By E. P. Roberts no 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 115 

Sale of Stephenson Car Plant 127 


A great many electric interurban railways made the mistake of 
fixing the fares at too low a figure, and while probably most of them 
who have made this mistake realize that they are suffering from it, 
but few have had the courage to increase the rate to a figure more 
in keeping with the expense of operating and the value of the service 
given the patrons. The Indiana Union Traction Co. about a year 
ago increased its rate from i cent per mile to the one at present 
in force, which is iji cents per mile. The result of operation shows 
no considerable loss in traffic, and, as there has been an increase in 
gross receipts, the change is considered to have been in every way a 
satisfactory one. The Southwest Missouri Electric Railway Co. has 
had a most varied experience with regard to rates. On this line 
the original rates were fixed on the basis of from i to i"/2 cents 
per mile and were in force for about five years up until June, 1898, 
when to meet competition a rate of 10 cents between Carthage and 
Galena, a distance of 28 miles, including a free hack ride at each 
end of the line, was made and continued for about seven months. 
In January, 1899, a readjustment of fares was made upon a basis of 
J^ cent to I cent per mile. Feb. l, 1905, the company returned to 
the original tariff. It is of course too early to say whether this 
company will find it difficult to educate its patrons to pay the higher 
rates, but as the company's position in the matter is that it cannot 
be expected to furnish transportation at a loss, a perfectly just one, 
it will only be a question of time until the situation is accepted by 
all interested. 


One of the weak points 111 the operation of electric railways has 
been the indifference displayed in regard to informing patrons as to 
possible connections at junctions with other lines. Some companies 
have published time tables for distribution on the cars, but a number 
of even the largest systems of these have contented themselves with 
occasionally announcing that cars run at intervals of an hour or two 
hours, as the case may be. Quite recently several roads have under- 
taken to disseminate more widely information as to what they have 
to offer to the public. One of the latest publicity enterprises of this 
nature has been undertaken by the Illinois Traction System. The 
company publishes a 32-page pamphlet, known as the "Interurban 
Monthly," with complete time tables, information concerning the 
connections made at various points with steam railroads, and at the 
same time gives considerable reading matter that should be of in- 
terest to the average patron. It is considered that this publication 
will prove itself of some value as an advertising medium and secure 
L-nough business of this nature to make it self-supporting. 

There are comparatively few companies that are large enough to 
undertake the regular publication of other than a mere folder on 
their own account, and for these a middle course is furnished by 
joint time tables, such as those which it is proposed to publish for 
the Indiana lines. The scheme proposed by Mr. Richey, which is 
referred to in the report of the Indiana meeting for February, is one 
that offers considerable advantages, as the railway companies secure 
the desired publicity for their time tables, and at the same time the 
trouble and expense of managing the publication are undertaken by 
an outside party who makes that his business. 


The opinions expressed at the recent meeting of the executive 
committee of the American Street Railway Association indicate that 
all concerned are agreed as to the need for a reorganization of the 
association. Such differences as exist are as to the extent to which 
the other national electric railway associations should be reorganized 
HI order to best serve the interests of the companies they represent. 
Existing conditions were admirably stated by President Ely in his 
summary of the action taken by the associations at the St. Louis 
conventions, by Mr. Richard McCulloch in connection with the 
proposed plan of reorganization submitted by him, and in a very 
epigrammatic manner by Mr. Vreeland when he said that the electric 
railway men had been keen and progressive in meeting changed con- 
ditions affecting their business in every respect except one — they 
had departed from horse-car methods in everything except the con- 
duct of their national association. 

Twenty years ago the American Street Railway Association was 
in effect a club of horse railway owners, which held annual meet- 

Kiii). IS. 'QOS] 



ings; today it is l)ut little more than a club of electric railway presi- 
dents and managers. At the annual conventions the social features 
have year by year encroached upon the others until the meetings 
became mere junkets for delegates of the members— very enjoyable 
affairs doubtless, but hardly, from a business point of view, justify- 
ing the dues and expense accounts. 

■jhe conditions are not the same with the other and younger 
associations, each of which was organized to fill a recognized want, 
and each of which (even the Claim Agents' association organized 
only last year) has a very flattering record of good work accom- 

I'lie present status of the several associations is about as follows: 

\. .S, R. A, — ample income, unsatisfactory work; Accountants' — 
income and record both satisfactory; Mcclianical and Electrical — 
record good, income insuflicient ; Claim Agents' — income not as- 
sured, and as yet but little opportunity to make a record. 

It is essential that each of these associations have adequate finan- 
cial support from the railway companies, and as it is the presidents and 
managers of the companies — that is the delegates to the A. S. R. A. — 
who hold the purse strings, the A. S. R. A. may be subjected to the 
temptation to reorganize too radically for the best interests of all 
concerned. Perhaps it is not putting the matter too strongly to say 
that the A. S. R. A. owes it to its members to demonstrate that it 
is capable of conducting its affairs in an acceptable manner before it 
insists upon a merger of the other associations with itself. 

The chief executives of the railways — the men who ought to be 
and doubtless always 'will lie, the delegates to the conventions of 
the A. S. R. A. — are not the proper ones to represent their com- 
panies in the other associations for two reasons : First, they do not 
have the intimate knowledge of the details affecting the departments 
that is necessary to useful active membership in the departmental 
associations; second, by their presence they restrain their subordi- 
nates who do have the desired knowledge, as no wise master 
mechanic or auditor will undertake to expose the ignorance of his 
general manager, or debate matters of opinion with him in public. 
Any plan in which these facts are not given due weight is fore- 
doomed to failure. 

Mr. McCulloch's proposed plan is evidently the result of careful 
consideration on his part and appeals to all who read it as a most 
admirable basis from which to start. 

To us the problems to be met in readjusting the relations between 
the various associations appear to fall under the following heads : 
Financial, Structural and Administrative. 

The financial burdens must be borne nearly altogether by the com- 
panies, and should be apportioned to the variable resources of the 
members — as on a mileage, car, car-mileage or gross-earning basis. 
Revenue thus raised should be appropriated among the various 
associations in accordance with their needs. The Canadian Street 
Railway Association authorizes assessments on the basis of gross 
earnings; the Master Car Builders' Association assesses the railroads 
according to the number of cars owned, not exceeding $8 per 1,000 
cars per annum. 

In the scheme of the association or associations provision should 
be made for representative membership and for individual member- 
ship, so that a man need not be forced out of an association because 
he changes his occupation and works for a car builder instead of a 
railway. Each departmental association should have great inde- 
pendence and freedom of action in order to give to active members 
the spur of ambition for advancement, and to increase the influence 
of each departmental association. It is doubtful whether the Ac- 
countants' association would have established the existing relations 
between it and the Railroad Commissioners had it been only a sec- 
tion or committee of the A. S. R. A. 

Among the best known of the steam railway associations there is 
no relation of dependence ; thus the American Railway Association 
exercises no authority over the Master Car Builders' Association, 
though many of the investigations and recommendations of the latter 
have been made at the request of the former. 

In the administration of each of the several associations the secre- 
tary will be the important official and the working head, and this is 
practically equivalent to saying that each association must have its 
own secretary as it cannot reasonably be expected to find one man 
who combines in himself an engineer for the engineering branches, 
an accountant for the Accountants', a lawyer for the Claim Agents', 
etc., and the executive ability needed to pilot the aggregation. Such 

sub-division of secretarial duties is not inconsistent with the greatest 
degree of harmony essential to satisfactory work; if in the opinion 
of the A. .S. R. A. any given question should be considered by oni- 
of the departmental associations that question will already have 
come up between the managers and the department heads in so 
many companies that the departmental association will be quite 
as desirous as the other of discussing it. 

As a keynote for the sub-committee now having the question of 
reorganization in hand, we would suggest the climax of Webster, 
"Liberty and Union" — or the motto of Illinois, "State Sovereignty 
— National Union." 


With this issue Mr. George R. Metcalfe resigns as electrical editor 
of the "Street Railway Review," to become editor of the Technical 
World and the text book department of the American School of 
Correspondence at the Armour Institute of Technology. 

Mr. Metcalfe is a native of Brooklyn, N. Y., and was educated at 
the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, and the Stevens Institute of 
Technology, from which he was graduated in 1886 with the degree 
of mechanical engineer. After leaving college he had a wide exper- 
ience in the practice of his profession, which proved particularly 
valuable when he took up editorial work, towards which he always 
had a strong inclination. Immediately on leaving college he was en- 
gaged with the National Meter Co., of Brooklyn, in the shops and 
drafting room ; after this he was employed successively with the 
Edison United Manufacturing Co., installing isolated electric lighting 
plants ; with the Daft Electric Co., in the engineering department, 
where considerable time was spent in experimenting with the first 
electric locomotive built for the Ninth Ave. elevated line in New 
York; and with the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Co., for 
which he had charge of construction work on a number of electric 
railways in different parts of the country. He was with the Edison 
company for some time after the Sprague company was absorbed by 
it, and afterwards was i;i the engineering office o'f Mr. C. O. Mail- 

Mr. Metcalfe's first connection with journalism was as associate 
editor of "Electricity"; he very soon was appointed editor of that 
publication, which he conducted for four years, resigning to engage 
in technical writing for the International Encyclopedia. Mr. Met- 
calfe came to Chicago in 1899 as electrical editor of the "Street Rail- 
way Review." In leaving to take up his new work Mr. Mecalfe car- 
ries with him the best wishes of the "Review," and all who have 
been associated with him on its staff. 


For several years the street railway interests of Cleveland have 
had to contend with a persistent agitation on the part of the public, 
the city council and especially the mayor of Cleveland, in favor of 
a reduction in car fares. Unsuccessful attempts were made to organ- 
ize rival companies which should compete with the Cleveland Elec- 
tric Ry., charging only 3 cents. Some of the proposed plans were 
pronounced illegal by the courts, and no real progress has been 
made towards the settlement of the controversy that could be con- 
sidered advantageous for any of those concerned. The Cleveland 
Electric Ry. has at all times been willing to make all concessions to 
the public that it could in justice to its stockholders, but until very 
recently the attitude of the public authorities was so unreasonable 
that no substantial progress could be made. On December 29th 
last, the mayor suggested that a practical test be made to determine 
whether a 3-cent fare would yield reasonable returns to the street 
railway company and serve the people of Cleveland in a satisfactorj 
manner. The mayor suggested specifically a trial of 3-cent fare lines 
with cars running from the public square through the most densely 
populated portion of the city. The directors of the Cleveland EHec- 
tric Railway Co. met on the following day and agreed to make a 
test of such 3-cent lines, provided the city council would authorize 
and request it. 

In a letter accepting the suggestion of the mayor, the company 
stated the results of its experiment in 1903, which showed the fal- 
lacy of the increased traffic argument usually advanced to justify 
lower fares. The company had for eight months, beginning July 
4) I903i sold tickets at the rate of six for 25 cents and gave a prac- 
tically universal transfer. The result of this experiment showed a 



[Vol. XV, No 

loss of about $220,000 in gross earnings, the reduction in fares 
amounting to about nine per cent, taking into consideration the in- 
creased number of tickets sold at the reduced rate, and the stimula- 
tion of fare-paying traffic was but slightly over one per cent. 

The lines of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. serve a territory 
extending about 6I/2 miles east from the public square, 7 miles west 
and 4 miles south. For the 3-cent lines the territory was limited to 
the area bounded by a north and south line two miles east of the 
public square and by an east and west line two miles south of the 
square. The western limit was three miles from the square. Within 
this area there were 17 three-cent lines, 10 served the territory south 
of the lake and north of the river and within the two-mile limit to 
the east, a triangle through which the several lines spread out like 
the sticks of a fan, with the junction at the public square. Each of 
these ten lines was from two to three miles in length. In the south- 
ern and southwestern parts of the city there were seven three-cent 
lines, six being about two miles in length and one about three miles. 
The aim of the company was to ascertain what the effect would 
be upon the gross earnings of the reduction in fare to three cents 
per ride for the distance of two miles from the business center of 
the city, without regard to operating expenses, and to this end the 
company furnished the very best service it could. 

The 3-ccnt experiment was started January 23d and met with sur- 
prisingly little encouragement on the part of the public. On only 
two lines was the travel on the low-fare cars anywhere near the 
average on the regular-fare cars. Throughout the day the low-fare 
cars were astonishingly free from passengers, and, even during the 
rush hours of the morning and afternoon, the highest average on 
any of the 3-cent lines, excepting the two first mentioned, was less 
than 30 passengers per car per trip. 

This experiment was discontinued and February 6th the company 
made a rate of 4 cents for a continuous ride without transfer, the 
rate for passengers desiring transfers being the regular 5-cent fare. 
The 4-cent experiment was discontinued February 12th. 

These experiments of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. have 
been made in absolute good faith and without regard to the financial 
cost to the company during their continuance. The schedules were 
arranged between the officers of the company and the mayor of 
Cleveland, and were presumably satisfactory to the latter. The re- 
sults, we believe, may be taken to demonstrate two points ; the first, 
that a 3-cent or 4-cent fare is not sufficient to pay the company, and, 
second, that the zone system is not adapted to the wants of Amer- 
ican cities. 


Some very interesting statements and descriptions of the recent 
advances in electric traction were given by Mr. W. B. Potter, in 
a paper read by him at the January meeting of the New York Rail- 
road Club. He first reviewed the subject of the electrical equip- 
ment of existing railways and stated that the reasons for not so- 
equipping many steam operated lines are becoming less and less im- 
portant each year by reason of the progress of invention, and also 
by the changes which are now taking place in traffic conditions, and 
he further stated that, taking into consideration the many different 
electrical schemes now developed, and being developed, there are 
probably few steam railroads but what will find the electrical equip- 
ment of part and in some cases of the whole of their lines a profit- 
able undertaking. 

The justification of such equipment is determined by financial con- 
siderations, rather than technical difficulties, and the several points 
to be considered are the amount of capital invested in steam rail- 
road rolling stock, the expense of electrical equipment, the fact that 
it involves a greater capital outlay than operation with, steam loco- 
motives, and that it is cheaper to operate and maintain the electric 
road and therefore it will earn a greater percentage of interest on 
the invested capital. 

The ultimate profits to be derived from any new traction scheme 
arc more or less an unknown quantity and depend greatly upon the 
resulting effect on traffic. The past has shown that the amount of 
thi.s traffic has increased in proportion to the facilities given the 
public. That electric roads have the faculty for building up new 
traffic has also been shown and proven. For these reasons, when 
considering the transformation of a steam sytem as a whole, a 
margin on account of the extra traffic which the increased facilities 

are practically sure to induce may be safely added. Electric service 
handles either long or short trains with the interval as needed, while 
with steam locomotives it is a common practice to handle only long 
trains at less frequent intervals. Mr. Potter emphasized these latter 
facts on account of their showing in a forcible manner that in many 
instances where the present traffic is of a concentrated nature and 
therefore seemingly best handled in long trains this same traffic 
would naturally change from the concentrated to the distributed 
form were an electric system installed. 

Mr. Potter discussed the advantages and disadvantages of single- 
phase traction and the relative costs for alternating current and 
direct current distribution systems. He pointed out that the apparent 
resistance for 2S-cycle alternating current, as compared with direct 
current, is about 50 per cent in the trolley wire and between six and 
seven times greater in the rail return, the latter increase in apparent 
resistance being due to the fact that the rails are of steel. When 
these are combined the apparent resistance for the trolley wire and 
track taken together, will be, roughly, from one-half to twice that 
for direct current. Hence, an alternating current at 1,000 volts is 
about equivalent to 600 volts direct current. So far as affecting the 
amount of trolley copper, this necessitates, if advantage is to be 
realized over the direct current system, the use of 3,000 volts, or 
perhaps S,ooo volts for heavier service. Regarding the design of the 
motors for alternating and direct current systems, Mr. Potter said 
that, on account of the alternating current motor having a somewhat 
higher armature speed with a slightly less air gap, its maintenance 
cost will in all probability be greater than that of an equivalent 
direct current motor, but there is no question as to the successful 
operation of alternating current apparatus and the advisability of its 
use when such an installation will prove financially advantageous. 

The relative energy consumption of steam and electrically handled 
traffic was next considered, together with the costs of power, wages 
and maintenance. These figures were analyzed and used to illustrate 
the fact that careful calculations should be made on each individual 
road considering a change in motive power, because the results 
would vary with every new set of conditions. The point at issue is 
whether the traffic is, or is likely to be, of such a character that the 
saving in operation or increased receipts will show a proper rate 
upon required capital. In further emphasis of the fact that every 
case demands an intimate study of itself, the relative costs for haul- 
ing freight with the_ electric and with steam locomotives were an- 

The development of electric locomotives for freight and passenger 
use and the principles of their construction were discussed. The 
general design of the locom.otives recently designed and built by the 
General Electric Co. and the American Locomotive Co. for the New 
York Central railroad, together with its details of construction was 

The best form of working conductor depends greatly upon local 
conditions. If the overhead trolley be used, the catenary method of 
suspension is recommended by Mr. Potter. This method has many 
characteristics which recommend it highly for single-phase traction 
where high voltages are used. Among its advantages are the added 
conductivity of the messenger or catenary cable, the frequency with 
which the trolley wire may be supported with little added expense, 
the doing away with many poles, and that a larger trolley wire 
giving a greater contact area may be used. 

The initial expense of electric equipment due to the cost of power 
station and distribution circuits has deterred many steam railroads 
from equipping their branch lines in sparsely populated districts. 
Such districts could be well served in an economical manner by 
means of a self-propelled car, independent of any feeder system. 

In closing his interesting paper Mr. Potter described a car of this 
type, with which the General Electric Co. is now experimenting. 
This car consists of the usual form of car body and trucks, and has 
two motors controlled in the usual manner. Current for these 
motors is obtained from a 600-volt generator driven by a gasoline 
engine, this unit being mounted over the motor truck. The car 
complete will weigh approximately 55 tons. The engine will have 
a full load output of 200 brake h. p. and will run at 600 r. p. m. The 
control for the motors will be provided with a series-parallel switch, 
but no starting resistance, in the usual sense, will be required, as 
the speed of the motors will be regulated by controlling the field 
voltage of the generator, the field excitation current being obtained 
from an exciter mounted on the frame of the main generator, and 

Fed. 15, "JOS , 



the ficlfl ciiiTcnl beiiiK handled thnmgh (lie field resistance points on 
the controller. The water-cooling system for the cnRinc will be car- 
ried throngh the ordinary heater pipes inside the car in the winter 
and throngh radiators on top of the car in the siunmcr. Such an 
equipment will provide for an acceleration sulTicicnt to maintain a 
schednle speed of zo to 25 m. p. h. where stops are three to four 
miles apart, and the car can easily be maintained at a rnnning speed 
of 40 m. p. h. No data are available upon which to accurately base 
the operating cost of such an equipment, but this cost will be some 
where between 15 to 20 "cents per car mile, depending a great deal 
upon the daily mileage made by the car crew, because their wages 
amount to a considerable portion of the total expense. No mention 
was made of the probable cost of maintenance and liability for inter- 
niplinns in service with such a self-propelled unit. 

Cleveland Low-Fare Experiment. 

Feb. 15, 1905, the Cleveland Electric Ry. made public the results 
of the two low-fare experiments in a letter to the city council, 
making the following statements: 

"The results of the tests which have been made lead to the con- 
clusion that fare as low as 3 cents is only financially possible within 
a zone considerably inside of the city limits. We realize that the 
so-called 3-cent-zone test was not satisfactory to the public nor to 
the company, and was not a conclusive test of 3-cent fare. The 
results obtained were sufficient, however, to indicate that if 3-cent 
fare were made applicable to the entire city, the reduction in the 
earnings of the company would be so large as to be disastrous." 

"The average gross earnings of the company for the 17 week days 
preceding the 3-cent-zone test were $13,311 per day. 

"The average gross earnings of the company for the 12 days of 
the 3-ccnt zone test were $12,547 per day. 

"It will be remembered that the reduced rate of fare was in 
effect for only 13 hours of each day, during which time the loss 
over the earnings of the 17 week days preceding was 5.74 per cent, 
or $764.47 per day. This decrease was shown when the 3-cent fares 
collected were 18^ per cent only of the fares collected on the entire 
system. If the low rate of fare had been in effect for the whole 
24 hours of each day, the percentage of loss would have been greater. 

"The only lines of cars which were operated wholly on a 3-cent 
basis, with transfer upon a s-cent cash fare, or an ii-for fifty ticket, 
were the VVillson Ave. and the Fairfield line on the south side, both 
of which lines show an abnormally large percentage of transfers 
under ordinary conditions, the percentages being, on the Willson 
Ave. line 81, and on the Fairfield line 42. 

"The percentage of transfers issued on all the lines operated by the 
company is normally 30, and was during the 4-cent test, when the 
fare for a ride with a transfer was greater than for a single ride, 23. 

"The results obtained on the Willson Ave. line show a loss in 
revenue of 13.4 per cent. If the same rate of fare had been in effect 
during the entire day, instead of during 13 hours only, the loss 
would have been 15.5 per cent. 

"The results on the Fairfield line show a loss in earnings of 16.26 
per cent, indicating a loss, if the same rates of fare were in effect 
during the entire day, instead of 13 hours, of 20.78 per cent. 

".\s stated, these two lines issue and collect an abnormal number 
of transfers, thus making the average fare collected considerably 
higher than it would be on the lines of the company as a whole 
under the rates of fare charged during the test, i. e., 3 cents for a 
single ride and 5 cents for an ii-for-50 ticket for a ride with a 

"If the results obtained on the Willson Ave. line were applied to 
the whole system of lines operated by the company for 24 hours 
daily, and if operated upon the same rates of fare of 3 cents for a 
single ride and 5 cents or an il-for-50 ticket for a ride with a 
transfer, and assuming that 80 per cent of the passengers pay 3-cent 
fare and 20 per cent pay 4.7 cents for fare and transfer, the per- 
centage of decrease would be 29.05, or a loss of $3,600 per day in 
gross earnings as compared with the earnings under the present 
legal rates of fare. This result would be altered if lower fares 
stimulated traffic. The actual stimulation, however, during the 
3-cent zone test was only i per cent, and during the 4-cent test 1.38 
per cent. 

"The 4-cent test was begun on Monday. February 6th, and was 
discontinued on the following Monday at midnight. 

"The gross earnings of the company for ao days in January, at 
the regular rates of fare, were $12,644 P" d^X- 

"The gross earnings of the company for the eight days of the 
4-ccnt test were $11,295 per ''ay- 

"The decrease in earnings during the 4-ccnt test as compared with 
the earnings of the 20 days in January given above, was 1087 per 
cent, or $1,37574 P'-"" <l''y; or, at 365 days per year, $502,145.10. 

"The tests conducted have cost the company in the ncighborhrjod 
of $25,000 in decreased receipts and increased operating expenses, 
but it believes that the information gained justifies the cost, and it 
will be glad if desired, to make further experiments in lower fares 
which, in the light of the experience already obtained, will produce 
a reasonable revenue, and will file with the council the information 

Mechanical and Electrical Association. 

The executive committee of the American Railway Mechanical 
and Electrical Association met at the Holland House, New York 
City, on February 3rd. President Baker announced at this meeting 
that, as a result of preliminary correspondence, the following papers 
had been assigned for the coming convention : 

"Power Transmission," C. H. Hile, superintendent of wires, Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway Co. 

"Maintenance and Inspection of Electrical Equipment," William 
Pestell, New York. 

"Way Department Matters," F. G. Simmons, superintendent of 
way, Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

"Power Stations," Fred Bushnell, chief engineer. Rhode Island 
Co., Providence, R. I. 

Standing committees were appointed to consider a number of 
subjects, a chairman for each committee being named to serve for 
three years and with authority to name two other members for 
each committee, one of whom will serve for two years and the 
other for one year. The subjects assigned to the committees and 
their respective chairmen are as follows: 

Controlling Apparatus, J. S. Doyle, master mechanic, Interborough 
Rapid Transit Co., New York City. 

Brakes, D. F. Carver, chief engineer. Public Service Corporation 
of New Jersey, Newark, N. J. 

Wheels, John Millar, master mechanic, International Railway Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Shops, W. D. Wright, superintendent of equipment, Rhode Island 
Co., Providence, R. I. 

Way Matters, F. G. Simmons, superintendent of way, Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. C. C. Lewis advised the association that he would be abroad 
for the next two or three years, which would make it impossible 
for him to serve as a member of the executive committee. The 
chair was authorized to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Lewis' with- 

The price for extra copies of the second annual report of the 
association was fixed at $3.00. New members joining the associa- 
tion will be charged $1.00 each for formal annual reports. 
« » » 

Guthrie Electric Railway Co. 

Construction work on the line of the Guthrie Electric Railway 
Co., which is the northern terminus of the Oklahoma Traction Co., 
an interurban line connecting Oklahoma City and Guthrie, is prog- 
ressing rapidly. Nearly one-half of the 33 miles of the interurban 
line is now in operation, and its success from both an operating and 
financial standpoint is assured, the traffic being far in excess of that 
anticipated. The line in Guthrie is expected to be completed by 
May 1st. Two parks are served, one belonging to the city, and the 
other an amusement park, both of which are expected to develop 
considerable traffic during the summer season. Brick and con- 
crete work with steel ties for construction within the city limits are 
being used, the ties being furnished by the Pennsylvania Steel Co. 
The cars will be furnished by the American Car Co. The Knox Engi- 
neering Co., Chicago, is the general contractor for the company, and 
Mr. Lincoln Nissley is in charge for the Knox company at Guthrie, 

Trolley service over the new Williamsburg bridge was started 
February loth. The 14th St. cars were the first to cross. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Chicago City Annual Meeting. 

The annual meeting of the Chicago City Railway Co. was held 
Fchniary i6th. and a new board of directors chosen in consequence 
of the recent changes in ownership of stock. 

The number of .shares voting at the meeting was 164,313 out of a 
total of 180,000; of the number voting 124,600 represent the Morgan 
syndicate interest acquired recently. 

The new hoard comprise : A. J. Earling, Robert M. Fair, Edward 
Morris, J. .\. Spoor, Mason B. Starring, P. A. Valentine and 
Lawrence A. Young. The board has not yet organized, but it is 
understood that the officers will be: First vice-president, T. E. 
Mitten; second vice-president, Lawrence A. Young; general man- 
ager, M. B. Starring; secretary and auditor, C. N. Duffy; treasurer, 
T. C. Penington. 

No successor to President D. G. Hamilton was elected, and it is 
understood that Mr. Spoor as chairman of the board of directors 


will assume the (Unius of president, insofar as they are not devolved 
upon Mr. Mitten. 

The retirement of Mr. Hamilton after six years as president was 
marked by a resolution of thanks from the stockholders who took 
this means of formally recording their appreciation of his services. 

The annual report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1904, showed the 
following : 

Income Account. 

Earnings. Dec. 3^1, 1904. Dec. 31, 1903. Increase. 

From passengers $6,&)9.5oo $6,381,245 $228,255 

Other sources 59,478 S4,3I9 5.185 

Total $6,668,979 $6,43SiS6S $233,414 

Operating expenses 4,802,120 4,648,341 153,778 

Net earnings $1,866,859 $1,787,224 $79,636 

Depreciation 120,000 100,000 20,000 

Earnings on stock $1,746,859 $1,687,224 $59,636 

Dividends 1,620,000 1,620,000 Unchanged 

Surplus $126,859 $67,224 $59,636 

Capital stock $18,000,000 $18,000,000 Unchanged 

The number of fare passengers carried in 1904 was 132,852,717, an 
increase of 4,548,272 over 1903 ; the number of transfer passengers 
was 77,732,749, an increase of 10,849,403. 

The number of car-miles was: Cable, 13.701,643, a decrease of 
163,830; electric, 20,319,293, an increase of 1,723,853; horse, 86,257, 
an increase of 12.047; total, 34,107,103, an increase of 1,572,070. 

The ratio of operating expenses to income was .7201 ; the increase 
in business over 1903 was 7.88 per cent ; the earnings on stock were 
9.7 per cent. 

The plans contemplated by the company are indicated in the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

"That it is the sense of the stockholders of the Chicago City 
Railway Co. that immediate steps should be taken, without regard to 

future contingencies, to re-establish the company in the confidence 
of the public, and that, in order to attain this end, the directors of 
the company he and they are hereby instructed to begin at once a 
systematic and thorough investigation of the property and the affairs 
of the company, for the purpose of learning what steps must be 
taken to enable the company to provide ample and satisfactory ac- 
commodations for the public. 

"And the directors are further advised to put into effect such 
measures as will put the physical properties of the company into 
proper condition, without regard to expense, in order to furnish first 
class service. Promptness and thoroughness are the prime essen- 
tials in the work of rehabilitation and improvement of the com- 
pany's service, and, therefore, immediate action is desired and ex- 

Mr. T. E. Mitten who wlio will be the first vice-president of the 
company, has been general manager of the International Railway 
Co., of Buffalo, since 1901. Before going to Buffalo he had been 
superintendent of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. for 
six years. Mr. Mitten is a native of England, born in Sussex in 
1865, and came to the United States in 1S80. His first railroad work 
was as telegraph operator on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois; after 
nine years in the operating and claim departments of steam rail- 
roads, Mr. Mitten entered the electric railway field, being appointed 
general superintendent of the Denver, Lakewood & Golden. 
* I » 

Machined Journal Boxes. 

One of the points of superiority claimed by the Standard Steel 
Car Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., for its electric railway trucks is that all 
of them have machined pedestals and journal boxes, which are 
considered essential in order to keep the axles parallel and at right 
angle to the truck sides. The effect of faulty alignment of axles, 
which is considered for the most part to be due to carelessness in 
assembling the truck and ill-fitting the journal boxes, is referred 
to at some length in the article by Mr. W. G. Price, which appears 
on page 109 of this issue. 

The Scioto Valley Traction Co. has leased a four-story building 
in Columbus. O., for general offices. 

The Detroit United Ry. is now receiving the first installments of 
the 50 double-truck cars ordered from the St. Louis Car Co. and the 
.\merican Car & Foundry Co. for the Woodward and Jefferson Ave. 

The Boston Elevated Railway Co. transfer men are wearing a 
new style hat which attracts much attention. These hats are of 
pure white with a band of gold encircling them and are distinctly 

Concessions have been granted by the Mexican government for 
the construction of a system of electric lines which have a proposed 
length of 200 miles and will connect the, cities of Guadalajara and 
Patzcuaro. This road will traverse one of the richest sections of 

The Aurora, De Kalb & Rockford Railway Co., which is now 
ballasting its roadbed, has purchased a gravel bed of such great 
size and high-class ballasting material that the management is now 
making arrangements to furnish this gravel to intersecting steam 
roads and local users along the right of way. 

The report is current that plans are under way for giving the 
interurban railways of Ohio and Indiana the local mail business 
of the territories which they cover. It is stated that in the near 
future special mail cars will be placed on some of the more impor- 
tant routes and the experiment given a thorough trial by the gov- 

The Curtis steam turbine and the engineers connected with its 
design and development were awarded high honors by the Interna- 
tional Jury of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The grand prizes 
were awarded to Elihu Thomson, C. P. Steinmetz and F. J. Sprague. 
Gold medals were awarded to C. C. Curtis, W. L. R. Emmett and 
W. B. Potter. 

February Meeting of the Indiana Eleetric Railway 


The regular Fchriiary mectiiiB of tlic Indiana Electric Railway 
Association was licid in Anderson, 'i'lnirsday, Pel), 9, 1905. By 
courtesy of the Indiana Union Traction Co. a special car was pro- 
vided to carry those who went by way of Indianapolis. This special 
left the Traction & Torniinal station at Indianapolis at 9:15, with 
22 nicmhers of the association on board, and reached .Anderson at 


When the Indianapolis delegation reached .Anderson, it was joined 
by a nunibir of gentlemen from Ohio and the northern part of 
Indiana, there lieing about 50 members present when the meeting 
was called to order. 

Mr. L. J. Shlesinger's paper on "Internrban Passenger Traffic" 
was the first bnsiness brought before the meeting. This is as follows : 

Interurban Passenger Traffic. 


Although it is comparatively but a few years since interurban rail- 
roading first became a practical reality, the industry today is one of 
the country's leading enterprises. Predictions as to the future, if 
based merely upon the rate of development of the past, mark a most 
glorious pathway ahead for the accomplishment of remarkable 
achievements. The pioneer efforts w-hich have led to our present 
systems were merely extensions of local street car lines, built to 
encourage and provide for the suburban development of our larger 
cities. The next step was a bolder one and embraced the connection 
of cities and towns lying in close proximity. As the mechanical and 
electrical obstacles were encountered and overcome by the engineers, 
lines of greater length were projected and built. New methods of 
transmission were introduced and experimental work was under- 
taken along larger and broader lines, until today we have our 
modern roads. There is still ample opportunity for the develop- 
ment of constructive and operating features, but a few years will 
undoubtedly witness the elimination or modification of the weak 
points of our electric systems. It is a conservative prediction to 
prophesy that in the near future our individual lines will lose their 
identity and become merged into systems forming trunk lines of 
inter-state importance. 

The state of Indiana has been one of the foremost in the develop- 
ment of the modern interurban road. In 1893 the first three miles 
of interurban service in the state was inaugurated between Brazil 
and Harmony. The ensuing year saw an additional 20 miles of in- 
terurban in operation. Then came the financial depression following 
the panic of 1893, and railroad development, as well as all other 
forms of investment, suffered in consequence. In 1898 construction 
work was again resumed, and since that time the development has 
been rapid. Encouragement has been given investors by the atti- 
tude of the legislative authorities of the state and considerable out- 
side capital has been attracted. We have today within the limits of 
the state 23 dif^'erent companies operating 818 miles of interurban 
track, all of which has been constructed within the past seven years, 
with the exception of the 23 miles previously mentioned. This is 
tridy a wonderful growth. For the purpose of obtaining a fair 
notion of the total results accomplished by Indiana within these past 
few years, let us imagine that the 81S miles of interurban were 
placed in one continuous line. We would have a railway track ex- 
tending from the city of Indianapolis to the city of New York, If 
a passenger were to undertake this journey, making direct connec- 
tions upon leaving the lines of each company and taking advantage 
of the limited service in vogue on a number of the roads, the trip 
would occupy a period of 38"/$ hours. This represents an average 
speed of 21.25 miles per hour, and varies from 8.5 to 27.5 miles per 
hour on the various roads. Without the limited service mentioned, 
the time required to make the journey would be 42!^ hours. Our 
traveler, unless supplied with free transportation, would find that 
$12.75 would be required to pay his fare for the entire distance, an 

average of 1.56 cents per mile. Some portions oi his route would be 
traveled for 1.05 cents per mile, while other distances would re'juirc 
an expenditure of 2.23 cents per mile. 

In preliminary work on interurban enterprises, one of the engi- 
neer's chief sources of perplexity is to establish a basis upon which 
to estimate gross receipts. Each proposition necessarily presents 
local conditions which must be carefully studied before comparison 
is made with apparently similar conditions in other localities. A 
case is presented in another slate, where the receipts of a certain 
road were not up to expectations, because of the fact that one of its 
principal towns contains the car shops of a trimk line steam road, 
and consequently the competing electric line was considered with 
prejudice by a majority of the town's population. Whether prospect- 
ive earnings are calculated upon the basis of car mileage, track 
mileage, population, or any other method, it is only by a study of 
results actually obtained that we may arrive at any sort of rule to 
apply, in an effort to eliminate as much as possible the element of 

The Muncie, Hartford & Fort Wayne Railway Co. represents a 
type peculiarly and distinctively interurban. The company has its 
own track extending from court house to court house of the ter- 
minal cities. Outside of towns the road is located entirely on private 
right of way, three-fourths of the entire mileage lying adjacent to 
the right of way of the Lake Erie & Western R. R. No city cars 
are operated, nor arc the tracks of any other company used. In the 
terminal city of Muncie but four minutes' time is required for the 
run from the courthouse to the corporation limits, so that practically 
no city service is given. The towns, mileage, rates of fare and 
population served are shown by the following table : 

Additional rural population 

of township 

Local Popula- one mile 

City or Town. Miles. Fare. tion. from track. 

Muncie o. $.0 32,000 1,000 

Royerton 52 .10 300 ( 

Shideler 2.9 .05 300 I 

Eaton 2.5 .05 2,000 400 

Hartford City 7-9 15 8,000 600 

Montpelier 9-3 15 6,000 800 

Keystone 30 05 400 800 

Poneto 4-5 'o 5«> 200 

Bluffton 6.5 . .10 7,000 800 

Total 41-8 $0.75 56,500 5,000 

The total population served, 61,500, is approximately one-third the 
number of people in the city of Indianapolis. The population per 
mile of track averages 1,470; excluding the principal terminal, 
Muncie, the average per mile is 705. The average rate of fare 
charged approximates 1.8 cents per mile. No local or round trip 
tickets are issued, but 5-cent coupon and commutation books are 
sold at from 20 to 25 per cent reduction. Reduced rate tickets to 
the company's park at Eaton are on sale during the summer months. 
The company has not yet developed the freight business, although 
packages are handled on all cars; consequently all the succeeding 
figures given refer to passenger business purely. The use of the 
Ohraer fare register enables complete traffic statistics to be main- 
tained at a minimum of clerical expense. 

The following table shows the number of passengers carried 
during the year 1904, classified according to fare denominations : 

5 cent fares 276,202 

10 •' '■ 128,559 

15 ■■ " i99.;oi 

20 •• 95,091 

25 " " 46,615 





rVoi.. XV, No. 2. 

45 cent fares. 

50 " 

55 " 

6o " 

65 " 

-o " 

75 " 












Total 1.029,564 

It will be noted from this table that over one-fourth the total 
number of passengers represent 5-cent cash fares. The 15-ccnt 
fares are the most profitable, followed closely by the 35-cent fares, 
while the least remunerative are the 70-cent fares. The average 
cash fare per passenger is 17 cents, while the average value of 
tickets used is 15.5 cents. At the rates of fare charged this indicates 
that the average passenger rides a distance of nearly 10 miles. The 
average number of passengers carried per day is 2,813, indicating 
that 4.6 per cent of the total population make a one-way trip each 
day, or every available person in the territory served rides 17 times 
per year. Introducing the element of car-mileage it is found that 
there are 1.8 passengers registered for every car-mile of service. 
The receipts per car-mile figure 32.05 cents, of which 27.32 cents 
represents cash fares, 3.23 cents represents ticket sales, .69 cent 
represents packages, .24 cent represents newspapers carried, .16 
cent represents chartered cars, and the balance comprises miscella- 
neous minor items. On the basis of receipts per mile of track per 
annum the figures for 1904 show this item to be $4,335. 

The table showing the number of passengers representing each 
denomination of fare indicates general facts in reference to pas- 
senger traftic. The following method was adopted for determining 
more specifically what might be termed the "location" of business : 
During the last week of January, all conductors were supplied with 
blank forms, on which they were required to keep a record of the 
number of passengers boarding and leaving trains at and between 
towns. At first thought this would seem to be a gigantic task with 
which to burden a trainman, in addition to his other duties, but it 
must be remembered that no transfers are in use and that the type 
of register employed requires duplex tickets to be issued for an 
average of less than two fares for every one thousand collected. 
Consequently the results obtained may be considered as fairly accu- 
rate, inasmuch as a considerable personal error would have no 
appreciable bearing on the total amounts. A tabulation of the sta- 
tistics thus collected shows the following results, which are the total 
figures for seven consecutive days : 

Muncie 2,826 2,812 5,638 16. i .7 

Intermediate distance 354 364 718 2.1 4.5 23 

Royerton 392 410 S02 2.3 .0 

Intermediate distance 204 225 429 1.2 2.9 21 

Shideler 483 438 921 2.6 .0 

Intermediate distance 146 168 314 .9 1.9 24 

Eaton 1,399 1,313 2,712 7.8 .9 

Intermediate distance 634 682 1,316 3.8 6.6 28 

Hartford 3,90S 3,857 7,762 22.2 2.0 

Intermediate distance 681 752 1,433 4i 7.7 27 

Montpelier 2,274 2,285 4,559 13.0 .8 

Intermediate distance 156 187 343 i.o 2.6 19 

Keystone 818 806 1,624 4.6 .3 

Intermediate distance 306 358 664 1.9 4.1 23 

Poneto 731 713 1,444 41 5 

Intermediate distance 383 428 811 2.3 5.5 21 

Bluffton 1,800 1,694 3,494 10.0 .8 

Total 17,492 17,492 34,984 loo.o 41.8 

By combining the number of passengers on and off, each town 
or rural district receives credit for every in-coming and out-going 
passenger; comparative results are thuS obtainable, using as a base 
the figure representing the total number of passengers on and off. 
The column of percentages given in the table indicates the relative 
amount of traffic furnished by each town and by the rural districts 
lying between adjacent towns. The proportion of business furnished 
by the towns is shown to be 82.7 per cent of the total, in comparison 
with 17.3 per cent supplied by the rural districts, a ratio of nearly 
five to one. Incidentally it might be mentioned that similar statis- 
tics were gathered for one week during the month of August, 1903, 
at which time only that portion of the road between Muncie and 
Montpelier was in operation ; the results showed 88.3 per cent for 
the towns and 11.7 per cent for the rural districts, a ratio of over 
seven to one. In the preceding table a column of figures is given 
showing the mileage in towns and in the intervening country. By 
using these figures the results in the last column of the table are 
obtained, the purpose being to show the relative traffic value per 
mile of track of all the rural territory traversed. The general results 
of the table indicate that the greatest volume of town and rural 
traffic is supplied by Hartford City and the adjacent territory; on 
account of geographical and local condition.s, this result is a natural 
one to expect. 

Proceeding further in an effort to determine the relation between 
gross receipts and population, the following earnings per capita per 
annum are obtained, the method used being to credit each community 
with its proportion of the total receipts to which it is entitled, 
according to the percentage values given in the preceding table. 

The results are as follows : 

City or Town. Receipts per Capita per Annum. 

Muncie $ 0.91 

Royerton 13.89 

Shideler 15.70 

Eaton 7.07 

Hartford City 5.03 

Montpelier 3.93 

Keystone 20.84 

Poneto 14.86 

Bluffton 2.59 

Rural Population . 6.27 

The average receipts per capita per annum show nearly $2.95. 
Oinitting the population of the principal terminal city, which method 
is sometimes used in calculating per capita earnings where the ter- 
minal is a large city, though hardly applicable in the present in- 
stance, the per capita value increases to $6.14. 

The question of providing the requisite number of stopping sta- 
tions for any road is one which should be carefully considered as 
having more or less bearing upon passenger traffic. The tendency 
has been to establish stations at rather too frequent intervals, with 
the result possibly of stimulating rural traffic to the detriment of 
through business, operating schedule, car maintenance, etc. Each 
problem must be considered according to its own conditions, bearing 
in mind the endeavor to provide the greatest good for the greatest 
number. On the road under consideration in this article the estab- 
lished rural stopping stations vary from J4 to l^ miles apart. 
There are 47 stations provided in the rural districts and 23 within 
the corporate limits of the towns; of these 70, 15 may be classed as 
regular or compulsory (i. e. on account of occurring at railroad 
crossings or at the principal stations in the towns), and the remain- 
ing 55 may be considered as flag stations. While the passenger 
statistics previously referred to were being collected by the conduct- 
ors, a record of the number of train stops was taken by the motor- 
men. The result for the week showed an average of 28 stops made 
per single trip, 12 of these being within the corporate limits of the 
towns and 16 in the rural districts. Of the 28 stops 15 were com- 
pulsory, and the remaining 13 were at flag stations. That is to say. 
with 55 flag stations along the line an average of 13 are used per 
single trip. 

In conclusion, it should be stated that the Muncie, Hartford & 
Fort Wayne railway was first opened for traflic between Muncie 
and Hartford City in February, 1903. The mileage between Hart- 
ford City and Montpelier was added the following May. The divi- 
sion between Montpelier and Bluffton was opened in December of 
the same year with bi-hourly trains, continuing with this inadequate 

Fru. 15, lOO.S 1 



service until July, 1904, at wliicli time the full hourly schedule was 
inaugurated. Consequently, although general traffic statistics should 
prefcralily be based upon second year results, it will be noted that in 
the present instance all figures applying to the year 1904 are hardly 
in<licative of the fully developed results which may be expected for 
ihc cnniing year. 

In reply to an inquiry as to how the results stated in the paper 
cnmpared with the estimates of the engineers made before the road 
was built, Mr. Slilcsingcr stated that the results achieved exceeded 
the estimates by from 10 to 15 per cent. Mr. Cravath stated that 
ail analysis of the receipts of 32 Ohio interurban lines showed prac- 
tically the same results per car-mile and per capita as those given 
by Mr. Shlesingcr. 

Mr. ."shlesingcr, replying to a question regarding competition, staled 
that Ihe sleam railroad competition his company had to meet was 
not serious and that when opening the road the local tariflf had been 
fixed at two cents per mile. At that time the company had been 
criticised for making the rate so high, but it had believed it would 
be easier to lower the rate were it found too high than to raise it 
were it fixed too low in the first place. The rate of two cents had 
been found very satisfactory and had not been changed. 

Mr. J. W. Chipman introduced the subject of interchangeable 
mileage or coupon ticket books on which he believed action should 
be taken by the Indiana association. He expressed the belief that a 
book of coupon tickets which would be accepted in payment for 
everything that any of the railway companies had to sell would 
greatly increase the earnings. 

Mr. J. H. Merrill, Lima, ex-secretary of the Ohio Interurban 
Railway Association, who was present, gave a brief history of the 
steps leading to tlic adoption of the interchangeable coupon ticket 
used by the Ohio roads. A coupon ticket was considered the only 
practicable form because of the different rates or fare obtaining on 
the various Ohio lines. These rates vary from Ij4 cents per mile 
to 2 cents per mile. The interchangeable book containing 240 five- 
cent coupons, or transportation of the face value of $12, is sold for 
$10, a reduction of one-sixth. On the Western Ohio the number of 
coupon books sold in November was 13; in December, 22; and in 
January, 35. The value of the Western Ohio coupons lifted on 
foreign roads was $97 in December and $134 in January. The value 
of foreign coupons lifted on the Western Ohio was $45 in December 
and $87 in January, Mr, Merrill stated that he could not tell the 
effect on receipts of the use of the coupon books, fie knew, how- 
ever, that the interchangeable coupon books were not used by the 
people who had used the company's mileage books. He believed that 
the principal use of the interchangeable book was by traveling men 
who used them to save the trouble of keeping track of small car fare 
items, and that he believed this class of users would use electric 
lines over which interchangeable books were good, in preference to 
using the steam railroads. The Ohio coupon book is not good on 
the Dayton, Springfield & Urbana road and he knew of several in- 
stances in which, for this reason, traveling men had stated they used 
steam railroad mileage in preference to going over the Dayton, 
Springfield & Urbana. 

Mr. Merrill stated that several companies realized that a mistake 
had been made in limiting the interchangeable coupon book to the 
use of the individual and that an effort is now being made to 
remove this limitation and make the book available to all members 
of the purchaser's family. Such a change would be a financial ad- 
vantage to his road, as the discount on the coupon book is only 16 2-3 
per cent, while on the family mileage books now sold the discount 
is 25 per cent. 

Mr. C. D. Emmons stated that the Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima 
Traction Co., one of his properties, was using the Ohio interchange- 
able book under agreement, and suggested that a committee be 
appointed to consider an interchangeable book for Indiana roads, 

I'he subject of baggage having been introduced, Mr, Merrill 
stated that there was great variation in practice as regards carrying 
baggage ; the roads in the northern part of Ohio carried baggage 
free, while' those in the southern part of the state made a charge. 
Among the companies that charged for baggage, some accepted in- 
terchangeable ticket coupons at their face value and some only at 
the actual value, that is, some roads would take five coupons for a 
2S-cent baggage charge and others would collect six in order to make 
the net collection 25 cents. 

Mr. H. A. Nicholl, of the Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co., 
expressed his belief that baggage should be carried free up to 150 lb. 
His company now carries baggage on about one third of its trains, 
beside which baggage was carried in express ears. It is the inten- 
tion to carry baggage on all cars. The present practice of the Cleve- 
land & Southwestern is to carry 150 lb, of baggage free where the 
ticket is more than 25 cents, and 15 cents per 100 lb. excess. To 
different stations where the ticket rates are less than 25 cents, a 
charge of 15 cents per 100 lb is made for baggage. 

On motion, the chair was directed to appoint a committee of five 
to consider the question of coupon ticket books and the transporta- 
tion of baggage and report at the next meeting of the association. 
There were appointed as this committee, with instructions to select 
their own chairman, the following: E, C, Folson, Ft. Wayne & 
Wabash Valley ; Charles A, Baldwin, Indiana Union Traction ; J, 
McM, Smith, Indiana Railway Co,, South Bend; W, K, McKown, 
Indiana & Eastern ; V. D. Norveil, Indianapolis & Northwestern. 

The chair read a communication from Mr. Paul Richey, stating 
that he proposed to publish an electric railway guide for the state of 
Indiana, and requesting the co-operation of the association in securing 
from the members correct time tables and an agreement to distribute 
in their cars and stations a suitable proportion of these Imoks each 
month. On motion, the association adopted the proposed publication 
as its official joint time table and appointed a committee consisting 
of L. J. Shlesingcr, Muncie, Hartford & Ft. Wayne ; C A. Baldwin, 
Indiana Union Traction, and J. A, Berry, Indiana Northern, to ar- 
range the details and supervise the publication on behalf of the 

In answer to a question, Mr. Norveil gave a brief account of the 
excursion business of the Indianapolis & Northwestern, and called 
attention to a device which that company had found very satisfac- 
tory for increasing its Sunday traffic. There being on this line noth- 
ing in the way of parks or pleasure resorts, it was found desirable to 
stimulate the Sunday riding, which it was found in ordinary condi- 
tions would be the lightest of any day in the week. Accordingly, a 
special ticket, good for a round trip from any point on the line to any 
other point, was sold for $1, This ticket, of course, had no sale 
where the round trip fare was less than $1, The results have been 
very satisfactory. 

The chair suggested that the members of the association would do 
well to consider the advisability of adopting a cheap week-end rate, 
that is, sell round trip tickets good going on Saturday or Sunday 
and good returning Sunday or Monday. He believed that by this 
means the week-end business could be distributed over three days, 
instead of over one or two, with good results for all concerned. 

On motion, the executive committee was directed to arrange for 
the time and place and programs of future meetings. 

Mr. A. W. Brady, president of the Indiana Union Traction Co., 
extended an invitation to all members present to dine with him at 
the Hotel Doxey. The courtesy was promptly accepted and acknowl- 
edged by a vote of thanks. After dinner, a special car was in wait- 
nig and took the party to the main power station of the Indiana 
Union Traction Co., after inspecting which the Indiana delegates 
returned to Indianapolis over the Indianapolis Northern Division 
by way of Alexandria and Tipton. 

The Newman Properties Association. 

A new association has been formed for the advancement of the 
interests of the Newman properties, among which are the Birming- 
ham Railway, Light & Power Co., the Nashville Electric Light & 
Street Railway Co., the Knoxville Traction Co., and the Little Rock 
Railway & Electric Co. The officers and heads of the departments 
of these roads met in Nashville, January 23d, 24th and 25th for the 
purpose of inspecting the Nashville propertv- and exchanging ideas, 
thus benefiting not only the property under discussion but each 
member being in this way enabled to gain some new ideas which 
would be of use to him in the operation of his own property. The 
ne.xt meeting of the association will be at Birmingham, .Ma., in April. 

The officers chosen for the association were : President, Percy 
Warner, president of the Nashville Electric Light & Street Rail- 
way Co. ; vice-president, C. H. Harvey, president and general man- 
ager of the Knoxville Traction Co. ; secretary, C. O. Simpson, treas- 
urer of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co. 

Piping and Power Station Systems. — IV.' 


Piping Systems— Continued. 

Fig. i6 shows the meter in use with all boilers using liol water. 
By opening valve ''a"' and closing "b." cold water would be fed 
through the meter to the boiler. The dotted lines indicate the portion 
of the system out of service, though this portion may. be under pres- 
sure. The arrangement shown in Fig. 14 would permit the water 
meter to be placed on the floor ne.xt to the pumps, the lines "c," "d" 
and "e" being the risers from the latter. After the system is deter- 

>?SSi/i.^^ ^£-S^ /^^y^ 

tion of the lines on the final diagram so that they will correspond 
closely with the lines as they are to be built. This will enable the 
men in the station to read the diagram much more readily and with 
less liability of making an error in the operation of the valves. The 
valves should be shown in appro.ximatcly their correct locatioiL For 
instance, when Fig. 17 has been laid out in detail these data should 
be used for correcting the diagram as illustrated in Fig. 14 and the 
final result be shown as in Fig. 18. At first glance the system shown 
in Fig. 18 appears to be a different one than that shown in Fig. 14, 
but in reality it is exactly the same. The object in correcting the 
final diagram is to avoid this deceptive appearance. 

FIG. 16. 

iir,. 18. 

mined, the pipe details can be considerably simplified by changing the 
relative location of lines, etc., and at the same time, maintain the same 
system. For example. Fig. 17 shows a rearrangement which permits 
the meter and pump connections to be made coinpact and accessible 
from the floor. It may be found that the pumps cannot both be of 
the same pattern as shown. The distance "f" may require the pumps 

Fig. 12 shows the general arrangement which will be used in 
designing the problem plant. There are four groups of economizers 
shown which will ordinarily be fed from one pump. If the boiler 
plant were divided into halves and each half provided with its own 
economizers, then the pumps could be placed at the dividing line 
between the two halves, and with possibly a. few modifications in 

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to be right and left handed with their steam cylinders together, in 
order to leave room for the required connections. The pumps must 
not determine the piping, but the piping should determine the minor 
details, such as those just mentioned. 

The early diagrams made for a station should be considered as 
studies and after the pipe work has been detailed in accordance 
with these diagrams the best plan would then be to change the direc- 

•Copyrlght 1904. by the KcDflcld Publishing Co. 

regard to the valves Fig. 14 could be used. After adding the con- 
nection lines between the two halves the arrangement would be as 
shown by Fig. 18. 

Having decided upon the general arrangement of the economizers 
and boilers, the piping should now be laid out in a detailed system. 
This system should be made as reliable and as flexible as that shown 
in Fig. 14 and by tracing out Fig. 15 it will be seen that the following 
conditions are readily secured : 

I. Regular operation of No. i pump on fire line and house 

Fiiii. 15, 'fJOS-. 



service; No. -' ininili "H aii.xiliary main for lulic cleaning; No. .3 
],iiiiip nil feed mains. 

J. Tile meter can lie used willi eillu-r |inni|i .N'o. 2 or No. .3 or 
willi holli; llie discliarge from llic mcler can lie fed lo the main, 
auxiliary main or to botli at the same time; tlic meter can deliver 
tlirongli one or more economizers with either lieater water or cold 
water; it can also feed direct to tlie boilers hy passing one or more 

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3. Any one inimp may be shut down without interfering witli 
regular operation; any two pumps may be shut down and still main- 
tain pressure on the feed main and the house service, using cold 
water or water from the hot well in the economizers. 

4. When an economizer is sliut olT the boilers wliicli regularly 

boiler which burned the greater amount of coal would be heating the 
feed water for the other boiler. 

The chief rc(|uircments for a boiler feed syMein arc well cared 
for in Fig. ly. They are as follows : 

1. Any part of the feed system may be shut ofT without reduc- 
ing the capacity more than onc-foiirlh, for four units. 

2. The hot well water may be fed to the economizers when the 
heater is off. 

iiiomizers off may lake their fccil from 
any other economizers which are in 

4. An abundance of feed reserve 
is provided for. 

I here arc various other systems of 
metering which might be employed 
such as a separate meter for each 
Ijoiler, or as shown in Fig. \f) a sepa- 
rate meter with a by-pass might In- 
used for each economizer if placed 
at the points in the feed system 
marked a. By using four smaller 
meters they could be operated at 
nearer their normal capacity than 
could one of sufficient size to care for 
the entire plant, thus the readings 
would be more accurate, but simpler and more accessible details can 
be obtained by using one large meter at the pumps. This will also 
allow the tncter to be read from the pump room floor. The relative 
performance of the boiler units can be determined hiore accurately 
by using the same meter for measuring all the water. Any difference 
in the performance which might be shown on two individual boiler 
meters miglu Ix; due to one or both of the meters being inaccurate. 
With but one meter the degree of inaccuracy will show the same for 
all boilers. 





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feed through it can got feed water from the economizer in the next 
battery of boilers. 

5. The entire fecil main may be shut off and water then be fed 
through the auxiliary main or vice versa. 

6. The auxiliary main may feed through the economizer or di- 
rectly to the boilers. 

7. During the winter, warm water may be kept on the fire and 
house service system by using the hot well as a supply. 

This system necessitates the metering of the water used in two of 
the boilers in each battery. The advantages which might be gained 
ny separately metering the water for each boiler would not justify 
the addition of the piping connections necessary to accomplish thi.s 
detail. If it is found necessary to make a separate test on one boiler 
this can be done when the other boiler is shut down, or if it is neces- 
sary to test two boilers which discharge into the saine economizer. 
the meter reading when divided by two would hold, because the 

City water connections which are taken from a meter in the city 
water works line, should have a line carried to the house service 
main and a branch to the heater so that when it is necessary to 
clean out or shut off the intake there would be another source of 
water supply for boiler feeding. All these conditions must be pro- 
vided for because no one can foresee the many difficulties which 
may come up and it is safe to assume that every line and connec- 
tion will necessitate shutting down sometime without giving more 
than a moment's warning. 

But a portion of the fire main in the station is shown in Fig. 19. 
Ordinarily a safe fire and house service can be laid out on the loop 
system as shown in Fig. 20. Valves should be arranged so that 
any portion of the loop can be shut off and still have a partial fire 
protection. The very important connections, such as the water to 
the heater, should have a valve on either side of them as shown in 
Fig. 21 and a valve between the two separate sources of supply; then 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

any section of the line may be shut off and water still delivered to 
the heater. 

The branches to the roof, city line, low pressure service, other 
buildings and lawn sprinklers should all be provided for. .^s the 
points to be brought out in considering these are more in the nature 
of details than of general system, they will be considered later. Ordi- 
narily the hydrants should be kept away from the outside walls a 
distance not less than the height of the wall. The fire mains and 
branches must be laid below frost line, the depth of which can be 
obtained from a neighboring city water works. Steam pipes which 
run to the roof and any hose lines inside of the buildings should have 
an indicator post outside, so that in event of piping becoming broken 
or bursting from exposure to frost the water can be shut off and the 
pressure on the lire piping maintained. All house service valves 
when connected to the fire mains should be readily accessible so that 
in case of fire they may be closed quickly. Any lawn sprinklers 
fed from the fire lines should be fully able to stand the fire pressure 
and should be frost proof. 

Before making a final decision on the design of the building or 
piping it would be well to take up all the details of fire protection 

charge of the circulating pumps it will be seen that there are seven 
valves on the suction side and seven on the discharge. By disre- 
garding the making of pipe work at all times accessible a shut-off 
valve would still be required for each machine, each condenser and 
each source of supply such as intakes B and C, and if the factor of 
readily made repairs to the lines is also disregarded it will be found 
that out of a total of 18 valves but 4 can be saved, thus it is seen 
that with an increase of about 5 per cent in the cost of pipe work 
the line may be made entirely accessible. The piping cost is ordinarily 
about 5 to 7 per cent of the total station cost for such a plant as is 
being outlined, so the difference in the cost of a station having an 
inaccessible system and one having a readily accessible system would 
be about one-fourth of one per cent of the total station cost or about 
25 cents per kilowatt increased cost for valves, and if 10 cents be 
allowed for extra labor, fitting, etc., the total added cost would be 
but 35 cents per kilowatt or one-third of one per cent of the total 
cost of the station. The cost should not be considered. The only 
factor should be the time and study necessary to perfect the layout 
and provide the station with a flexible and reliable system. 

In case three waterways are used instead of two, there would be 

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with the board of underwriters because some details which an engi- 
neer would consider to be of minor importance must be used in order 
that the underwriters' rules and regulations be obeyed. To secure the 
lowest insurance rates it will be necessary to install such details as 
they require, and even though they admit that some of their demands 
are unreasonable they are without authority to modify them. 

The subject of artesian wells is not always a necessary part of 
power station work but in the case of many factory plants cannot 
very readily be avoided and will be explained later by means of 

Let it be assumed that the plant in question is located alongside 
of a stream of water suitable for boiler feeding. The intakes, dis- 
charges and connections to circulating pumps and condensers of such 
a plant are shown in Fig. 22. As in other lines, the chief requirement 
in this system is that it be possible to shut off any part of the system 
and yet allow three-fourths of the plant to be operated. The water- 
way A is always an intake, the waterway C is always a discharge, 
the waterway B may be either. Any one of these three waterways 
may be shut off at any time. Either of the lines from the intake or 
hot well to the pumps may be shut down and operation continued 
with the other. Any portion of the discharge main from the circu- 
lating pumps may be shut down and the operation of one condenser 
still permitted. Any one of the three circulating pumps can supply 
water to either of the condensers. All lines are so connected that 
repairs can be easily made. 

.At first thought it would possibly seem that too many valves are 
used to make this system reliable. On noting the suction and dis- 

a slight additional expense in the first cost, but the expense of opera- 
tion would be lessened because one screen house could be shut down 
and cleaned of any sediment or obstruction while the other two fed 
the plant, and during the winter months the waterways B and C may 
be used and the liability for interference from ice be lessened by the 
warm .water discharging close to the intake. During the warmer 
months of the year waterways A and C could be used since they are 
placed at a considerable distance from each other. 
(To be continued.) 

The annual ball of the International Railway Employes' Associa- 
tion, of Buffalo, N. Y., was held at Convention Hall, Tuesday, Janu- 
ary loth. There were 4,000 present, consisting of trainmen, start- 
ers, electricians, car makers and repairers, and their friends. The 
ball was pronounced a brilliant success financially, as well as socially, 
and the proceeds will be turned over to the sick and death benefit 
fund of the Employes' Association. 

Through limited service has been established between Dayton, O., 
and Indianapolis, Ind., via the Dayton & Western Traction Co., 
the Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co. and the Richmond Street 
& Interurban Railway Co. lines. There will be three trains each 
way daily, known as the Interstate Limited, which will make the 
run in four hours and fifteen minutes, the distance being 108 miles. 
Very fine parlor and buffet cars, as well as sleeping cars, have been 
put in this service and meals may be had enroute a la carte, 

Fku. 15. "JOS- 



Wear of Steel Tired Wheels IIovv to l^liiiiiiiate 
l^xcessive I'lan^e Wear. 


Tlie cause of excessive wear of steel tired wheels can probably 
be allriliutctl to faulty truck construction. 

Chilled iron wheels may wear inicveMly when wiA accurately 
paired, or from a difference in temper, or depth of chill, and the 
wheel which becomes the smallest in diameter will have the most 
rapid wear of tlio flanges. The temper of a pair of steel tires 
probably does not vary suHiciently to cause uneven wear. 

Trucks can be out of true in several ways, and it is very common 
to find these inaccuracies in motor trucks. 

Cast steel side frames vary in length from one pair of pedestals 
jaws to the other as much as one-half inch, due to a variation 
in shrinkage and molding. If the mold is rammed, very hard, the 
sand at the pedestals will not give away when the metal cools, 
and the beam which connects the pedestals will not be allowed to 
shrink as much as when the mold is less hard. In many cases no 
attention has been given to pairing frames, or to machine finishing 
them so as to make them all of the same length, which results 
in the axles not being parallel. Such a truck tries to run in a 
curve at all times, and if the car is rim continuously in one direction 
only, the wheel flanges at two diagonally opposite corners of the 
truck will be worn sharp, while if it be run in both directions, all 
flanges will wear rapidly. In other types of trucks there is some- 
times a variation in lengths of side frames. 

Until very recently, at least, nearly all motor truck frames were 
put together and bolted in position on the axles, instead of being 
built separately, and they were made approximately square by hav- 
ing the faces of the wheels in line. This was the only way of 
squaring them, with the wheels and axles in place, as the wheels 
and journal boxes prevented diagonal measurement. Such trucks 
were seldom square for several reasons : 

First, the planes of the wheel's faces were not at right angles 
to the axles, except when the wheels were turned true after being 
pressed on the axle, which was not usually done. 

Second, the gage lines of the wheels were not equally distant 
from the centers of the axles, and this is a very common defect, 
and also causes bad fitting brake shoes which can be frequently 

Third, the lost motion endwise of the axle, between the journal 
and the bearing, and between the bearing and the box, permitted the 
frame to be so placed before Ixilting together as to be out of square, 
even when the wheel faces were in line. 

Fourth, journal bearings are frequently bored out of center, and 
as all are likely to be placed in the same holder for boring, where 
one is found to be out of center, all of that lot will be found to 
be out of center in the same direction. 

Fifth, journal boxes are placed in trucks without machine finish- 
ing, and owing to inaccurate molding, one side of the box is thicker 
than the other side, and owing to the personal equation of the 
molder, or to some inaccuracy of the pattern, all of the boxes will 
be thickest on the same side, which locates the axle to one side 
of the center of the box, and as all of the boxes are approximately 
alike, all of the axles journals will be out of center on the same 
side of the box, which would also be the case when the journal 
bearings are bored out of true. When the truck frame is built 
perfectly square, this variation in either journal bearings or boxes, 
while not throwing the axles out of parallel, does throw the wheels 
out of line. This causes the axles to run in a position not at 
right angles to the tracks. If such a truck were run in both 
directions, probably all of the flanges would receive more than a 
normal amount of wear, while if it were run in one direction only, 
probably two flanges on one side of the truck would receive the 
most wear. Many trucks are constructed with from H to H i"- 
space between the side of the journal hearing and the inside of the 
box, and many trucks which have been in service for some time 
have much play between the boxes and pedestals, which permits 
the axles to run out of parallel. Trucks should have the journal 
bearings nicely fitted to the inside of the boxes. The boxes should 
be rigidly connected together, as is done in the M. C. B. type 
of truck, and they should be so constructed that no wear of pedes- 
tals and journal boxes can take place to cause lost motion. There 

can he of course many variations of the inaccuracies described, 
causing diflfercnt results in wheel wear, but probably in most all 
cases it is due to inaccurate construction. 

Accurate work requires skilled labor, machinery and time, which 
are expensive. If railroad companies would specify accurate work, 
to be done under the eye of their own inspectors, there would be 
a saving of power consumption and wheel wear. 

The lack of proper lubrication of center plates, and the permit- 
ting of the car bodies to be partially carried on the side l)earings, 
cause much wear of both the tread and flanges of wheels. 'I'hcrc 
should be a clearance of % in. between each of the car body and 
truck side bearings, and the truck center plates should have a raised 
portion around the king pin, of the same height as the outside 
rim of the plate so as to retain the oil, and there should be an oil 
hole on each side of the car body center plate so the l)cacing can 
be oiled without raising the car body. Grease will not remain in 
a center plate so as to lubricate the bearing more than a few 
hours, while a good oil, as long as it remains fluid, will stay in 
the plate, and give good lubrication for several weeks. In cold 
weather it is necessary to thin the oil with kerosene. As soon as 
the oil is cooled sufficiently in winter, to change it to grease, it 
will immediately be squeezed out, and there will be no lubrication 
of the bearing. By casting the top plate hollow and then filling 
the cavity with waste to be saturated with oil, a much better lubri- 
cation of the bearing will be secured. Attention to this detail, 
which in the writer's experience is neglected on most all cars, will 
prevent much of the wheel wear. 

A Talk on Railway Development in Massa- 

Mr. Robert H. Derrah. general passenger and advertising agent 
of the Boston & Northern and Old Colony street railways, lately 
gave a talk before the Haverhill street railway employes on the 
development of the Massachusetts street railways. Mr. Derrah's 
remarks were well chosen for the ears of his listeners and were 
greatly appreciated. He called attention to the fact, that in such 
interesting localities as his listeners were employed, it would add 
greatly to the pleasure of trolley travel and not interfere with their 
work, if the conductors would call out the points of historical inter- 
est as the car passed them. The speaker regarded three men as 
largely responsible for the Massachusetts street railway development 
— Henry M. Whitney, who was the pioneer in opening up the sub- 
urbs suitable for mechanics' homes ; Gen. Wm. A. Bancroft, of the 
Boston Elevated, and P. F. Sullivan, president of the Boston & 

In his talk Mr. Derrah illustrated the growth of the electric rail- 
ways from the earliest conception down to the magnificent special 
cars which are now operated by many roads. He also described 
the park systems and the many points of historical interest served 
by the street railways near the Massachusetts coast. The speaker 
has made a study of giving such little talks and has attracted worthy 
attention by this means. 

Electric State Railway Experiments in Sweden. 


In the spring the railway board petitioned the government for 
permission to erect electrical transmitting apparatus on land be- 
longing to the state, between Tomteboda and Vartan, in order to 
carry out the experiments in electric railway traction, for which 
a grant of 500,000 crowns ( has been made by the Riksdag. 
M Tomteboda station double wires will be used and at Vartan the 
contact system will be employed for transmitting the current from 
the power station to the electric locomotive or motor car. the 
rails serving for the return current. For these experiments a high- 
tension, one-phase, alternating current will be used, the tension 
and frequency of which will vary according to requirements. This 
question, so important for the whole country, has for some time 
been considered by the board of trade, and the board has recom- 
mended that the request of the railway board be granted, providing 
the permission to erect and use the apparatus be limited to a cer- 
tain period, say five years, and that private rights are protected. 

Annual 3Ieeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Association. 

The first annual meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation was held at the Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, O., Jan. 26, 1905. 

President Clegg called the meeting to order at 10:50 a. m., and 
made a brief statement of the work already done by the association 
and some of the mailers then in the hands of committees. After 
the minutes of the Canton meeting had been read and approved, the 
reports of various committees were received. 

Mr. Clegg as chairman of the Committee on Standard Rules 
stated that the rules as agreed upon by the committee had been 
adopted by the D.iyton & Troy Electric Railway Co. and copies of 
that company's rule book were submitted to members as the com- 
mittee's report. 

Mr. E. C. Spring, of the Committee on Baggage, reported that a 
letter of inquiry had been sent to some 70 roads and read a letter 
from Mr. Green in which were included his recommendations based 
on the replies received. These were: i. To charge 25 cents for 
each piece of ico lb. or less, and 25 cents for each 100 lb. additional. 
2. Roads to divide baggage receipts in the same manner as receipts 
from coupon tickets. 3. Card checks in brass holders to be pro- 
vided. 4. Roads handling baggage must have baggage masters 
at stations. 5. Companies should combine their stations wherever 

Mr. Spring stated that in the northern part of the state the com- 
panies appeared to favor carrying baggage free, while in the south- 
ern part of the state this could not be done. 

In discussion the question of paying for transferring trunks be- 
tween interurban stations was brought up. Mr. Clegg stated that 
the Dayton & Troy had made arrangements with the Western Ohio 
and Ft. Wayne, Van Wert & Lima electric lines and the Clover Leaf 
whereby through cars would be run from Dayton to Delphos to 
connect with the' Clover Leaf for all points between St. Louis and 
Toledo. In order to get a contract with the steam road the electric 
lines had to agree to check 150 lb. of baggage free. The companies 
pay 5 cents per piece for the necessary transfer from the electric to 
the steam station at Delphos, this charge being divided among the 
three companies. 

[The "Clover Leaf Special," beginning February 1st, leaves Dayton 
at S :i8 p. m. and arrives at Delphos at 8 -.25 p. m. ; returning it leaves 
Delphos at 9 :25 p. m. and arrives at Dayton at midnight. The dis- 
tance is 95 miles.] 

Some companies have arrangements for transferring baggage; 
others have not. Mr. Spring stated that in the case of his line, the 
Dayton, Covington & Piqua, it would require the major part if not 
all of the receipts from baggage to pay necessary transfer charges. 

Some statistics as to the amount of baggage handled were given : 
Mr. Spring stated that on his line for every 100 interurban passen- 
gers there were 45 trunks handled. Mr. Coen said that on the 
Lake Shore Electric in 1904 there were carried 2,691,000 passengers, 
of whom one in each 139 had baggage carried free (up to 150 lb). 
Mr. J. A. Wilson, of the Cleveland & Southwestern, gave the 
monthly averages as 780 trunks and 300,000 passengers on that road. 

The Lake Shore Electric makes a rate of $1.75 between Cleveland 
and Toledo; the rate on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
(mileage at 2 cents) is $2.18, but the steam road sells commutation 
books to all stations at the rate of one-half of the electric roads' 
round trip rate. In view of this the electric line considers that it 
cannot with advantage charge for baggage weighing less than 150 
lb. per passenger. 

A representative of an association of commercial travelers having 
some 350 members in Dayton stated that traveling men would use 
the electric lines to a much greater e.xtent were baggage carried 
free up to 150 lb. and prompt service given. 

Regarding the interline coupon tickets, Mr. Paxton, of the Day- 
ton & Troy, stated that the company had ordered the O. I. R. A. 
form, but for the Clover Leaf business had added the words "First 
Class" at the request of that road; also it had ordered a round trip 
validating form for Clover Leaf business. 

Mr. Coen reported that the Lake Shore Electric had the 0. I. R. A. 
form of coupon tickets on sale. 


The convention met at 2:30 p. m. and proceeded to the election of 
officers, which resulted as follows : 

President, E. C. Spring, manager Dayton, Covington & Piqua 
Traction Co., Dayton. 

Vice-President, Warren F. Bicknell, president Lake Shore Electric 
Ry., CIevelan<l. 

Secretary, F. W. Coen. general passenger agent Lake Shore Elec- 
tric Ry., Cleveland. 

Treasurer, R. E. DeWeese, superintendent Dayton & Northern 
Traction Co., Dayton. 

Executive Committee : F. J. J. Sloat, general manager Cincinnati, 
Dayton & Toledo Traction Co., Hamilton; F. D. Carpenter, general 
manager Western Ohio Ry., Cleveland ; J. R. Harrigan, general 
manager Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Traction Co., Newark ; 
W. B. Tarkington, general superintendent Detroit, Monroe & Toledo 
Short Line Ry., Monroe, Mich.; F. J. Green, general manager 
Springfield, Troy & Piqua Ry. and Springfield & Xenia Traction Co., 

Finance Committee: E. C. Spring, J.H.Merrill, A. VV. .Anderson. 

The discussion on "Steam," the subject for the afternoon, was 
opened by Mr. E. P. Roberts, president of the Roberts & Abbott 
Co., Cleveland, who presented the following paper: 

The Choice of Prime Movers. 



The subject for discussion this afternoon is "Steam Power," and 
as this covers too large a field to receive even general consideration 
in the time allotted, my talk will be confined to the consideration of 
reciprocating steam engines and steam turbines with special refer- 
ence to interurban electric railway conditions, and omitting consid- 
eration of the steam generating and vacuum producing mechanisms, 
even though they are so closely connected with the general proposi- 
tion that, in practice, they must be considered in their inter-con- 
nected relations. 

Moreover, as the other speakers for this afternoon represent the 
manufacturing end, it seemed advisable that I should open the 
meeting by presenting general features and leave the description of 
actual mechanisms and the results obtained to the representatives 
of the manufacturing companies. 

When taking up the matter of "Power" it is evidently necessary 
to consider, first. What is needed; second. What is best for the 
conditions. Therefore, I will follow this logical order, and al- 
though, at the start, the reason for the first may not be apparent, 
I think it will be before the completion of the presentation of the 

As this audience is mainly composed of men interested in the 
operating and financial, rather than the technical end, my talk will 
not be relative to technical features from the technical standpoint, 
but from the standpoint of the eflfect of modifications of such features 
upon financial results. 


In Ohio the prime mover is usually a reciprocating steam engine, 
and, in a few instances, a steam turbine. In some portions of the 
United States water power is being largely utilized as the prime 
mover, but there are few, if any, economically desirable properties 
of such kind available in Ohio. Owing, however, to the recent de- 
velopments in the line of gas and oil engines, there are situations 
where these should receive consideration. 

In order to decide as to what prime mover is best for a specific 
case, considering type, number of units and size of each, all the 
factors affecting the case must be considered; and, generally speak- 
ing, in the following order: 

1. Predetermination of the operating conditions. 

2. Estimate of first cost. 

Ficu. 15, lyos-l 



,1. ICslinialc of opcr.iliiiK' expenses, iiieludiiiK liiianeial charges. 

4. Coiiiparalivc rclialiility, depreciation and repair acconni, and 
oilier nialters whicli are largely questions of jtulgmcnl. 

5. Combination of all tlie foregoing, considered for each type of 
power plant, and a comparison of the results. 

I. rrcdctermination of Operation Conditions. 

This necessitates decision as to location of track, and the curves 
and grades most economically desirahlc. and the predelerniinatirjn 
includes the following: 

A certain location of the road is taken as the standard for com- 
parison, being generally that which will give excellent, though not 
necessarily the greatest, accessibility on the part of the public, and 
having such grades and curves as a general knowdcdge of the 
proposition indicates would be good practice. The size of cars and 
ninnbi-r uf trains necessary to handle the anticipated passenger 
travel arc decided, and train schedules and train sliccts are pre- 
pared whicli show the schedule time between the terminal points, 
based on a stated average schedule speed in the cities and towns, and 
a stated average speed wliilst the car is in motion in the country, 
with deduction from the latter on account of country stops, thereby 
obtaining the schedule speed in the country. The train sheet shows 
the trains in service at any amount, and the location of such trains. 
The si/c of motors necessary to handle a car, or train of the 
assured weight and speed is then calculated. 

A study of the results as thus obtained may indicate that it is 
preferable to obtain a slightly greater schedule speed between the 
terminal points, in order that, when operating on hourly headway, 
the lay-over at the end be not too long. For example, the time of 
the tentative run may be 2 hours and 10 minutes, which would 
necessitate a lay-over of 20 minutes when cars are operated on 
hourly headway (starting from one end on the hour, and from the 
other on the half-hour). This would require five cars in operation, 
whereas if the cars could make their run in i hour and 55 minutes 
only four cars would be needed. Such reduction in the number 
of cars would reduce the expense of the train crews 20 per cent, 
and the greater schedule speed between termini would be attractive 
to the traveling public. 

In order to accomplish such higher schedidc speed, one or more 
of the factors must be changed, with : 

1. Higher schedule speed in the cities and towns. This may not 
be practicable. 

2. Higlicr speed when in motion in the country. This would 
require larger motors and greater rapidity of acceleration, which 
would increase the first cost, not only of the rolling stock, but also 
of the entire power generation and distribution system, and it is 
tlic resulting increase in maximum and average power requirements 
which today especially interests us. 

3. Reduction in number of country stops. This may reduce the 
income, and whether it is advisable depends largely upon the charac- 
ter of the proposition, and also whether, or not, "limited" trains 
will bo operated. ' Consideration must also be given to the time 
made by competitors, more especially between distant points. 

4. Change of location in the road so as to shorten the distance. 
This may necessitate giving lessened facilities to some localities, or 
it may necessitate more expensive construction, or both. 

5. Such change of location as will allow higher schedule speed. 
This may be done by reducing the lengths of the runs on streets, 
or. if the right of way is by the side of the highway and in front 
of buildings, changing it so that it is back of the buildings. Some- 
times the best location is adjacent to a steam road. 

6. Reducing grades and curves. 

Consideration of the foregoing factors, individually and collect- 
ively, also necessitates consideration of comparative first cost and 
operating expense, and comparative gross and net income, and the 
study of all the conditions may result in a decision to operate at 
a slower schedule speed, and change one or more of the factors in 
the opposite direction from that required to increase the schedule 
speed. If "limited" trains are to be operated, these must also be 

The foregoing relates to passenger service, but in addition express 
and baggage service may require consideration, also freight, using 
this word to mean the same as when applied to steam roads. 

A specialist in the predetermination of what is the most desirable 
construction and equipment for any given prop'^^ition may not. 

and possibly will not, work out in detail and with all possible modi- 
fications all these factors, but he will consider >heni, even though 
to some degree it may be unconsciously. 'I'lic results obtained arc 
frequently a surprise even to those who make it their business and 
might he supposed to be able to state "oil hand" what would be 
most desirable for any given proposition. 

A striking proof of the lessening of the amount of power required 
obtained by increased care in design is shown by a statement made 
by Mr. A. S. Richcy, in a paper read before the Indiana Electric 
Railway Association fSec St. Ry. Rev., Jan. 15. 1905.) Jan. 12, IQ05, 
in which he states that the same cars are used on the Indianapolis 
Northern division of the Indiana Union Traction Co., as on the 
other divisions, and power is furnished for the entire system from 
one power house. That the average distance of the sub-stations on 
the Indianapolis Northern division is 46 miles from the gcncraturs, 
and on the others 15 miles, also that 12 per cent of the power used 
on the other divisions is delivered directly from the power station 
without alternating current transformer or transmission losses. Never- 
theless, the power for the Indianapolis Northern division, measured 
at the power house, is only 33 per cent of the total, although it 
represents 42 per cent of the total car mileage. He also states that 
the average schedule speed is slightly greater on the Indianapolis 
Northern division than on the rest ; and that the result illustrates 
"the general effect of a careful consideration of operating features 
in the engineering design and construction of a road, such as re- 
ducing curves and grades to a practical minimum, careful location 
of sub-stations with respect to their loads, and the economical dis- 
tribution of copper." 

The subject of this talk being "Steam Power", it may seem as 
though I had wandered far from the path, but all the parts of an 
electric road are so inter-connected, financially and physically, that 
decision as to steam power mechanisms can only be made after a 
study of the entire proposition, and in more or less detail depending 
upon its special features. 

For example, if power is very expensive, measured at the motors 
on the car, then, from this standpoint, a reduction of grades is 
economically advisable, and also a reduction in the size, number 
and speed of cars ; w hereas, if power is cheap, the reverse is prefer- 

All these factors are so inter-connected that, in order to obtain 
the best plan for the given conditions, a tentative plan must first 
be prepared which will be in accordance with the engineer's best 
judgment, based upon a preliminary study of the general and special 
conditions, and then such plan must be modified, and the effect of 
such modifications considered from every standpoint — first cost, 
operating expense, and effect on gross and net income. 

It is, therefore, evident that the decision as to the power plant 
necessitates predetermination, within a reasonably close limit, of 
the average output which will be required at different hours of the 
normal operating day, and the maximum which may be required 
for any considerable period, and also the momentary maximum, the 
excess being taken care of by the momentum of the fly-wheel. 

Also, decision as to similar features on days other than normal, 
Saturdays, Sundays, holidays and the like. 

It may seem that the foregoing is what is frequently termed "not 
practical," or, looking at it from another standpoint, that it is "imprac- 
ticable," and for the reason that operating conditions vary so greatly 
from day to day, that it might be considered impossible to pre- 
determine them with such degree of approximate accuracy as to 
obtain results of any value. There is not now time for elaborate 
presentation of proof that careful and skilled predetermination of 
operating conditions pays, and, in fact, pays better than an equal 
amount of money expended in any other manner, but I will merely 
present as an interesting example the comparative results obtained 
by two power houses, each using the same make of water tube boilers, 
stokers, and compound condensing engines, and the one obtaining 
the poorer results, having generators of one of the best makes, and 
the other having old style (Siemens & Halske), which were probably 
somewhat less efficient than the other. The generators were direct 
connected, and both plants furnished direct current, and used the 
same quality of coal at the same cost per ton. 

The plant obtaining the poorer results did not have the condi- 
tions predetermined, and in consequence various units were not of 
the best proportion for their operating conditions, considered as a 
whole and in relation to each other. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2 

In the other case the character of the output was predetermined 
and the sizes of units considered with reference to each other, and 
although the load for this power house was more fluctuating than 
for the other, nevertheless the coal and the cost per kilowatt-hour 
output was materially less. 

On the other hand there is, of course, a difference between what 
may be termed calculations for commercial purposes and those made 
for scientific reasons. The basis of the former is generally only 
appro.ximate and of the latter is presumably exact, and it is evi- 
dently absurd to carry out calculations into fractions of a per cent 
when the basis is not known within 5 per cent, or, to use a mathe- 
matical simile, to "use eight place logarithms on four place data." 

Having predetermined the average ma.ximum power required from 
the engine or engines, when operating on regular schedule, and, for 
special days, a tentative decision is made as to the number of units 
and the size of each, based on capacity. 

The condition of operation of engines furnishing power to an 
interurban electric road is, except when storage batteries are used, 
one of rapid and excessive fluctuations of load, usually ranging 
from 25 per cent to 123 per cent of the rated capacity of the engine 
and often from zero to 150 per cent, and sometimes, momentarily, 
up to 200 per cent. 

I present the following as statements of facts : 

I. For any engine supplied with steam at a definite pressure and 
quality, and with a definite vacuum, there is a definite load at which 
it will operate at its greatest economy. 

Increasing the steam pressure, or superheating the steam, or in- 
creasing the vacuum, will both increase the maximum obtainable 
horse power and, generally speaking, and within limitations, the 
efficiency of the engine as a converter of heat energy into mechan- 
ical energy ; but, considering the increased energy required by the 
engine auxiliaries, it will not necessarily increase the heat energy 
efficiency, considered as a whole, and, even more important, it may 
even decrease the "dollar efficiency." The latter efficiency includes 
first cost and operating expense, and it is upon this efficiency, con- 
sidering the entire road, that either dividends or assessments are 

[The speaker then presented a curve showing the variation of 
coal consumption per kilowatt-hour, with varying load factor. Some 
of the co-ordinates of this are as follows ; 

Load, per cent. Kw. h. Lb. Coal per Kw. h. 

50 42,000 47 

45 36,000 5.0 

39- • 33,000 5.2 

36 30,000 5.5 

30 25,000 6.1 

25 21,000 6.7 

20 17,000 7.4 

This curve is based on the daily records obtained during one year. 
The power house is the Avon Beach power house of the Lake 
Shore Electric Ry. The results are old and were published several 
years ago, and I would apalogize for presenting old material if it 
were not for the fact that I have not results from any plant in 
which the coal has been weighed daily for such a long period and 
under such variation of percentage of rated load. It should also 
be noted that at rated load the test showed 3.2 lb. per kw. h., which, 
for this station, may be considered as the theoretical limit, and it 
should also be noted that a change of proportion of the individual 
mechanisms and of the size of such mechanism relative to each 
other could have been so made as to have obtained better results 
at rated load of the generator, but inferior economic results under 
the average operating conditions. 

A schedule which will allow climbing of grades witli motors in 
series is much better for the power house than one which requires 
"hustle" from start to finish ; but of course this is not the only 
standpoint and there are too many inter-connected factors to now 
follow up this train of thought. 

I desire to call especial attention to two facts readily shown by 
economy curves of any engines : 

1. Comparative water consumption on rating is not the proper 
basis for decision when operating on variable load. 

2. Comparative values obtained by comparing results for i. h. p. 
are not the same as for b. h. p. 

The statement has already been made that engines fur interurban 

electric railways normally operate with loads varying from friction 
load to 100 per cent overload, but it should also be noted that the 
average load is generally, and practically always, below rating. 

Because of this, it follows that an engine should be so mechan- 
ically designed as to safely carry excess loads, and from the steam 
standpoint, so designed as to give maximum economy at a point 
below that which is ordinarily considered as its rating. The valve 
operating mechanism should permit the entrance of steam for as 
large a percentage of the stroke as practicable, and the steam 
passages should be of as great section and freedom from bends as 
practicable in order that steam may flow with the minimum drop 
in pressure. The cylinder or cylinders should not be any larger than 
necessary to give the required maximum of sustained power under 
the assumed conditions of steam pressure and quality, and of vacuum, 
including allowance for lessened pressure and vacuum when having 
a sustained load which is in excess of the normal. 

Please note that I have here used the term "load in excess of 
that termed normal" ; the common, and more convenient, term is 
"overload", but the latter term tends to convey the impression that 
the load is greater than that for which the apparatus is designed, 
and that load is injurious which, for the case considered, is not 
only erroneous, but directly contrary to the fact. 

What cylinder proportions, for any given case, are most desirable 
depends upon steam pressure, vacuum, etc., and ratio of average 
to minimum load, and in a paper presented by me at the New York 
meeting (December, 1903) of the Engine Builders' Association of 
the United States I especially referred to the question of ratio of 
cylinder diameters of compound condensing engines under variable 
load, and the advisability of reduction of such ratio as the ratio 
of maximum to average increases. 

Evidently, for any given case, it is necessary to ascertain what 
will be the water consumption of the various engines it is desired 
to consider, and not only at rated load, but over a large range of 
load. This information for any given engine must be obtained 
from the manufacturer, but, unfortunately, sometimes statements 
inade require investigation before being accepted. 

Some engine builders know what the engine on which they submit 
a bid will do at rating and with stated steam pressure, quality of 
steam, and vacuum. Fewer know the result which will be obtained 
at fractional loads. The engine builder does not know what will 
be the degree of variability of the load nor the average load ; it is 
his duty to furnish a certain mechanism to accomplish certain 
agreed upon results, but whether the operating conditions will 
allow such results to be obtained in practice he does not, and gen- 
erally cannot, know. The actual result is often unfair to the 
builder and uneconomical for the purchaser. 

As an example of the unreliability of data in bids, I present the 
following, which are taken from bids in our office : 

Our specifications stated the steam pressure and quality of steam 
to be delivered at the engine throttle, the vacuum at the engine 
exhaust, revolutions per minute, desired average indicated horse 
power, desired lower limit of maximum sustained horse power at 
stated steam pressure and vacuum (slightly less than specified for 
the average), and specified a maximum limit for the piston speed 
and a maximum and minimum ratio of diameters of high to low 
pressure cylinders. Fifteen manufacturers were invited to tender 
bids, and there was considerable difference in stroke, cylinder diame- 
ters, etc., and a comparison of all brought to the same basis necessi- 
tates too complicated calculations and too many considerations to 
present to a non-technical audience, therefore I have merely chosen 
data from the bids from four corliss engine builders, of better than 
tlie average standing, each of whom happened to choose the same 
diameter of cylinders and length of stroke, therefore making the 
steam conditions the same for all except as modified by steam 
passages, clearance, and control of steam by the valves. The com- 
parison of all the bids showed diflferences far in excess of those 
here presented. 


Maximum sustained horse 
Point of maximum cutoff power, stated as a per- 

of steam. centageof the greatest. 

75 79 

75 84 

•75 72 

.60 100 

Feb. is, 'SWS I 



■|lic lowest was appro-siiii^ilcly llic liiiill stated in our specifica- 

There might be a slight (lifTcrciicc in the maxiimiiii horse power 
ohtainable, but that the engine having a maximtiin cutoff at .0 
would give one-third more inaxiinum power than the one cutting off 
at .75 is evidently impossible. The importance of maxinumi obtain- 
able power has already been stated. 

We will next consider the difference of efiicicncy guarantees for 
these four engines, all on the same basis as to steam and vacuum. 
The order is changed from that in the previous table. 

Engine Percentage of Rating. 

No. 5° '00 '50 

1 13.75 12-50 13.2s 

2 12.7s I2-50 1350 

3 14.00 13.00 14.00 

4 iS'OO 12.7s 1400 

If the stated water consumptions are correct, and if, for this com- 
parison? we consider the gross ainount to be allowed annually for 
depreciation and repairs to be the same for all engines, then it is 
evident that the No. i engine is the best if the average load is 
above rating, and No. 2 if it is below rating. 

I low nuich more, based on cost of fuel, can we afford to pay for 
No. 2 than for No. 4 engine? 

If the load be .5 rating for ;.-< the day, at the rating for % the day 
and l.s rating for }4 the day, or an average of .88 rating for the 
whole time (and this is a very high average load for an interurban 
railway not using storage batteries), and the daily run be 20 hours, 
and the additional (not pro rata) evaporation be 8 lb. of water 
per I lb. of coal, then the annual saving of No. 2 will be : 

Steam per i. h. p. per day — 2.25 lb. for 10 hr., plus .25 lb. for 5 hr., 
plus .50 lb. for 5 hr., a total of 26.2s lb. 

If the average output is 1,000 h. p., then the steam saved annually 
is in round numbers 9,600,000 lb., which with an evaporation of 8 to i 
is equivalent to 1,200,000 lb. 

With coal at $2.00 per short ton the saving would be $1,200 per 
annum, or the interest on $20,000 at 6 per cent ; if coal cost $3.00 
per ton the saving is $1,800 per annum, or the interest on $30,000. 

It is natural to hesitate at paying $20,000 or $30,000 more for 
one l,200-h. p. engine than for another; nevertheless, on the guar- 
antees we could afford to do so. If the engine guaranteed as the 
more economical as to fuel is also better designed and manufac- 
tured, there is an additional reason for purchasing that engine even 
at a greater first cost ; but how nearly do the guarantees represent 
the facts? 

The answer can only be a matter for the exercise of judgment. 
and considering the technical features, standing of the bidder, and 
proved results. 

The foregoing shows the results which may be obtained by the 
investigation of only one feature, and also the importance of making 
comparisons on the basis of operating conditions, which latter, if 
not existing, must be predetermined. 

The average load above considered is a high percentage of the 
rating, and if in order to make the comparison over a greater range 
we consider that No. 2 engine at .3 load would take 14 lb. and No. 4 
17 lb., and that the load is .3 rating for '4 of the day, .5 rating for 
'.'j of the day, full rating for '/^ of the day and 1.5 rating for ^ of 
the day (a day being 20 hours as before). 

The daily difference in steam per i. h. p. will be. computed as 
before: 5X3 plus 10 X 2.25 plus 2.5 X 25 plus 2.5 X -5, which gives 
a total of 39.4 lb. 

This is 50 per cent more than the previous result, making a capital 
saving for $2.00 coal of $30,000 and for $3.00 coal of $45,000. 

Probably there would be not less than two engines and for the 
greater portion of the time only one would be in operation, if the 
average time of operation of two engines be simultaneously only 
one-fifth that of one engine (one engine 16 hr., two engines 4 hr.). 
load conditions for each engine be considered as unchanged, then 
the total additional amount which we could afford to pay for the 
two more economical engines would be six-fifths of that for one, 
or with $2.00 coal, $36,000, and with $3.00 coal, $54,000. 

If the comparisons were made at rated load, then the annual 
saving would be approximately one-fifth of that of the first assump- 
tion, and the difference in value being only $4,000 for $2.00 coal 
and $6,000 for $3.00 coal. 

The foregoing also shows that a consideration of comparative 
values must include the cost of coal; this fact is not always appreci- 

The same general considerations apply to the question of the com- 
parative advisability of installing steam engines or steam turbines, 
as have been considered in connection with various engines, and there 
are some additional considerations, such as comparative space, cost 
of foundations, etc. 

The writer would state, at the outset, that he believes as good coal 
economy can be obtained by using the highest grade of reciprocating 
engines, properly proportioned to the work, as can now be obtained 
by the use of turbines, and that, to a considerable degree, the better 
results reported where turbines have been installed are because the 
turbine plants have been of a higher grade than the engine plants with 
which they have been compared. Turbine plants generally have su- 
perheated steam, frequently at a higher pressure than the average 
reciprocating engine, and also with higher vacuum, and they do ob- 
tain better efficiency from the standpoint of water per kilowatt-hour 
than the majority of the engine plants in interurban power houses. 
But it does not necessarily follow that reciprocating engine plants 
could not have been so designed as to have obtained equally high 
cfiiciency, nor does it follow that the plant which is most efficient 
from the standpoint of fuel is most economical, everything consid- 
ered. I believe in the steam turbines, but do not consider that they 
have the field to themselves, but rather that each case must be con- 
sidered on its own merits. 

Many comparisons which have been published are misleading be- 
cause of misleading statements. For example, some comparisons 
are made on the basis of rated load, which has been shown to be 
inaccurate when operating under variable load ; others are based 
on pounds of steam per kilowatt-hour taken by the turbine, or the 
engine, and without making allowance for the additional heat energy 
required to obtain the higher vacuum for the turbine. In this con- 
nection it should be noted that the efficiency of the turbine is mate- 
rially increased by an increased vacuum, whereas this is much less 
the case for an engine built on commercial lines. For the turbine 
it is wise to obtain high vacuum, but the cost must not be over- 

Also, the steam for the turbine is usually superheated, and, if the 
comparison is based on difference in pounds of steam, it is evident 
that consideration should be given to the additional heat units in 
the steam, and the cost of supplying such additional heat energy. 
When considering fuel economy the basis of comparison is the per 
cent of heat energy transformed into mechanical energy- delivered 
by the mechanism, including the amount of energy required for the 

On this basis a recent comparison, which I made, between the 
guarantee of a turbine manufacturer and those of an exceptionally 
high grade engine, showed such an exceedingly slight difference 
as to be practically negligible, and a comparatively small diflference 
in operating conditions would throw the balance one way or the 
other, as would also a slight difference between guaranteed and 
obtained results The difference, as tabulated, was slightly in favor 
of the turbine, with temperature of condensing water at 60 degrees. 
and with 26-in. vacuum for the engine, and 28-in. for the turbine. 
and with barometer at 30 in., but if the condensing water were at a 
higher, though probable summer temperature, it would not be 
found economically desirable to endeavor to obtain at such time 
such high vacuum, and therefore during such time as this condition 
might exist the result would be in favor of the engine. .Assuming 
other conditions of operation there would be a greater difference. 
and in favor of one or the other, depending upon the assumptions. 

Therefore, for this case decision must be based on other grounds 
than comparative fuel economy. 

A comparison would include at least the following: 

A. First cost, including engine, turbine, generators for each of 
same, foundations, buildings, traveling crane, sometimes ground, 
piping, condensing system, superheaters. 

B. Operating expenses, including fuel. oil. labor, repairs and 

C. Reliability. 

MX of A and fuel and oil under B can be predetermined with suf- 
ficient accuracy for a decision. The other items under B and C 
are. for the present at least, largely questions for the exercise of 



rVoL. XV, No. 2. 

Following Mr. Robert's address, Mr. Hans Holzwartli, the in- 
ventor of the Hamilton-Holzwarth steam turbine, addressed the 
association, describing the construction and operation of the line of 
turbines for electric railway work which the Hooveii, Owens, 
Rentschler Co. is now manufacturing. Mr. Holzwarth had a large 
number of blue prints showing elevations and sectional views of 
the assembled apparatus and drawings to a larger scale showing the 
more important details, and covered the subject very thoroughly, 
his address being much appreciated. 

Mr. C. H. Weeks, of the Buckeye Engine Co., Salem, O., ne.xt 
followed with a short talk on power house management. The point 
which Mr. Weeks most emphasized was that there should be lots 
of brains in the power house. Companies install the most e.xpensive 
and complicated machinery and yet too often entrust it to the care 
of incompetent persons, overlooking the fact that an ignorant or 
careless fireman or engineer will greatly increase the cost of oper- 
ation and may easily do a vast amount of damage to the equipment. 


The annual dinner was held in the evening, 192 guests sitting 
down at the tastefully decorated tables. The guest of honor was 
Gov. Myron T. Herrick. Mr. H. B. Clegg served as toastmaster 
and made the first address of the evening, that introducing the 
president-elect, Mr. E. C. Spring. Mr. Spring made his inaugural 
address, emphasizing in it the extent of the electric railway interests 
in Ohio and the usefulness of the association in protecting these 
interests. In conclusion Mr. Spring, on behalf of the association, 
presented' to Mr. Clegg a silver loving cup as a testimonial of appre- 
ciation of his success in administering the aflfairs of the association 
during the past year. 

Governor Herrick followed Mr. Spring, tlie principal points of his 
address relating to electric railway legislation. Governor Herrick 
stated that while he did not approve of an after-dinner speaker read- 
ing from manuscript, yet he felt that his position made it important 
that he be not misquoted on matters relating to recommended legis- 
lation and begged permission to read a statement of his views on this 
subject. Governor Herrick's remarks as regards legislation were as 
follows : 

"Interurban electric railways are getting closer and closer every 
day to the status, the business, and the characteristics of commer- 
cial steam railways. In a number of recent cases the courts of Ohio 
have found it difficult to distinguish between these two classes of 
common carriers. In the early days of horse cars, and even later, 
when electricity as a motive power was first introduced, street rail- 
roads were looked upon as conveniences for the cities alone. They 
were purely municipal institutions and no one thought of carrying 
their work beyond the public streets. But within recent years the 
business of street railroads has been revolutionized. The urban has 
become the interurban. So far as the business of these companies 
is concerned, municipal boundary lines have become obliterated. 
There is scarcely a street railroad line in Ohio that does not run 
into two or rnore municipalities ; and if today we should seriously 
consider municipal ownership, the first question that would be 
asked with respect to nine o>it of ten of the street railroads of Ohio 
would be. Which municipality shall own them? So fast indeed has 
this business grown, and so active has been the genius and enterprise 
of those engaged in it, that the very growth it has enjoyed has 
perhaps settled, for the present at least, the question of retarding 
it by public appropriation ; for the number of cities and villages now 
reached by the interurban roads is so great that municipal ownership 
would only serve the purpose of destroying the continuity of the 

"But the progress of this business has gone even further. It has 
not only obliterated the boundaries of miuiicipal corporations, but it 
has crossed with its network of tracks throughout the country the 
lines of counties and states. The interurban railway has become the 
short haul carrier for the people. 

"Manifestly, therefore, we have lived past the day when these 
companies may be regarded as purely local conveniences and con- 
trolled solely by local authorities. The legislature of Ohio in recent 
years has been recognizing with increasing assurance and convic- 
tion the ultimate sameness of all railroad companies, whetlier oper- 
ated by steam or electricity, whether operating upon the highways or 
upon the private rights of way, and whether called by one name or 

another. The general assembly of 1902 granted to interurban com- 
panies the power of eminent domain outside of municipalities. The 
general assembly of 1904 granted to street and interurban railways, 
under certain conditions, the power of eminent domain within mu- 
nicipalities ; and the same legislature last winter provided for the 
taxation of the property of interurban electric railway companies by 
a method identical with that in force with respect to steam railroad 
companies. Thus the two kinds of railways are coming closer and 
closer to mean one and the same thing. Peering into the future it 
does not require mental field glasses to see the day when in fact as 
well as in law there will be but one kind of railroad in this country, 
and when electricity, which is now coming more and more into use 
in the subways and by the steam roads upon tlie urban streets, will 
be the only motive power for all. 

"Now, what does all this mean? Certainly I am not one of those 
who believe in taking away from the mimicipalities of the state the 
inherent right of home rule ; and certainly I would not advocate 
any plan that would destroy the principal of local government in 
so far as it is necessary to protect local interests. But in so far as 
interurban railways have ceased to he the concern of a single city 
or a single locality, and have come to be the concern of the state 
at large. I believe the business in which they are engaged ought to 
be regulated and controlled by the state. As interstate commerce is 
the concern of the nation at large, so intra-state commerce is the 
concern of the state at large; and any agency which thus unites, by 
bands of steel, the interests of urban and rural communities, and 
conducts a passenger, freight, express and mail traffic between dif- 
ferent sections of the state, should be directed and controlled by 
some authority which would see that equal justice is done between 
all patrons of the lines, whether they live in the city or the country. 
Nothing has seemed to me more obstructive of general progress than 
the spectacle of an interurban railway line being, on the one hand, 
retarded in its work by the caprice or cupidity of local authorities, 
or, on the other, practicing discrimination in favor of the people of 
one community against those of another, I am not willing to take 
from the people of our municipalities the control of their streets or 
deprive them of the just return which should be made by those who 
use the streets for any public service business. But with respect to 
interurban railway lines, which run through a number of municipali- 
ties as well as counties, I believe that, for the protection of the peo- 
ple and for their safety and convenience, as well as for the pro- 
tection of investors in these enterprises, some just and equitable 
method should be devised for their control which will avoid the con- 
fusion that conflicting interests always entail." 

In arranging for the banquet, the entertainment committee of the 
association had the able assistance of a committee of the supplymen, 
of whom Mr. John F. Ohmer was chairman, and to him was in a 
large measure due the perfection of the arrangements. 

The supplymen maintained headquarters on the parlor floor at 
the Algonquin Hotel. Among those having literature for distribu- 
tion or models on exhibition were the Ludlow Supply Co., of Cleve- 
land, which besides having its own specialties is now agent for the 
Peter Smith Heater Co, of Detroit, and the KalamazOo Railway 
Supply Co, ; the W. R. Garton Co., which ha? recently taken agencies 
for the Lima Insulator Co. and the Lord Electric Co. railway bonds ; 
the Dittrick-Jordan Electric Co. and the Bloomer Bureau. Repre- 
senting other railway manufacturers and supply houses were E. B. 
Grimes, Ohmer Fare Register Co. ; Ambrose Petry and Frank Den- 
ning, Ambrose Petry Co. ; Edwin Van Winkle, Post-Glover Electric 
Co.; R. R. Braggins, H. W. Johns-Manville Co.; H. E. Beach, 
Sterling-Meaker Co. ; R. R. Fast, Trolley Supply Co. ; George T. 
Lewis, Viscosity Oil Co. ; F. M. Nicholl, Taylor Electric Truck Co. ; 
D. J. Evans, Continuous Rail Joint Co. ; H. E. Blemker, Cincinnati 
Metal Co.; H. W. Cushman, H. W. Cushman Co.; L. O. Duclos, 
Massachusetts Chemical Co, ; F. W. Hitchings, Consumers' Rubber 
Co. ; C. Wright, Standard Brake Shoe Co. ; R. W. Palmer, General 
Electric Co. ; A. G. Olberding, Columbia Foundry Co. ; F. N. Bliss, 
Buckeye Electrical Co. ; J. E. Gimperling, jr., W. B. Schaife & Sons 
Co. ; M. BleuUen, Columbia Foundry Co. ; R D. Jeffers, Kanawka 
Fuel Co. ; Will I. Ohmer, Recording & Computing Scale Co. ; J. A. 
Hanna, the J, A, Hanna Co, ; Judson Pratt, Valvoline Oil Co, 

The menus for the dinner were handsomely printed and bound in 
silk ribbon, and were presented with the compliments of the Audit- 
ing-Ticket & Record Co,, of Dayton. 

Recent Street Railway Decisions. 


[Tho decisions which have been reported in tlie Lcgfal Dppartnient of ihi; "Stri'ct Railway RotIcw" iiincc IIW3 have bi-m publi«hi>d ".rparale 
Kenficld Publisllinjf Co. utultT the title '* Street Railway Law, ' four voIumk-h of which have bi-en printed. Vol. I covern the (x-riod from January. IVM, to January, I*fl7 

Vol. n from January. l.S'i7, to July, IS'i'i; Vol. Ill from July, IS'i'i. to April. riOI ; Vol. IV from April. I'ml. to April, I'«i.l. Vol. V i< now m pr.-«.. Hri. 
Hhet'p: fuur volunit-s, $1U.UU; NiiiKle vi>lurnc, ^.(X). Hound in l>uckrjni: four volumes, $6,.^; sini^lt- \o1ume, $2.fJ0.1 

lely bT the Wind'or A 
ary, Hfrt; 
Ittfond in 


Hates Machine Co. vs. Trenton & New Brunswick Railroad Co. 
(N. J.), s8 At!. Rep. 935. Sep. 30, 1904. 

The right to lien a building for materials fnrnishcd tinder the 
nieclianic's lien act of New Jersey, the court of errors and appeals 
of New Jersey holds, is not rendered unenforceable by the con- 
veyance of the property to a corporation for railroad purposes. 

The production and control of electric power by mechanical means 
and its adaptation for use upon a trolley system is a "manufactur- 
ing purpose," within the meaning of the mechanic's lien law. 


.\ugusta Railway & Electric Co. vs. Smith (Ga.), 4R S. E. Rep. 6Sr. 
Oct. 15, 1904. 
A railway company, the supreme court of Georgia holds, has the 
right to make reasonable rules and regulations prohibiting passen- 
gers from occupying positions on its cars considered to be danger- 
ous, except at their own risk; but when, notwithstanding such 
rules, passengers are permitted, and in some instances required, to 
occupy such positions, the company is still under the duty to exer- 
cise extraordinary care and diligence for their safety. 


Story vs. St. Louis Transit Co. (Mo. /Vpp.). S3 S. W. Rep. 992. 
Nov. 29, 1904. 
Objection to an instruction was made tliat it submitted to the 
jury to find whether the motorman negligently failed to give a timely 
warning of the approach of the car. Counsel made this inquiry. 
"How should the warning be given?" The answer, the St. Louis 
court of appeals says, is, "By sounding the gong," which is known 
by every one at all familiar with street car traffic to be furnished 
on every car for the express purpose of giving warning when 
necessary. This is conmion knowledge, ami the jury must be pre- 
sumed to have been possessed of it. 


Shaw vs. Manchester Street Railway (N. H.), 58 .^tl. Rep. 1073. 
Oct. 4, 1904. 
A street railway company's failure to provide a sufficient number 
of open cars for the accommodation of its business, the supreme 
court of New Hampshire holds, will not entitle a conductor to a 
judgment for damages for injuries, even if it be found that the 
deficiency was the proximate cause of his injury, where, well know- 
ing of such failure, he voluntarily continued in the service, and 
thereby assumed the risk of injury from that cause. Furthermore, 
to render the company liable to the conductor for the negligence 
of the car starter in sending a defective car over the road behind the 
car in which the conductor in question w^as employed, the court holds 
that it must appear that the car starter was acting in the perform- 

ance of a non-dclegabic duty owed by the company to the con- 
ductor; or, in other words, that his act was essentially a master's 
act, as distinguished from a servant's act. This the court docs not 
think it was, when the car starter was not intrusted with the exercise 
of any discretion relating to the provision of cars, or the mainte- 
nance of them in suitable repair, or the determination of the ques- 
tion whctbor cars were suitable for use. 


Murphy vs. North Jersey Street Railway Co. (N. J. Sup.), 58 Atl. 
Rep. 1018. July 6, 1904. 
Although it cannot be held, as a matter of law, the supreme court 
of New Jersey says, that a person who attempts to board a trolley 
car while it is motion is negligent, yet, when the fact that the car 
is in motion is the sole producing cause of the injury sued for, the 
risk of its occurrence is one which the person making the attempt 
must be held to have assumed. 


Feitl vs. Chicago City Railway Co. (111.), -i N. E. Rep. 991. Oct. 
24, 1904. 
."^n employe, as for example a motorman, the supreme court of 
Illinois holds, is not an incompetent witness, under the statute, 
because he is liable over to the company for any damage he may 
have caused. Nor does the court consider that he is incompetent 
as a witness, when the adverse party is suing as administrator, 
under the provision of Section 2 of the act of 1867 that no party 
to any civil action, suit, or proceeding, or person directly interested 
in the event thereof, shall be allowed to testify therein, of his own 
motion or in his own behalf, when any adverse party sues or defends 
as the administrator of any deceased person, except in certain speci- 
fied cases. 


Frank Bird Transfer Co. vs. Morrow (Ind. .App.), 72 N. E. Rep. 
189. Nov. I, 1904. 
A city ordinance adopted at the time when all of the street cars 
within the limits of the city were propelled by horse power, and 
making it unlaw ftil for any person within the corporate limits of the 
city "to swing or hang from the outside of any street car," the appel- 
late court of Indiana, division No. 2, holds, is not applicable to the 
present condition and manner of operating street cars, as in passing 
the ordinance the city council did not contemplate the operation of 
street cars by electricity, nor did it intend that such ordinance 
should apply to the modern summer car with a running board. 


Budd vs. Camden Horse Railroad Co. (N. J.), 59 Atl. Rep. 229. 
Nov. 14, 1904. 
A double-track street railway was constructed in the northerly 
half of a road 33 feet in width, pursuant to a city ordinance The 
poles carrying electric wires were close to the outer line of the 
street on which the plaintifT's land abutted, and the ties extended 
to within two or three feet of that line. No sidewalk had been 
built. The court of error's and appeals of New Jersey holds that 
the construction of the railway did not constitute an additional 



[Vol. XV, No. 2 

servitude, and that the abutting owners — owners of the soil of the 
highway — could not maintain ejectment against the railway com- 


Goldman vs. Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (Wis.), lOl 
N. W. Rep. 384. Nov. 15, 1904. 
Due care in approaching a railway track, the supreme court of 
Wisconsin says, can be satisfied only by the full use of the senses 
of sight and hearing at the last moment of opportunity before pass- 
ing the line between safety and peril. The last moment for such 
observation in this case was just before the plantiff's horse stepped 
upon the track on which the plaintiff knew a car was approaching, 
the evidence being undisputed that the movement of the horse was 
so slow and so without momentum as to approximate the plaintifT 
almost exactly to the situation of a foot passenger, as to whom the 
single step onto the track is negligence unless, before taking it, he 
assures himself, by observation, of its safety, if the view is unob- 
structed. Reasoning is not due care when opportunity for observa- 
tion exists. It is only when deprived in some degree of such oppor- 
tunity that one may, consistently and with due care, rely on his 
judgment as to chances. Neither can he rely on any assumption that 
the car is moving at a reasonable, or any other, rate of speed, where 
he has opportunity to observe the contrary. However, no right of 
way existed in favor of the plaintiff when, as established by the 
result, some diminution of the speed of the car was necessary to 
enable him to pass in safety. 


Walger vs. Jersey City, Hoboken & Paterson Street Railway Co. 
(N. J. Sup.), 59 Atl. Rep. 14. Nov. 7, 1904. 
A passenger disembarked from a car for the purpose of trans- 
ferring to another car of the company, a ticket enabling him to do 
so having been furnished him on the car upon which he first took 
passage. The point from which he alighted was the proper transfer 
point. After getting off the car, and as he was about to cross over 
to the other car, or while he was doing so, the car which he had left 
started to go around what was described as "the loop," and its rear 
end struck him, knocked him down, and injured him. According 
to his story, the accident happened immediately after he got off of 
the car, and before he had taken a single step away from it. In this 
situation of the case, the supreme court of New Jersey says, it was 
manifestly proper for the trial judge to refuse to nonsuit. Again, 
the court says that the man was still a passenger of the company 
when he was struck. If he was taking the most direct course from 
the car which he had just left to the car upon which he was about 
to embark, it was for the jury to say whether he was not entitled 
to believe that he was safe in doing this, or, at least, that he would 
not be put in jeopardy by anything done by the company while taking 
this most direct route. It was also for the jury to say whether the 
operation of the car, under the conditions disclosed, was not a 
negligent operation, and the violation of the duty which the com- 
pany owed to the man as its passenger. 


Moore vs. Charlotte Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. (N. C), 
48 S. E. Rep. 822. Nov. 22, 1904. 
Dogs, the supreme court of North Carolina says, are known ordi- 
narily to be able to take care of themselves amidst the dangers inci- 
dent to their surroundings. Where a horse, or a cow, or a hog, 
or any of the lower animals would be killed or injured by dangerous 
agencies, the dog would extricate himself with safety. Besides, the 
court says that it knows of common knowledge that within that 
jurisdiction, at least, there is scarcely a household without a dog or 
dogs, that they are found in every street and public place, no limita- 
tion being put upon their free movements, and by the hundreds they 
daily pass in the cities and towns over the street railway track 
where and as often as they please. If, therefore, it should be re- 
quired that motormen in charge of these cars should exercise the 

same degree of care to avoid running over a dog that the law re- 
quires of them to avoid injury to other animals, the public con- 
venience of rapid transit in populous communities would be seriously 
impaired, and all business interests made to suffer. As the de- 
fendant's counsel said in their brief, "The dog would be absolute 
master of the situation, and would force the electric cars out of 
business." The rule, the court is satisfied, should be that street 
railway companies, when their cars are properly equipped, should not 
be held liable in damages for the killing of a dog by one of the 
street cars in motion, unless it was done under such circumstances 
as to justify the conclusion that the killing was done either willfully, 
wantonly, or recklessly. 


Santa Fe Street Railway Co. vs. Schutz (Tex. Civ. App.), 83 S. W. 
Rep. 39. Oct. 26, 1904. Rehearing denied Nov. 23, 1904. 
The street railway company entered into a contract which stated 
that, whereas the said Schutz, for the purpose of enhancing the 
value of his real estate along the line of the railway had expended 
$1,481.07 for and on account of the railway enterprise, and, moved 
by the same inducement, promised, on certain conditions, to pay to 
the company the further sum of $2,000, and had paid the same, the 
companj', in consideration thereof, agreed that during one-half of 
the period named in its charter (50 years) the street railway should 
be operated in good faith throughout the entire line, and not aban- 
doned or removed, or any part thereof, and that in the event of a 
failure to maintain or operate it as aforesaid from any cause, the 
sum of $3,481.07, with lawful interest from the failure aforesaid, 
should be paid to said Schutz, who was to have a lien upon all the 
property owned by the company, and, in the event of his suing to 
foreclose his lien, should have such reasonable attorney's fees as the 
court might allow. The court of civil appeals of Texas holds that 
the agreement on the part of the street railway company to pay 
Schutz the sum of $3,481.07 in the event of its failure to perform its 
contract should be construed as one for the payment of liquidated 
damages, and not as merely a penalty, upon which no recovery could 
be had, unless actual damages for the breach were alleged and proven. 
It further holds that the very terms of the contract completely nega- 
tived the idea that the company was only obliged to maintain and 
operate the street railway any 25 years of the 50 years covered by 
its charter. The maintenance and operation of the line of street 
railway was, with the exception of certain contingencies to be pro- 
vided for, to be continuous; and it could not be doubted that it was 
to continue from the time the contract was executed until one-half 
of the period (25 years) of the existence of the company's charter 
should expire. 


Gleason vs. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (N. Y. Sup.), 90 N. Y. 
Supp. 1025. Dec. 9, 1904. 
It appeared in this case that the place where the plaintiff at- 
tempted to board a car and was injured was inside of the barn or 
shed, and not upon the street, and it was claimed by the defendant 
that passengers were not received at that point, and that the driver 
of the car had no notice that the plaintiff was attempting to board 
the car when he started the same. It became a material question, 
therefore, the first appellate division of the supreme court of New 
York says, whether passengers were received at this place. If they 
were, then it would not be disputed but that the defendant owed a 
duty to the plaintiff to see that he was given a reasonable oppor- 
tunity to board the car at that place. The plaintiff sought to show- 
it was customary for the defendant to receive passengers at this 
point. He was asked : "Had you gotten on cars at that place be- 
fore?" "Do you know what the custom was at that time with regard 
to passengers boarding cars at that point?" Both questions were 
objected to and the objections sustained. But the court holds that 
these questions were proper and competent, and bore upon a mate- 
rial issue in the case. It says that the first question called for a 
fact as to whether the plaintiff had boarded cars at that place. If 
he had, then it would have been preliminary to the question as to 
the length of and number of times and the circumstances which 

Fed. is, 'QOSl 



had attencletl his taking the car at that place, and therefrom, if it 
had been made to :ii)i)car, as it might, that the defendant had re- 
ceived the plaintiff as a passenger at that point and carried him 
therefrom for any considerable period of time, dependent upon the 
lumiber of times, il miRlit have such probative force as to authorize 
a finding tiiat the defendant had knowledge that the plaintiff cus- 
tomarily took the car at that point, and thereby arrive at the con- 
clusion that it owed him the same duty as a passenger boarding the 
car at that point as it would the reception of passengers at other 
points. Upon (he proof, as it stood, it appeared that one passenger 
had preceded him into the car, and, if this had been followed by 
showing a habit of the plaintiff to take the car at this place, it might 
require a submission of the case to the jury. The custom in this 
respect could be established by his own evidence, as well as by others. 
The second question was also competent. 


Topp vs. United Railways & Electric Co. of Baltimore (Md.), 59 
Atl. Rep. 52. Nov. 17, 1904. 

That a street railway is not liable, as a carrier, to the passenger 
for the condition of the street upon which he alights, the court 
of appeals of Maryland says, is undoubtedly correct, as a general 
proposition, though there are cases where it becomes the duty of 
the street railway to warn its passengers of the unsafe condition 
of the street, known to those in charge of its car, but unknown or 
not plainly discoverable to the passenger, and to assist the passen- 
ger in alighting. 

In this case, however, at the place where the car stopped and 
the plaintiff was injured in alighting the railway was not upon a 
city street, but upon its own private right of way — a fact which, 
the court says, at once broadly discriminated this case from all 
those relied upon by the company, and which effectually deprived 
it of recourse to the exemption from liability above mentioned. 
Where, as in this case, the street railway owns and controls the place 
where the accident occurs, and has either constructed or adopted 
platforms provided for the regular receipt and discharge of passen- 
gers, the reason for the rule as to such places ceases, and the 
rule must cease to operate as such. The court can perceive no 
reason, upon principle, why, as to the place of this accident, this 
defendant should not be held to the same liability, as regards a 
passenger, as a steam railroad. It is firmly established that the 
relation of passenger does not cease upon the arrival of a train at 
the passenger's destination, but continues until he is afforded an 
opportunity safely to alight. 

When, therefore, this defendant entered into the occupation of its 
own right of way, under its own exclusive control, it subjected itself, 
as respecting the receipt and discharge of passengers upon that 
right of way, to the duty imposed by the rule stated. It might have 
required passengers for Chelsea Terrace to get on and off at the 
intersection of that Terrace with Clifton Ave., thus alighting upon 
the public street, if unwilling to assume the burden of that rule. 
If it had undertaken to receive and discharge passengers upon the 
embankment of its own right of way, where the car in question 
stopped (which was an unsafe and dangerous place to let passengers 
off), witliout any platform or other provision for their safety, it 
vv'ould have neglected the duty imposed by that rule. Having either 
constructed or adopted certain platforms, it so far complied with 
that rule, since it could not be material whether the company built 
or adopted the platforms ; and it has been held that the adoption 
of a platform neither owned nor constructed by the company cre- 
ates an implied contract that passengers may rely upon its use. 
The rule imposes the duty not only to provide, but to use, safe 
means of passage from the car. 

If the passenger knew, or. should have known in the exercise of 
ordinary care and prudence, that she was about to alight upon a 
steep slope, and that her foot, in stepping from the car, could not 
reach the ground, she would be negligent in taking the risk; but if. 
after looking as she said she did, she could reasonably believe she 
would alight upon a safe surface within reach of her foot in step- 

ping down, she would not be negligent. While the conductor was 
negligent in not stopping at the platform, it would be unfair to 
him to assume that he knew she could not safely alight on the 
embankment, and recklessly permitted her to attempt it ; and if he, 
an experienced employe of the railway, presumably familiar with 
the place, did not perceive danger in such attempt, it would surely 
not be reasonable to deny to a woman unacquainted with the place 
the benefit of the same presumption. Moreover, the implied invita- 
tion of the conductor to alight at that place could not be overlooked 
in passing upon the plaintiff's alleged negligence. This was a 
question of fact to be determined from the conductor's action and 
conduct, as well as from express words. It has been held in 
numerous cases that an invitation by one in charge of the train 
to alight at a place other than the station is held sufficient authority 
for the passenger to do so. 



Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co. vs. Chicago & North- 
western Railway Co. (III.;, 71 N. E. Rep. 1017. Oct. 24, 1904. 

Condemnation of a strip of land for another track parallel to the 
line of road purchased and being operated by the electric railroad 
company, the supreme court of Illinois holds, was not in violation 
of the provisions of the state constitution forbidding any railroad 
corporation consolidating its stock, property, or franchises, with 
any other railroad corporation owning a parallel or competing line. 
The court does not think that the laying of another line of road 
upon the same right of way, where the company building the new 
line, already has one line, is to be deemed the construction of a 
parallel or competing line, within the language of the constitution. 
It says that the right of way owned by the electric railroad company 
was 25 feet in width. It had the right, under the statute, to con- 
demn a right of way 100 feet in width. The acquirement of a 
25-foot right of way did not exhaust its power, but it possessed 
the right to condemn additional right of way up to the statutory 
limit; and the fact that it appeared that upon this additional 25-foot 
strip of right of way it proposed to construct a line of railroad in 
accordance with the terms of its charter, it seems to the court, 
simply meant that the additional track was to be operated in con- 
junction with the existing track as a double-track railroad, and 
not as a parallel or competing line, within the meaning of the 
constitution. The statute contemplates that a railroad company 
shall have the right to lay as many tracks as it sees fit upon its strip 
of right of way 100 feet or less in width. As long as its tracks 
are all laid upon that one right of way, the question of parallel or 
competing lines does not arise. 

It was urged that the company exercised its power to locate the 
line of road when it purchased a line already located, and that, 
the power of location having been thus exercised, it was exhausted. 
and the company was without power to locate a line on the addi- 
tional 25 feet which it sought to condemn, and, being without 
power to locate a line there, it was without power to condemn land 
for a line which it could not locate. But the court says that in 
each of the cases cited in support of this position it would be found 
that the court had in contemplation such a change or relocation as 
would require the use of an entirely different and distinct right 
of way. Changing the tracks of a railway from one side to an- 
other of a right of way strip 100 feet or less in width is not to be 
regarded as a relocation. To constitute a relocation, it is necessary 
that the new line should be projected, in whole or in part, over 
and upon ground not included within the original right of way or 
its additions ; the whole of that right of way and additions not 
exceeding 100 feet in width. 

It %vas conceded that a railroad company cannot appropriate or 
condemn a strip off of the right of way of another railroad com- 
pany longitudinally. But the court is disposed to the view that 
the authorities announcing the doctrine that one railroad company 
cannot condemn longitudinally the right of way of another, had 
reference only to the right of way of the width which the railroad 
company is authorized by the statute to condemn. A 50-foot strip 
of land owned by the railway company and adjoining its 99-foot 
strip, but being no part of it, was not exempt from condemnation 
on the theory that it was part of the right of way. If it were 



[Vol. XV, No. i. 

within the 99-foot strip, it would be exempt, whether actually 
needed by the owner for railroad purposes or not, so long as the 
owner was engaged in the business for which it was chartered. 
Being outside the (jg-foot strip, the question of its exemption de- 
pended upon other considerations. It being evident that the rail- 
way company owning it did not need it then, and would not need 
it in the immediate future, while the electric railroad company 
needed it then for a present public purpose, for which it had the 
power to acquire a right of way by condemnation, tlie remote 
and uncertain needs of the railway company owner must yield to 
the present and certain right of the electric railroad company. 


Denison & Sherman Railway Co. vs. Carter (Tex.), 82 S. W. Rep. 
-82. Nov. 7, 1904. 

There was some testimony in this case that certain boys got on 
a car with permission of the motorman, who also acted as con- 
ductor, and were permitted to ride a short distance for having 
turned the trolley pole, when one of them, a boy ten years old, 
was injured by jumping off of car, by order of the motorman or 
otherwise. It was contended that negligence of the motorman or 
driver of the street car in permitting a child to ride upon such 
car when such permission is granted to subserve the purpose of the 
driver individually, and not in transacting the business of the owner 
of the car, does not render such owner liable for the injuries 
to the child in getting on or off the car. But the supreme court of 
Texas says that the fallacy of this contention lies in the assumption 
that, 'because the servant permitted the boys to ride for an improper 
reason, in running the car he was not acting for the master. If, in 
the control and management of the car, he was guilty of negli- 
gence which caused the injury to the boy, the company was respons- 

There are authorities, the court goes on to say, which warrant 
the proposition that there might be actionable negligence in permit- 
ting an immature child, incapable of caring for its own safety, to 
ride in such a position, when it has received an injury proximately 
resulting from that fact — as when it has fallen from the platform, 
or has been led by its childish impulses to jump therefrom. It is 
held that it may be negligence in those managing a car to allow 
such a child to incur the risks incident to riding in so exposed a 
position, and also in not exercising a careful w-atch and restraint 
over it while so riding. This court makes no question as to the 
soundness of these doctrines when applied to some states of fact, 
but it does not see their application here, because, it says, no injury 
resulted to the boy from riding on the platform. He was hurt in 
jumping off, and under the facts peculiar to this case its decision 
turned upon the question as to the negligence or not of the motor- 
man in causing or permitting him to do that. He did not fall 
from the platform nor jump off because the motorman lost sight 
of him, but claimed that he was caused to jump by the motorman. 
His own act in jumping was the proximate cause of his injury, r.nd 
the question was solely as to the legal responsibility for that act — 
whether it was his or should be imputed to the company because 
of negligence on the part of the motorman in causing or permitting 
it. That was the question that should be submitted with proper 
instructions to enable the jury to determine it. 

Again, the petition claimed that there was negligence in admit- 
ting the boy to the car at all. This complaint was apparently based 
upon the doctrine of the "turntable cases" and others in which lia- 
bility was fixed upon the owners of dangerous machinery because 
of enticements or invitations made out to children to expose them- 
selves to the dangers incurred in being in or about such places. 
But it seems to \'. e court that doctrine is inapplicable to the mere 
act of allowing children to get upon cars fitted up and used for 
the conveyance of all classes of persons, young and old, experi- 
enced and inexperienced ; and that actionable negligence must con- 
sist in something more — such as want of proper care in guarding 
the safety of those entering such vehicles, in getting on or off, or 
in traveling on them. 

Moreover, the court thinks that an ordinance should have been 

admitted in evidence which provided that: "Any person, not being 
a regular employe or officer of the railway company who shall, 
within this city, jump on or off, cling to or hang on any street 
railway car while the same is in motion, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not less 
than two dollars nor more than one hundred dollars." The court 
says that the objection that there was no evidence or offer of 
evidence that the boy "had discretion sufficient to understand the 
nature and illegality of the act constituting the offense" was not 
urged in the trial court. Besides, he testified before the jury con- 
cerning the transaction on which he based his right to recover, 
and whether or not he had the requisite degree of intelligence was 
a question for the jury. Furthermore, the facts were in dispute, 
and the jury might have found that the boy got on and off the car 
without the consent of the motorman and as a trespasser. If this 
were true, the ordinance inight not be necessary to the protection 
of the company, but it was still, the court thinks, entitled to have 
it admitted in evidence, and its effect explained to the jury. The 
court is further of an opinion that a plaintiff complaining of an 
injury caused or contributed to by his violation of a valid ordi- 
nance of tliis character should not be allowed to recover damages. 


Griffin vs. Interurban Street Railway Co. (N. Y.), 72 N. E. Rep. 
513. Nov. 29, 1904. 

The New York railroad law provides that any railroad corporation 
or any corporation owning or operating any railroad or railroad 
route within the state may contract with any other such corporation 
for the use of their respective roads or routes, or any part thereof. 
Section 104 reads : "Every such corporation entering into such 
contract shall carry or permit any other party thereto to carry 
between any two points on the railroads or portions thereof em- 
braced in such contract any passenger desiring to make one con- 
tinuous trip between such points for one single fare, not higher 
than the fare lawfully chargeable by either of such corporations 
for an adult passenger. Every such corporation shall upon 
demand, and without extra charge, give to each passenger 
paying one single fare a transfer, entitling such passenger to one 
continuous trip to any point or portion of any railroad embraced in 
such contract, to the end that the public convenience may be pro- 
moted by the operation of the railroads embraced in such contract 
substantially as a single railroad with a single rate of fare. For 
every refusal to comply with the requirements of this section the 
corporation so refusing shall forfeit fifty dollars to the aggrieved 
party. The provisions of this section shall only apply to railroads 
wholly within the limits of any one incorporated city or village." 
The court of appeals of New York holds that' this section was 
intended by the legislature to apply to, and covers, the case of a 
lease by one railroad of the lines of another. 

The court further says that it is quite obvious that the legislative 
intention to permit the recovery of cumulative penalties for refusals 
of the defendant to comply with the provisions of the railroad law 
in regard to the transfer of passengers is as clearly manifested as in 
any of the cases cited. Notwithstanding this fact, a majority of the 
court are of opinion that, while the rule for the recovery of cumula- 
tive penalties is firmly established by the earlier decisions of this 
court, yet the changed conditions in the modern life in our great 
cities render its modification imperative. There have been pre- 
sented at the bar of this court civil and criminal cases where the 
aggregate penalties sought to be recovered have amounted to enor- 
mous and well-nigh appalling sums by reason of plaintiffs permitting 
a long period to elapse before beginning actions. Actions of this 
nature have become highly speculative, and present a phase of liti- 
gation that ought not to be encouraged. The court is of opinion, 
that, if cumulative recoveries are to be permitted, the legislature 
should state its intention in so many words ; that a more definite 
form of statement be substituted for the words hitherto deeined 
suflicient. The court says that it intends no reflection upon the 
plairrtiflfs in the cases here under consideration, but is dealing with a 
great abuse which demands immediate correction. A sound public 
policy requires that only one penalty should be recovered in a single 
action, and that the institution of an action for a penalty is to be 
regarded as a waiver of all previous penalties incurred. 

Feb. is, "905] 



Fine Type <»f Scini-C.onvcrtiblc Car for Lan- 
ca.stcr & ^'i)i"k I'lirnace. 

'I'lic I^uicaslcr 8( York Furnace Railway Co. has recently received 
from tlie J. G. Brill Co. a combination passenger and baggage car 
like the one shown in the engraving. The railway company operates 
a line connecting Lancaster and York Furnace, a distance of al)out 
12 miles, through a populous country, and the car shown admirably 


meets the conditions. It is mounted on Brill No. 27-G trucks, which 
are particularly adapted to such service, and also has the builders' 
semi-convertible window system, which makes the car light and 
attractive in winter, and in summer, when the windows are raised 
into the roof pockets, gives an open appearance, as well as plenty 
of frcsli air. The baggage compartment at the end in no wise de- 
tracts from the comfort of the passengers. Parks at York Furnace 
Station and Pequca are reached by the company's lines. 

The general dimensions are as follows : Length over end panels, 
20 ft. ; over crown pieces and vestibules, 38 ft. S in. ; panel over 
crown piece, 4 ft. 8/2 in. ; width over sills, 7 ft. lo;.^ in. ; over posts 
at belt, 8 ft. 2 in. ; sweep of posts, 1^ in. ; side sill size, 4.34 -^ 7M '" ; 
end sill size, S'A x6j^ in.; sill plates, 5^ x 12 in,; thickness of corner 
post, 3.}4 in. ; side post, 354 in. ; length of seats, 36 in. ; width of aisle, 
22 in. The interior is finished in cherry, with ceilings of decorated 
birch. The trucks have a wheel base of 4 ft., wheel diameter of 
33 in., and 4-in. axles. Brill angle iron bumpers, radial drawbars, 
ratchet brake handles, "Dedenda" gongs, "Retriever" conductors' 
bells, "Step-over" seats, armrests, and door controlling devices are 
included in the furnishings. 

Third Rail Bonds on the Long Island R. R. 

Some e.xtremely interesting work is now being carried out by 
Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., on the Long Island R. R. in 
connection with the change to electric motive power and among the 
novel and important features are the conductor rail, the bonds and 
the method of their application to the rail. 

The rail is of special design, weighing 100 lb. per yd. and having 
a web i'/- in. thick. To bond this rail up to its full carrying capacity 
with modern compressed terminal bonds was quite a prob- 
lein, inasmuch as the web was too thick a section in which 
to bore holes through and compress terminal studs. It was 
therefore necessary to put all bonding on the base of the 

The approximate electrical carrying capacity of this rail 
is equivalent to 1,500,000 cm. copper, and to apply that 
amount of copper in two bonds was impracticable, as the ^^- 
size of terminal studs required for bonds of 750,000 cm. ^-^^ 
section would be so large as to cut away practically all of 
the rail base. It was therefore decided to apply four 
bonds, one overlapping the other, on each edge of the rail 

The inner, or short bond, is of 350,000 cm. section with 
terminals 7/i in. in diameter, 7 in. long between centers of 
terminals when straight, and formed to 5 in. The outer 
bond is of 400,000-c.m. section with terminals % in. in 
diameter, i2]4 in. long between centers of terminals when 
straight, and formed to 10 in. 

The configuration of the body portion of the bonds is 
such as to make one fit into the other, allowing proper 

clearance between the l)ody of the outer bond and the terminal heads 
of the inner bond, as well as for any movement of the flexible body 
during expansion and contraction. 

Both sizes of bonds arc of the form known as the "Protected" 
rail bond type L-3, being made with special beveled heads conform- 
ing to the bevel or slope of the rail base, so that when the compress- 
ing tool is applied the bearing lines of the under part of the ter- 
minal block and the upper end of the terminal stud arc parallel, 
give the compressing tool a firm bearing on the ma- 
terial and permit the compressing pressure to to be 
exerted directly parallel with the axis of the terminal 

It was considered that drilling the holes for these 
bonds with any drilling apparatus now on the 
market would be a tedious and expensive operation, 
and accordingly there was designed and perfected 
hydraulic apparatus for doing this class of work. 
The hydraulic punch for cutting the bond holes is 
of 100 tons capacity, and is so constructed and ad- 
justed as to balance itself on the rail at a right angle 
with the top surface of the rail base. This angle is 
usually 13 degrees with the horizontal. The ram 
and cutting punch of this fool are in the bottom, and 
in operation the punch starts to cut the hole upwardly from the un- 
der side of rail base and at right angle with the upper surface of the 
base. The female die bears against the top surface of the base, and 
is about % in. larger in diameter than the punch, giving a tapered 
hole, larger at the top. 

Aiter the holes are cut the bond studs are inserted from under- 
neath and a 3S-ton hydraulic compressor is used for expanding the 
terminal studs. These compressors are so arranged as to enable 
the operator to draw the bond up close to the under surface of the 
rail base, giving the shoulder or base of the terminal a proper con- 
tact with tlie rail. While held in this position the compressing ram, 
operating downwards, forces the copper terminal back into the hole 
against the taper. With the 35 tons exerted by this tool it is pos- 
sible to compress the copper terminal to about 80 per cent of its 
original size. It is even possible to continue compressing after the 
copper is flush with the rail, and thereby stretch and swell out the 
edge of the rail proper; this is of course neither desirable nor neces- 
sary, and mention is made of it merely to show the power of this 
compressing tool. This enormous pressure is produced with only 
one of the operator's hands, applied to the pumping handle. It is 
claimed by the designers of these tools that one man with a boy 
helper can punch 20 holes per hour, or 200 holes per day, with the 
lOO-ton tool, which is more than five times the number of holes that 
can be drilled by any hand drilling apparatus. 

One man with a boy helper to insert the bonds in the punched 
holes can compress 300 terminals, or 150 bonds per day. 

The rail bonds for this work, and the hydraulic apparatus, were 
designed and supplied by the Mayer & Elnglund Co., of Philadelphia. 

During January the New York subway handled about 400,000 

passengers daily. 




LVui.. XV. Xu. J 


MR. J. G. McMICH.'\EL, president of the Atlas Railway Siipplv 
Co., of Chicago, with his wife, is making a trip through Cuba. 

MR. CLARENCE G. WHERRY has been appointed traffic man- 
ager of the Indian Territory Traction Co., with headquarters at 
South McAIester, I. T. 

MR. JOHN H. FISHER has been appointed general manager of 
the San Bernardino Valley Traction Co., San Bernardino, Cal., vice 
Mr. A. C. Denman, jr.. resigned. 

MR. F. E. SMITH, auditor of the Chicago Union Traction Co.. 
with his family, sailed from New Orleans, La., Saturday, February 
lilh, for a trip of three or four weeks in Cuba. 

MR. CH.\RLES E. HOTT has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Columbus Railway & Light Co., Columbus, O. Mr. Hott 
entered the employ of the company in 1892 as a carpenter. 

MR. GUY A HAG.\R has been appointed sales agent of the 
Weber Railway Joint Manufacturing Co., of New York, with head- 
quarters in the Frisco Building, St. Louis, Mo.. cfTective Febru- 
ary 1st. 

MR. A. L. DRUM, general manager of the Indiana Union Trac- 
tion Co., Anderson, Ind., has resigned this position to become gen- 
eral manager of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co., 

MR. RICHARD McCULLOCH, assistant general manager of the 
St. Louis Transit Co., delivered a lecture on "The Evolution of the 
Street Railway," in Memorial Hall, Washington University, Janu- 
ary 31st. 

MR. R. A. WHITE has resigned his position as engineer in the 
Birmingham, Ala., office of Ford, Bacon & Davis, to become engi- 
neer and assistant manager of the Mobile Light & Railroad Co.. 
Mobile, Ala. 

MR. W. E. MUSE, formerly connected with the general offices 
of the Heine Safety Boiler Co., St.' Louis, Mo., has been appointed 
manager of the Boston office of this company, vice Mr. E. S. Mc- 
Gregory, resigned. 

MR. T. W. SHELTON, electrical engineer of the Northern 
Ohio Traction & Light Co., has been appointed general superinten- 
dent of the Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway Co., with head- 
quarters at Decatur, Ind. 

MR. FRED L. LUCAS, general manager of the Bloomington, 
Pontiac & Jolict Electric Railway Co., Pontiac, 111., called on the 
"Review" recently when in Chicago. Mr. Lucas stated that his road 
would be open for operation in February. 

MR. CHARLES R. MORLEY, general manager of the Stark 
Electric Railroad Co., has left for a four months' trip through Egypt 
and up the Nile. Prior to his departure, the employes of the com- 
pany made him a present of a very fine watch. 

MR. A. S. RICHEY has been appointed chief engineer of the 
Indiana Union Traction Co., Anderson, Ind., and will henceforth 
have charge of the track and roadway, in addition to the duties of 
his old position, which was that of electrical engineer. 

MR. G. G. ROSE, local agent of the Pennsylvania & Mahoning 
V'allcy Railway Co., at New Castle, has been appointed general 
freight and passenger agent of the company, with headquarters at 
Voungstown, O. He succeeds the late Mr. Fred Carpenter. 

MR. T. DeG. BRABSTON has been appointed assistant freight 
traffic manager of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co., 
of Birmingham, Ala., an office recently created. Mr. Brabston was 
promoted from the position of chief clerk to the superintendent of 
the railway department. 

MR. HOWARD ELDRIDGE, auditor of the Indianapolis & 
Northwestern Traction Co. since it was opened to traffic, has re- 
signed to accept a similar position with the Great Northern Power 
Co., at Duluth, Wis. He is succeeded at Lebanon by Mr. E. M. 
Boykin, of Philadelphia. 

MR. ISAAC SMITH has been appointed chief engineer of tlie 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Co., with headquarters at 
Trenton, O. Mr. Martin Schoenhalls has been appointed master 
mechanic of this company, with headquarters at Trenton, vice Mr. 
L. M. Sheldon, resigned. 

MR. EDWIN HALLIDAY has resigned his position as superin- 
tendent of the Cairo Electric & Traction Co., Cairo, III., and the 
duties of that position will be divided between Mr. Wood Ritten- 
house, chief engineer, and Mr. Edwin T. Aisthorpe, chief clerk to 

the general manager. Mr. Rittenhouse will have charge of car 
barns and electrical equipment, while operating matters will be 
looked after by Mr. .-Visthorpe. 

MR. WILLI.^M R. KING, consulting engineer, formerly of 39 
Cortlandt St., New York, has become associated with Sanderson & 
Porter, 52 William St., New York, January i6th, in the company's 
general practice as consulting engineers and contractors for the de- 
velopment of railway, light, hydraulic and power propositions. 

MR. C. O. SIMPSON, secretary and auditor of the Birmingham 
Railway, Light & Power Co., has been retained as consulting auditor 
by the Meridian (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., and will open the 
books for that company in accordance with the Street Railway 
.Accountant's standards, and advise concerning the accounting depart- 

MR. ROBER r T. GUNN has resigned as general superintendent 
of the Norfolk (Va.) Railway & Light Co. to become general man- 
ager of the Lexington Railway Co., Lexington, Ky., vice Mr. Thomas 
Fitzgerald, jr., resigned. Mr. Fitzgerald has been appointed assist- 
ant to the vice-president of the Cincinnati Traction Co., Cincin- 
nati, O. 

MR. CHARLES M. UL.-^CK, chief engineer of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo., has been appointed general 
manager. He will retain the title of chief engineer, in which capac- 
ity he has served since Sept. 1, 1904. The title of general manager 
has heretofore been held by Mr. Bernard Corrigan, president of the 

MR. GUY C. B.ARTON has been elected president of the Omaha 
& Council Bluffs Street Railway Co., to succeed the late Mr. Frank 
Murphy. Mr. Barton was first vice-president before his recent elec- 
tion and has been succeeded in that position by Mr. G. W. Wattles. 
Mr. M. F. HopRins, of Columbus, O., was elected second vice- 

MR. HENRY C. MORTIMER, JR., of the General Electric In- 
spection Co., has joined the New York office staff of the Crocker- 
Wheeler Co. He will assist Mr. F. B. DeGrass, manager of that 
office, and will succeed Mr. A. J. Thompson, who has accepted a 
position with the New York branch of the Bullock Electric Manu- 
facturing Co. 

MR. CHARLES M.\RK has resigned as master mechanic of the 
Pennsylvania & Mahoning Valley Railway Co., at Youngstown O., 
to become master mechanic of the Sheboygan Light. Power & Rail- 
way Co., Sheboygan. Wis. Prior to his service with the Peimsyl- 
vania & Mahoning Valley Railway Co., Mr. Mark held similar posi- 
tions with the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway Co., and the Albany 
& Hudson Railroad Co. 

MR. EUGENE KLAPP, until recently division engineer of the 
New York Rapid Transit Commission, has been appointed consult- 
ing engineer of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. Mr. Klapp is a 
native of Orange, N. Y., and a graduate of Columbia University 
School of Mines. In 1889 he was appointed chief engineer for the 
South Side Elevated Railroad Co., of Chicago, and in i8g8 he was 
chosen captain of volunteer engineers in the Spanish-.American War. 
After the war, he became manager of the National Constructing Co., 
of New Orleans. 

MR. A. C. FROST, president of the Chicago & Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railroad Co., has been elected president of a new company 
formed to take over the property of the Alaska Central Railway 
Co., which is being built from Seward on Resurrection Bay north- 
wardly to the head of navigation on the Tanana River, a distance 
of 463 miles. There is also a branch 30 miles long to the Matenuaka 
coal fields. The other officers of the company are: General manager 
and chief engineer, W. B. Poland, formerly connected with the Balti- 
more & Ohio; engineer of construction, J. B. Cameron; engineer of 
surveys, George A, Kyle; purchasing agent, Frank Brown; treas- 
urer, F. H. Stewart. The general offices are at Seattle, Wash., and 
Seward, Alaska. 

MR. R. W. KING has assumed charge as general manager of the 
Rapid Transit Co. of Chattanooga, Tenn., succeeding Mr. H. M. 
Littell. Mr. King was formerly at Chattanooga as superintendent of 
this company. Before going to Chattanooga Mr. King was superin- 
tendent of the Wilmington & New Castle Electric Railway Co., 
connecting Wilmington and New Castle, Del., in which capacity he 
served four years, becoming superintendent of the Rapid Transit 
Co. at Chattanooga in 1901. A year later he resigned this position 
and until he returned to Chattanooga as manager was engaged in 

[•"hd. IS. "'"S- 



electric liglil work. The Rapid Transil Co. has termini at Ninth 
and Market Sts and at Broad and Ninth Sts., in Chattanooga, and 
operates lines to all the suburban towns, a line to Chickamaiiga 
Park and two inclines up Lookout Mountain, one to the Lookout 
Inn and the other to the Point Hotel, and also an electric railway 
nn lop of Lookout Mountain. 

MR. ARTHUR L. LINN, JR., has been appointed general man- 
ager of the ■•"airmont & Clarksburg Traction Co., of Fairmont, W. 
Va., having resigned his position as assistant secretary and trcas- 
nrer of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway Co. Mr. Linn has 
heeu assistant secretary and treasurer at Utica for about four years, 
having gone there a( the time the Utica & Mohawk Valley property 
was taken over by a syndicate headed by Mr. John J. Stanley and 
Mr. Horace K. Andrews. Mr. Linn has been associated with Mr. 
Stanley for some 12 years, holding a responsible position with the 
Cleveland Electric Railway Co. prior to his appointment at Utica. 
There arc some 50 coal mines in the territory covered by the trolley 
system in the south with which he became associated on February 
1st and he takes the position at a time when the development of the 
surrounding r(j\nitry is going on rapidly, plans now being under 
consideration for Hie extension of the Fairmont & Clarksburg line 
20 miles. 

MR. W. ELWELL GOLDSPOROUGH, director of the school 
of electrical engineering, Purdue University, and for the past three 
years chief of the Department of Electricity at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, has lately become associated with J. G. White & 
Co., of New York City. Mr. Goldsborough was graduated from 
Cornell University with the mechanical engineering class in 1892, 
and during the succeeding ten years held positions with the Colliery 
Engineering Co., .'Vrkansas University, and Purdue University, at 
which latter school he was assistant professor and later professor 
of electrical engineering and director of the electrical laboratory. In 
connection with his other work, Mr. Goldsborough has carried on 
several series of exhaustive power station and complete electrical 
railway tests, which have been the basis of reports read before the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. He is a member of 
many technical and scientific societies, both in this country and 
abroad, and has the distinction of having been decorated by the King 
of Italy with the Order of Knight of the Crown. 

MR. W. N. STEVENS, who has for some time filled the position 
of assistant mechanical engineer of the Rapid Transit Subway Con- 
struction Co., has accepted a position with J. G. White & Co., New 
York City. Mr. Stevens has had a wide experience as a constructing 
engineer in the designing and active construction of important 
power plants. He had much to do with the design and con- 
struction of the I2th St. power house of New York Edison Co. He 
also has had charge of the design and construction of the mechanical 
equipment of the 74th St. power house, and has lately been engaged 
on the work of designing and building the 59th St. power house, 
nine transformer stations, car barns, shops, and other adjuncts to 
the construction and equipment of the Rapid Transit system in New 
York City. During his professional career, Mr. Stevens has also 
been engaged in engineering undertakings in other parts of this 
country and abroad, he having made both the preliminary and after- 
wards the final plans for the machinery of the po\ver house for the 
tramways of Sydney, Australia. J. G. White & Co. are to be con- 
gratulated in having secured the able services of Mr. Stevens in their 
mechanical engineering department. 

MR. J. M. YOUNT has resigned as superintendent of rolling 
stock for the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and has 
become affiliated with James H. Fogarty, of New York City, in the 
handling of street railway specialties, among which is Mr. Fogarty's 
detachable rim gear. Mr. Yount was graduated from Purdue Uni- 
versity in 1896; he then worked two and a half years in the shops 
and power house of the Citizens' Street Railway Co., of Indianapolis, 
Ind. From there he went to the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., 
New York City, being employed in the construction of the 25th St. 
power house. In May, 1899, he began work with the New Jersey 
Street Railway Co., at Newark, N. J., as foreman of the armature 
room, from which position he rose to that of assistant master 
mechanic, and in January, 1901, he was appointed master mechanic 
of the Jersey City, Hoboken & Paterson Street Ry., at West Ho- 
boken, N. J. In July, 1901, Mr. Yount again took up his work with 
the North Jersey Street Railway Co., at Newark, N. J., as master 
mechanic, which position he held until the Public Service Corpora- 

lion took over the property in May, 1903, when he was appointed 
superintendent of rolling equipment. 


MR. EDWARD HEMPHILL MULLIN died suddenly Wednes- 
day evening, January 25th, at his home, in Milburn, N. J. Mr. 
Mnllin was horn in Castlederg, County 'lyrone, Ireland, Oct. 22, 
1859. He was educated in Belfast where, in 1881, he was given a 
bachelor's degree with honors in physics and chemistry. For the 
ne.xt few year- of hi" liff. Mr Mnllin v.'n':, engaged in editorial 


work in New York City until Feb. I, 1898, when he entered the 
service of the General Electric Co., at first as manager of its adver- 
tising department and later as confidential representative of the 
company. He was a member of many secret, social and cngineermg 
societies. He was a consistent student, and as a writer was dis- 
tinguished for clarity of style and Anglo-Saxon simplicity of diction. 
which made his essays on technical subjects very easy reading. 

New Generators at Hamilton, Ontario. 

The Hamilton Cataract Power, Light & Traction Co. of Hamil- 
ton, Ont., has recently started the two soo-kw. Westinghouse gen- 
erators in its De ("ew Falls power station. Power is supplied from 
Welland Canal feeders, tapped in about 14 miles above the power 
station, and at the station the water has a head of 267 feet. The 
Westinghouse generators are of the two-bearing type, direct con- 
nected to Escher-Wyss water-wheels, and run at a speed of 286 
r. p. m. They generate 3-phase current at a frequency of 66 cycles 
and a pressure of 2,400 volts. The power is transmitted to the 
city of Hamilton where it is used for lighting, street railway and 
manufacturing purposes. A reserve steam-driven station is located 
at Hamilton, which contains two i,ooo-kw. Westinghouse gen- 
erators. The entire station and high tension apparatus are of 
Westinghouse design. The company has two separate three-phase 
transmission lines to Hamilton, a distance of about 35 miles. The 
high tension apparatus is designed for a pressure of 40,000 volts. 
but will be operated for a time at 20,000 volts. Mr. Wm. C. 
Hawkins is general manager of the Hamilton company, and is 
also engineer in charge of the installation. 

It is reported that surveys have been made and construction slakes 
set for the purpose of reducing the curvature of the Fort Wayne & 
Wabash Valley line between Logansport and Fort Wayne. When 
this work is completed this company intends to put on limited cars 
which will make the run between these two cities in 3 hours and 
local service which will run in 3 hours and 20 minutes. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Annual Report of the Massachusetts Board of 
Railroad Commissioners. 

The following data concerning street railways from the 36th 
annual report of the Massachu.setts Railroad Commissioners for the 
year ending Sept. 20, 1904, will be of interest: 

Reports were received from 102 street railway companies operat- 
ing within the state, together with reports from 2 roads operating 
in New Hampshire and i in Connecticut, the latter being owned 

Strei't liailwaii Mileage Owned, 1903 and 1904. 



■ DOI. 


T.,enfEtb of railway line. 
Length of second track. 





ToLtl length of main track, 
Lengt)) of siile track 




Total, reckoned us single track, . 




in Massachuetts. Two new companies were organized under the 
general law and one under the special law. Ten were dropped 
from the list by reason of consolidation with other companies; 
one road was abandoned during construction and one road was 
sold under foreclosure. By reason of consolidation there were at 
the end of the fiscal year 97 existing companies; 66 of these operate 
their railways; five railways were operated by receivers; 19 were 
operated under lease or contract by other companies and in four 
instances by foreign companies; one was in process of construction; 
and five companies had organized and paid in a portion of their 
capital stock but had not yet commenced construction. 

During the last year there have been added to the mileage of 

Gross Assets, September 30, 1903 and 1901. 







Land and buildings. .... 
Other permanent property. 
Cash and current assets, . 
Miscellaneous assets 
















Gross assets, .... 

81:58,864,215 j 8140,843,740 


the Massachusetts companies 32.839 miles of street railway line, 
18.903 miles of second track and 1.838 miles of side track, making 
a total addition of 53.580 miles of track reckoned as single track. 
The total miles of main track (including trackage rights) operated 
is 2654.479, an increase of 33.517 over the previous year. There 
are now owned by the Massachusetts companies 2191.812 miles of 
street railway lines, 382.840 miles of second track and 149.660 miles 
of side track, making a total length of track owned 2724.312 miles. 
This statement excludes subway track. All the street railway 
mileage owned is located in Massachusetts with the exception of 
19.526 miles of track in Rhode Island. All the track owned is sur- 

C'apilal Stock, Xet Income and Dividends, 1895-1904. 


Capital Slock. 

Net Divisible | 



on Total 

Capital Stocl(. 











































, 3,602,917 





j 2,998,114 



face street railway track with the exception of 13.112 miles of 

the Boston Elevated railway. Of the sidings all are surface with the 
exception of 2.903 miles of elevated track. All of the elevated 
track is confined to Boston. There are operated by the Massa- 

chusetts companies 52.591 miles of track located outside of the 

The report shows that the gross assets of tlie companies Sept. 
30, 1904, were $140,843,739.79, and the gross liabilities at the 
same date, including capital stock, were $136,049,485.24. While 
in the past year there was an increase in the gross liabilities of 
$2,928,075, there was an increase in the gross assets of only $1,979,- 
525, thus reducing the aggregate surplus of the companies by the 
amount of $948,550. The aggregate funded debt of the companies 
Sept. 30, 1904, was $46,674,884, an increase of $5,263,384 over the 
preceding year. 

The total amount of capital stock of the 97 companies, Sept. 30, 
1904, was $68,542,037.50, a net increase of $137,558 over the pre- 
ceding year. The total amount of dividends declared during the 
year was $3,214,496.24, a decrease of $371,752 of the preceding year. 

Cost and Capitcd Investment per Mile of Main Track, 1895-1904. 





Total Cost 
per Mile. 

per Mile t 

1895, . 






1896, . 






1897, . 












1S99, . 






1900, . 






1901, . 






1902, . 






1903, . 






1904, . 






' Clileily lauds, bulldiage and power plants, t Outstniidlng capital stock and net debt. 

Thirty-eight out of the 102 companies paid dividends ranging from 
I to II per cent and 64 companies paid or declared no dividends. 

The average cost of street railways of the state per mile of main 
track (including the cost but not the length of side track) at date 
of report was $27,025.14 for construction; $10,176.73 for equipment; 
and $13,105.68 for lands, buildings (including power plants), and 
other permanent property, making a total average cost of $50,307-55 
per mile of main track. 

The total income of the Massachusetts companies from all sources 
for the year ending Sept. 30, 1904, was $27,759,334.51 and the total 
expenditures including dividends were $27,975,717.19, making a net 

Volume of Traffic for Ten Tears, 1895-1904. 


Total Passengers 

.\veraKe Number 

per .Mile of Main J,? .P" 

Tracl, Operated. «""«""• 














loss of $216,382.68 to be deducted from the surplus of previous 
years. The total number of passengers carried by the 102 railway 
companies which made returns to the board for the last year was 
520,056,511, an increase of 15,394,268 passengers over the previous 
year. The total car-mileage was 107,897,456, an increase of 390,644 
over the previous year. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1904, the Massachusetts com- 
panies reported that the whole number of persons injured in con- 
nection with street railway operation was 5,078, of whom 92 received 
fatal injuries and 4,986 injuries not fatal. The number of passen- 
gers injured was 3,372, of whom 21 were injured fatally. 

There were 161 employes injured, 5 fatally. The number of 
travelers injured on the street was 1,542, of which 66 were fatal. 

There are now 415 bridge spans classified as street railway bridges 
by the state bridge engineer. This includes all bridges which either 
have been built or are maintained in whole or in part by street rail- 
way companies, and for which they are therefore in some degree 

Feb, 15, 190SI 



responsible. These may be classified as follows: Forty-two pile 
bridge, 28 wooden trestles, 10 steel trestles, 40 wooden stringers, 
4 braced or trussed wooden stringers, 4 wooden trusses, 6 stone or 
brick arches, ro6 I-beams, 83 plate girders, 76 riveted trusses, 12 
pin connected trusses and 4 movable bridges. 

The report states that the returns of the year arc suggestive: 
Of 74 operating companies, 30 failed to earn expenses and fixed 
charges; 25 paid dividends; and but 14 of these paying dividends 
earned them during the year. Five companies liave been in the 
hands of the receivers. In explaining the cause for the financial 
results shown in the report, the commissioners state that many 
of the roads have been "over built" and that experience has shown 
that with the more expensive roadbed and equipment, the heavier 
rail and larger cars, there has not been the corresponding and ex- 
pected development of permanent business. Operating cost, too, in 

I'errenlarjf <if ()pcrt[tin<j to 

OroHn Eririiiui/s, IS95 



(IroiM KnrrilnfiK 
rfoiii Oiicrntion. 



or Kxpcliitdito 
















4,<il 1,227 

























7, .'.7:1,022 











heating cars and in repair and renewal of plant, has proved larger 
than was expected. With the new accommodation and the nearer 
approach to railroad conditions has come the increased demand 
of the public for expenditures in the interest of safety and comfort 
which had not been counted upon, as for example, in construction of 
double tracks, installment of signal systems and establishment of 
waiting rooms. Hurried along by the natural enthusiasm for the 
new type of railway with its many most attractive features, capital, 
sometimes deliberately misled, has been inves.ted in (undertakings 
for which there was no sufficient demand and which are now rep- 

Qi'O^s and Wet Earniiui.^ from. Operation per Mile of Main Track 
Owned, 1895-1904. 




Expenses of 
















resented by roads run, not only without return upon the invest- 
ment, but at an actual loss of capital. In each case the future 
promises as possible events : the acceptance of an unsatisfactory 
service as better than nothing; an increase in fares; or the aban- 
donment of the railway. It is a source of gratification that under 
our restrictive laws, while capital has taken its own risk as to the 
earning capacity of these enterprises, in no case has there been 
an issue of stock or bonds in excess of the fair cost of the railway 
property, to act as a contributing factor to the existing troubles. 

Another incident of the present situation, is stated, has been the 
enforcement upon certain systems of a seemingly arbitrary distinc- 
tion between the long and short distance ride. The zone system of 
rating fares has never been in favor in Massachusetts. The report 
states that confusion exists in some of the street railway laws in 
consequence of legislation at different times to accomplish specific 
purposes under new conditions without regard to harmony in the 
whole body of the law. Illustrations are given and a recommenda- 

tion made that such statutes be revised upon some simple principle 
which would preserve original juri3<liction in local boards of alder- 
men or selectmen and give supervisory power to the tioard of rail- 
road commissioners as the public good might require. 

OroH' ( Net EamhigH from OperaHon jier Car Mil* /{nn <nnl pfr 
I'mmenijer Curried, ISUH-IUOI 




Oro.. ^"7- 
























1898, . 

24.80 17.11 



1899, . 





1900, . 










1902, . 





1!I03, . 




1904; . 





" • 






















I '<! 

The commissioners review the subject of the absorption of electric 
railways by steam railroads as follows: "A prominent feature in 
the recent history of steam railroads has been the growth of a 
policy favoring the purchase of street railway properties. What- 
ever may be urged against this policy, it may be said in its favor 
that it brings into the conduct of street railway affairs the judg- 

Employees and Eijuijiment, IS'l.'j 










' 4.428 








1897, .:.... 


1 5,344 





1 5,7.34 


































ment and knowledge which come from long experience in dealing 

with transportation problems and as well greater financial strength 
and larger resources. 

"The usefulness of the street railway in bringing people to the 
steam railroad from the different sections of the cities and towns 
which it serves and in distributing them again at the end of the 
railroad journey will be generally recognized. Even where these 
railways have been interurban in character and to some extent 
competitors of the railroads, we doubt if the passing of control 
into the hands of their rivals need be attended by detriment to the 
public interests. The competition between the steam railroad and 

Siiminary of Arcidents Rfiiorted in 190.3 and 1904. 


Other persons. 

Totals, . 







■ 9M. 














3,8! 10 


3.974 S.iWS 

the street railway must eventually end in each system giving to 
the public the service which it is best capable of performing, and 
it is by no means clear that in order to bring this about in the 
wisest way it is at all essential that the competitive conflict be- 
tween these companies be prolonged. The two systems ought to 
work together advantageously under one administration, subject, as 
they would be, to the super\'ision enforced under our statutes, 
changes in service upon one or the other being made only in 
furtherance of a greater comfort and convenience in traveL" 



rVoL. XV, No. 

Selling Car Advertising Space. 

An electric railway company which contemplates the sale of ad- 
vertising space in its cars is confronted by three alternative prop- 
ositions : 

1. It may place the matter in charge of an individual in its own 

2. It may lease the space to a local advertising man. 

3- It may lease the space to a general agent controlling adver 
tising space throughout a large territory. 

Past experience has shown rather conclusively that an individual 
iri the direct employ of a traction company is able to secure only 
local advertising for the car spaces and is so far removed from the 
general national advertisers, that he is seldom able to get into 
proper touch with them. Experience has also shown that the pres- 
ence of national advertisers in the street cars is one of the strongest 
advantages in assisting the local solicitor in securing contracts fioni 
local firms. 

The conditions which confront the solicitor in the direct employ 
of the traction company, confront also the local man who may p.iy 
the traction company a flat sum for the control of its street car 
advertising space. Many companies or individuals whose space 
control is confined to a limited territory have struggled hard for a 
short period, but, lacking the assistance of national advertisers, have 
failed to secure the necessary local advertising to make the space 
pay, and many traction companies have lost money through the 
failure of these local lessees of space. 

In letting their advertisng space the great majority of traction 
companies have found it to their advantage to deal with a reliable 
concern with control of the car advertising privileges throughout a 
large territory. Some of these who control widely distributed space. 
have again found it advisable to place their out of town advertising 
business in the hands of an individual who is thoroughly in touch 
with national advertisers throughout the country. They have made 
an arrangement by which local advertising in the towns under their 
control is handled by their own solicitors, while the accounts of na- 
tional advertisers whose showings in the cars are of valuable assist- 
ance to the solicitor of local advertising, are put in the hands of a 
firm or individual who is in a position to be thoroughly in touch 
with them. 

An interesting outgrowth of this condition has been the business 
of Barron G. Collier, who directly controls the car advertising leases 
in the Southern towns from Baltimore and Washington to San 
Antonio, Texas, and as a broker, represents the national advertising 
privileges in some 350 towns. 

The advantages of securing the aid of experienced men in this 
line appear in the saving of bother in arranging details,as well as 
in the general financial results. 

of tape, together with a number of testimonials regarding this mate- 
rial, may be had by addressing the manufacturer at any one of the 
district offices. 

Tape for Electrical Usage. 

Any friction tape which will withstand the test of use in the elec- 
trical field must be good material, some of the important qualities 
are : The rolls must be so constructed that they will unwind 
smoothly and thus help toward making a neat, close-fitting joint. 
The tape must have exceptional adhesive qualities so that, when the 
lap is but small, a firm joint will still be made. The composition 
with which the tape is covered must be able to stand extreme heat 
for long periods and yet retain its stickiness, not drying out easily. 
The insulation resistance must be comparatively high and should be 
uniform throughout all the tape, so that when the necessary number 
of wraps is once determined, this number will always suffice for the 
required insulation. In order that this last may be accomplished there 
must be an uncommonly high percentage of insulation composition 
withheld among the fibers of the tape. 

The Morgan &. Wright Co., of Chicago, has been manufacturing 
tape since the early days, when rubber tires were first used, and 
therefore has had a long experience in the methods which are 
necessary to give a tape desirable characteristics. 

The brands of tape made by this company are offered to the trade 
as of uniform excellence, and so particularly adapted to electrical 
usage that the company has a steadily increasing business among 
the largest and most exacting tape users in the country. A neat 
folder, containing 6-in. samples of the "Perfection" and the "X" brands 

Only One (irand Prize to Air Compressors. 

The value of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in the promotion 
of commerce and manufactures is illustrated, in one instance, by the 
fact that the two large compressors in Machinery Hall, which fur- 
nished all compressed air used at the Exposition, were both sold 
before the closing day. The larger one goes to Shaft No. 3 of the 
Doe Run Lead Co., at Central, Mo., and the smaller one to the city 
of Columbia, Mo., for the air-lift water supply system. The first 
machine received the only grand prize awarded at the Exposition 
for air compressors. It has a capacity of 1,300 cu. ft. of free air 
per minute when running at 125 revolutions, and is distinguished by 
several novel features, the most important of which' is the Cincin- 
nati valve gear. By this the opening and closing of the admission 
and the closing of the exhaust are controlled mechanically, while 
the opening of the exhaust is determined by poppet valves, thus per- 
mitting high speed without throttling of the air and wear and rat- 
tling of the valves. The smaller machine is fitted with mechanically- 
moved inlet valves and is rated at a displacement of 500 cu. ft. per 
minute. Its good workmanship and perfect operation at the Exposi- 
tion so much impressed the officials of the city of Columbia that they 
countermanded an order on another manufacturer in order to take 
this compressor. The machines were built by the Laidlaw-Dunn- 
Gordon Co., of 114 Liberty St., New York City. 

Exhibit of the Goldschmidt Thermit Co. 


The United States Government has recently requested the Gold- 
schmidt Thermit Co. to present its exhibit, which received a grand 
prize at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to the National Museum 
at Washington, D. C, with which request the company has complied, 
and the entire exhibit will be advantageously arranged and placed 
in the museum. 

The collection gives a complete picture of various applications 
of alumino-thermics and consists of: Large and bulky pieces of 
pure, rare metal, free from carbon, such as chromium, manganese, 
molybdenum, ferro-vanadium, ferro-titanium and others; diagrams 
and models showing the numerous applications developed by Dr. 
Hans Goldschmidt, of his process of utilizing the heat of "Thermit;" 
numerous pieces of welded girder rails, showing the very success- 
ful operations performed by this process in joining and fusing iron 
and steel, and models and specimens of the appliances used. 

The Goldschmidt Thermit Co. gives from this collection with con- 
siderable regret, but felt that the fact that the embodiment of the 
progress made in a few years in the alumino-thermic science would 
find a permanent home in the National Museum warranted it in 
making the sacrifice. 

Lengthening the Life of Motor Brushes. 

The Hiko Co., Allenhurst, N. J., has placed upon the market a 
full line of carbon brushes, treated with its well known "Hiko" 
compound, which for some time has enjoyed a large sale among 
leading foreign electrical firms. 

On account of the difficulty in reaching the commutators of en- 
closed street railway motors, the manufacturers of "Hiko" treat 
carbon brushes suitable for all classes of motors, and furnish them 
direct to the trade. It is claimed that brushes which have been 
treated with "Hiko" greatly reduce the commutator friction, insure 
better contact, and have double the life of the untreated brushes. 
In a recent test made by an eastern road to determine the life of 
treated and untreated brushes, one motor on a car was fitted with 
brushes without the treatment, while the other motor used brushes 
which had been treated with the compound. It was found necessary 
to replace the untreated brushes after the car had run 5,300 miles, 
but the treated brushes were left on until the car had traveled 9,830 
miles. The inanufacturer states that the treated brushes would 
easilv have stood 10,000 more miles of service. 

I'KJi. 1 5, "/>5 I 



Report of the Connecticut Railroads. 

TIic fifly-sccoiul annual icpoil (i{ llic Hoard of Railroad CoInnn^- 
sioners of Connccticnl, containing tlic reports of llic operation of 
the steam railroad and street railway companies for the year ending 
June 30, 1004, has jnst heen issued in book form as a state public 
document No. 12. The report consists of 360 pages, together with 
an appendix of no pages, which is a reprint of the laws relating 
especially to railroads, Maps of the steam and electric railways in 
Connecticut are included in the report. In the sections of this book 
devoted to street railways, the organization of the Consolidated Rail- 
way Co. is first considered. Next arc described the different rail- 
ways and extensions, the construction of which the commission has 
approved during the last year. 

There were in Connecticut at the dale of this re[)iirt 5'io.24- miiIl"; 
nf first main track; 109.087 miles of second main track, making the 
Intal length of main tracks 669.334 miles; length of sidings and turn- 
outs, 31.512 miles; total computed as single track, 700.855 miles. 

In introducing the financial reports of the Connecticut railway 
companies the commissioners say that because so many of the coni- 
lianics arc chartered to operate gas, electric light, power and water 
plants, in connection with their railways, and because the stocks and 
bonds of these companies are issued upon the property as a whole, 
that there is great difficulty in determining what portion of the ex- 
pense should be chargeable to operation of the street railway, and 
what to the other parts of the property. This combination of pur- 
poses in one corporation plays havoc with the average street railway 
statistics, but it was made to appear to the General Assembly that 
the public interests would be better and more economically sulj- 
scrvcd by permitting it to be done. 

The total capital stock of the street railway companies outstand- 
ing is $30,659,748. representing 631.825 miles of street railway owned; 
also, in some instances, gas and electric properties. If this stock 
was all considered as applicable to street railways, it would show 
the average stock per mile to be $48,525. The total bonded debt of 
the same companies is $22,207,342. This shows an issue of $34,609.58 
per mile. As a matter of fact, the bonds cover only 610.620 miles 
of the roads owned which shows an average bonded indebtedness 
of $36,680.43 per mile on the roads so covered. The floating indebt- 
edness of the companies is $2,540,189.30, and the total stock, bonds 
and floating indebtedness is $55,407,279.57. The cost of construction 
and equipincnt reported is $55,570,086.57, which includes the cost of 
street railways, gas and electric light properties. 

When reduced to the basis of cost per mile for a street railway 
this amount varies between $15,000 and $165,000 per mile. The gross 
earnings for the past year were $4,924,151.46, being $420,580.17 more 
than the preceding year. The gross earnings per mile of road oper- 
ated were $7,187.20, and per car-mile run 21.64 cents. The number 
of miles operated was 685.128. The gross earnings per car-hour were 
$.!.2,V The New London Street Railway Co. reported the largest 
gross earnings per mile operated, which were $10,819.24. The oper- 
ating expenses of the Connecticut roads for the year were $3,287,- 
II3-55, being an increase of $122,514.48 over the previous year, which 
is $4,797.81 per mile operated and $0.1445 per mile run. The operat- 
ing expenses were 66.75 per cent of the gross earnings. 

The net earnings for the year were $1,637,037.91, as compared with 
$1,3.18.972.22 for the preceding year, and were $2,389.39 per mile of 
road operated and 7.19 cents per car-mile run. Eight roads paid 
$120,050 in dividends upon capital stock amounting to $1,900,000. 
while no dividends were reported as paid on $28,759,748 of capital 
stock. This is $249,766.24 less than the amount paid last year, which 
is principally due to the fact that no dividends were paid by one road 
whose dividends last year amounted to $245,486. The sum of $876,- 
659 in interest was paid on a total bonded and floating indebtedness 
amounting to $24,747,531.57. The amount of taxes paid to the state 
by the various companies was $260,046.07. 

The number of car-miles run as reported was 22,750,560. which is 
1.720,671 more than last year. 

The number of fare passengers carried was 93,111,402, which is 
a decrease of 3,746,380, as compared with the year before. The 
number of fare passengers per mile run was 4.09, or a total of 
I35.903 fare passengers per mile of track operated. The number of 
employes was 3,297, averaging about 4.8 per mile of road operated. 

The number of persons injured in the operation of the Connecticut 
street railways during the past year was 383. compared with 370 for 

the previous year, of which number 23 were killed, four more than 
last year. The number of passengers injured was 212, of which 
number 4 were killed; the number of employees injured 20, of which 
number 2 were killed and the number of other persons injured 151, 
of which number 17 were killed. 

Summary of Tablci Refcrrlnir to Strcei Rallwaya. 

CapUal Htock oulntaniHilur 

HmikIk (iiitHtanditiif 

Floatiiik' inclcl)tt'(lnc)iH 

CoHt of conHtruclion and e/iuipmcnt . . . 

(;roKH i.*arnJiii;H 

Opi-ratintf fxpi'nsfH 

Nrl rarnin(fH 

I)i vidclidH 

lnti;reHt paid 

TaxcH paid Slalf 

Ivi-Mi,'lli of road exclUKivi; of Nidin^H. ... 

f.>-ni.'lli of road Incltidintr Hidiit(f8 


Kan- pa-sHi'ti^'Cfi c.irricd , 

NunibcT of imijiloyces 

Nuinl)er of persodH ia^ured fatally.... 
Number of pcrsonn injured, not fatally 



















3,2K7,1 13.55 






































Very complete statistics are given in this report, showing the 
finances, costs of construction and equipment, operating expenses, 
taxes, interest and dividends paid, mileage owned and passengers 
carried throughout the year, a summary of these statistics being 
given herewitb. There arc 200 pages of this report used in the detail 
exhibits of the financial conditions and results of operation of each 
of the Connecticut street railways. 

The report concludes with a reprint of the Connecticut statutes 
relating especially to railroads, and is signed by Washington F. Wil- 
cox (chairman), Wm. O. Seymour and Orsamus R. Fyler, Railroad 

Windsor & Tecumseh Electric Railway Co. 

The Windsor & Tecumseh Electric Railway Co., which was in- 
corporated by a special act of the legislature of Ontario, March 17, 
1904, has recently taken over the interest of the Ontario Traction 
Co., Ltd., which was organized in the fall of 1903. The new line 
will be operated from the post office in Windsor to and through 
Walkerville, Sandwick and Tecumseh, a distance of 10 miles, with 
a line to the factory district of Walkerville. The construction of 
the road has been commenced and S of the lO' miles are now ready 
for ties and steel. Except within the cities where the company has 
secured franchises in the street, the right of way is private and 40 
ft. wide for nearly the entire length of the line. The general 
ofl!ices of the company are at Walkerville, Out., in the Canadian Bank 
of Commerce Building. The officers of the company are : Presi- 
ilent, C. M. Walker; vice-president and general manager, Willis 
F. Brown; secretary, J. H. Cobum; treasurer, E. F. Ladore. Mr. 
Willis F. Brown, who was one of the original incorporators and di- 
rectors of the company, and was appointed general manager and 
chief engineer at the time of its organization, is a man of con- 
siderable ability and to him is due a large part of the success 
the company has met with. Since 1879 he has been connected 
with the Clover Leaf Route as division engineer; assistant en- 
gineer of the Wheeling & Lake Erie Bridge Co., of Toledo; assist- 
ant engineer of the Toledo Belt Ry. ; chief engineer of the Cleve- 
land, Delphos & St. Louis Ry. ; assistant engineer of the L. S. & 
M. S. Ry. ; assistant chief engineer of the C. H. & D. Ry., and 
twice elected city engineer of Toledo, O. Since his retirement as 
city engineer in 1901, he has been connected with various traction 
interests, among which are the Cincinnati. Toledo & Detroit Short 
Line, the Toledo, Bay Shore & Michigan Ry. and the Georgia Trac- 
tion Co. 

.Arrangements are being completed for a through freight service 
over the lines of the Cleveland. Painesville & Eastern and the Cleve- 
land, Painesville & Ashtabula traction lines between Cleveland and 
Ashtabula. The companies will each operate freight cars and will 
run them through over the lines of the other company. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Directory of Street Railway Associations. 

President W. Caryl Ely. president International Railway Co.. 
Buffalo N. Y First Vice-President. Elwln C. Foster, president 
New Orleans Railways Co.. New Orleans. La. Second yice-Pres- 
dent John I Beggs, president and general manager The Milwau- 
kee ElectHcRanway & Light Co.. Milwaukee. Wis. Third Vice- 
President. Richard McCulloch. assistant general manager S^ Louis 
Transit Co.. St. Louis. Mo. Secretary and Treasurer. T C. Pen- 
ington treasurer Chicago City Railway Co.. Ch.cago, 111 Execu- 
tlv'e Committee: The President, the Vice-Presidents, W.G. Ross, 
president Street Railway Accountants Association: C. ,£•„ Bakei . 
president American Railway Mechanical and Electrical Associat on. 
ex officio, and John J. Stanley, general manager Cleveland Eler- 
t?ic Railway Co.. Cleveland, Ohio; Howard F. Grant, manager 
Seattle Electric Co.. Seattle, Wash.: C. G. Goodrich, vice-president 
Twin Citv Rapid Transit Co.. Minneapolis. Minn.; Frank G. Jones, 
vice-president and general manager Memphis Street Railway Cp-. 
Memphis. Tenn.; W. E. Harrington, general superintendent Public 
Service Corporation of New Jersey. Camden. N. J. 
Next mi-eting, Phil.Tdelphia. Pa., week of Sept. 25. 1905. 

President. W. G. Ross, managing director Montreal Street Rail- 
way Co., Montreal. Quebec. First Vice-President. Frank R. Henrv^ 
auditor St. Louis Transit Co., St. Louis. Mo. Second Vice-Presi- 
dent Isaac McQuilkin. comptroller Indiana Union Traction Co.. An- 
derson. Ind. Third Vice-President. J. W. Lester, treasurer W^orces- 
ter Consolidated Street Railway Co., Worcester, Mass. Secretary and 
Treasurer, Elmer M. White, cashier Hartford Street Railway Co.. 
Hartford. Conn. Executive Committee: The officers and F. E. Smith, 
auditor for receivers Chicago Union Traction Co., Chicago, 111.; G. B. 
Willcutt, treasurer United Railroads of San Francisco. San Francisco. 
Cal • Arthur L. Linn, Jr., assistant secretary and treasurer, Utlca 
& Mohawk Valley Railway Co.. Utica, N. Y. : P. S. Young, comp- 
troller Public Service Corporation of New Jersey. Newark. N. J. 

Next meeting. Philadelphia. Pa., week of Sept. 25. 1905. 
President. C. F. Baker, superintendent motive power and machin- 
ery Boston Elevated Railway Co.. Boston. Mass. First Vice-Presi- 
dent H H. Adams, superintendent of shops The United Railways 
& Electric Co. of Baltimore. Baltimore. Md. Second Vice-President. 
John Millar, master mechanic International Railway Co.. Buffalo. 
iV Y Third Vice-President. F. G. Simmons, 'superintendent of way 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.. Milwaukee. Wis. Secre- 
tary and Treasurer. S. W. Mower, division superintendent Rapid 
Railway System. Detroit United Railways. Detroit. Mich. Execu- 
tive Committee: The Officers and D. F. Carver, chief engineer rail- 
way department Public Service Corporation of New Jersey. Newark. 
N 'j. : J. S. Dovle. master mechanic Interborough Ranid Transit 
Co. New York. N. Y. : C. C. Lewis, chief engineer Schenectady 
Railway Co,. Schenectady. N. Y.; W. H. McAloney. superintendent 
of shop's Denver CItv Tramwav Co., Denver. Colorado. 
Next meeting. Philadelphia. Pa., week of Sept. 25. 1905. 
President W A Dibhs, general claim agent New York City Rail- 
way Co New York N. Y. Vice-President. E. W. O'Connor, claim 
adjuster Savannah Electric Co., Savannah, Ga. Secretary and 
Treasurer B. B. Davis, claim agent Columbus Railway & Light 
Co. Columhus. Ohio. Executive Committee: The President, chair- 
man ex officio, the Secretary, and W. H. Renaud. Jr.. claim agent 
New Orleans Railwavs Co.. New Orleans. La.: William White, claim 
agent Chicago Citv Railway Co.. Chicago. 111.: J. P. Feeney. claim 
agent Puhllc Service Corporation of New Jersey. Newark. N. J. 

Next meeting. Philadelphia. Pa., week of Sept. 25. 1905. 
Daniel M Bradv. president Bradv Brass Co.. New York. Chairman: 
Tohn A Brill, vice-president J G. Brill Co . Philadelphia: William J. 
Cooke vice-president McGuIre-Cummlngs Manufacturing Co.. Chica- 
go- Fred S Kenfleld. president Kenfleld Publishing Co.. Chicago: 
Charles K King, secretary Ohio Brass Co.. Mansfield, O.: George J. 
Kobusch president St. Louis Car Co.. St. Louis; John R. Lovejoy. 
manager Rallwav Department. General Electric Co.. Schenectady; 
Howard F Martin, general manager of sales. Pennsylvania Steel Co., 
Philadelphia- James H. McGraw. president McGraw Publishing Co.. 
New York: John W. Nute. president and manager St. Louis Car 
Wheel Co St Louis; Frank C. Randall, vice-president National Elec- 
tric Co Milwaukee: Newton Carlton, Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co New York: William Wbartnn, .1r.. president William 
Wharton jr. & Co.. Inc.. Philadelphia: W. H. Whiteside, general 
manager' of sales. Allis-Chalmers Co.. Chicago: E. M. Williams, di- 
rector Sherwin-Williams Co.. Cleveland. " 

E H Baker. Chairman Finance Committee. Galena Signal Oil Co.. 

2fi Brnadwav. New York City. C. O. Price. Chairman Entertainment 

Committee General Electric Co.. Boston. ^ .„ , , 

George Keegan. assistant to general manager Interborough Rapid 

Transit Co.. Room 2302, No. 15 Park Row, New York City, secretary. 

President John A. Beeler. vice-president and general manager Den- 
ver City Tramwav Co.. Denver. Col. Vice-president. C. E. Doollttle. 
vice-president and manager The Roaring Fork Electric Light & 
Power Co. Aspen. Col. Secretary and treasurer, George B. Tripp, 
general manager Colorado Springs Electric Co.. Colorado Springs. 
Col Executive Committee: The officers and Wm. Mayher. treasurer 
and manager Greelev Power & Light Co.. Greeley. Col.: J. F. Vail. 
general manager, Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting Co.. 
Pueblo. Col. . J .J ^ 

Date and place of next meeting not decided upon. 

President. C. Loomls Allen, general manager Utlca & Mohawk 
Vallev Ry Utica. N Y. First Vice-President. J. H. Pardee, presi- 
dent "Ontario Light & Traction Co.. Canandalgua. N. Y. Second 
Vice-President. A. B. Colvln. president Hudson Valley Railway Co.. 
Glens Falls N. Y. Secretary and Treasurer. William W. Cole, vice- 
president and genera! manager Elmlra Water. Light & Railroad 
Co Elmlra. N. Y. Executive Committee: E. G. Connette. vice- 
president and general manager Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway 
Co Syracuse N. Y. : R. E. Danforth. general manager Rochester 
Rallwav Co.. Rochester. N. Y.; B. B. Nostrand. jr.. president Peek- 
skill Lighting & Railroad Co.. Peeksklll. N. Y. : E. F. Peck, general 
manager Schenectady Railway Co.. Schenectady. N. Y. 

Next meeting at Niagara Falls. Sept. 12-13. 1905. 


President. F. B. Musser. general manager Harrlsburg Traction Co. 
Secretary, C. H. Smith, superintendent Lebanon Valley Street Rail- 
way Co, Lebanon, Pa. Treasurer. W. H. Lanlus, president York 
Traction Co. 


President Edward P. Shaw. Newburyport. First Vice-President. 
Francis H Dewey. Worcester. Second Vice-President. Robert S. 
Goff Fall River. Treasurer. Fred H. Smith. Quincy. Secretary, 
Charles S, Clark. Boston. Executive Committee: The President, the 
Vice-Presidents and H. H. Crapo. New Bedford; P. F. Sullivan. 
Lowell; W. S. Loomls. Holyoke: W. W. Sargent. Fitchburg; R. T. 
Laffln. Worcester. Auditing Committee: Charles F. Grosvenor. Pal- 
mer; George W. Cook. Springfield; H. C. Page. Pittsfleld. 


President. John B. Carrlngton. vice-president Fair Haven & West- 
vllle Railroad Co.. New Haven. Conn. Vice-president. A. M. Young, 
president Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co.. Bridgeport. Conn. 
Treasurer, E S. Goodrich, president Hartford Street Railway Co., 
Hartford, Conn. Secretary. E. W. Poole, assistant treasurer and as- 
sistant secretary Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co.. Bridgeport. 
Conn. Executive Committee: The officers and J. E. Sewell. general 
manager Connecticut Railwav &- Lighting Co.. Bridgeport. Conn.; C. 
S. Treadwav. president Bristol & Plalnvllle Tramway Co.. Bristol, 
Conn.: Walter Learned, president New London Street Railway Co.. 
New London. Conn. 

Date and place of next meeting not decided upon. 


President. George B. Hinpee. general manager Des Moines City 
Railway Co.. Des Moines. Vice-President. J. F. Lardner. general man- 
ager Tri-Clty Railway Co.. Davenport. Secretary and Treasurer, L. 
D. Mathes. general manager Union Electric Co., Dubuque. Executive 
CImmlttee: The officers of the association. 

Next meeting at Dubuque, spring of 1905. 


President. W. G. Ross, managing director Montreal Street Railway 
Co.. Montreal. Canada. Vice-president. "W. H. Moore, assistant to the 
president of the Toronto Railway Co.. Toronto. Canada. Secretary- 
treasurer. Allan H. Royce. vice-president Toronto Suburban Street 
Railway Co.. Toronto Junction. Canada. Attorney. Col. H. H. McLean, 
K. C. director St. John Railway Co.. St. John. New Brunswick. Exec- 
utive Committee: The President. Vice-president and C. E. A. Carr, 
general manager London Street Railway Co.. London. Ontario; E. A. 
Evans, general manager and chief engineer Quebec Railway. Light & 
Power Co.. Quebec; Duncan McDonald, manager Montreal Street Rail- 
way Co.. Montreal, 

Annual meeting, first week in June: other meetings, first week In 
September, December and March. 

President. Charles L. Henry, president and general manager In- 
dianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. Vice Presi- 
dent. J. W. Chipman. general manager Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. Secretary. Paul H. White, general man- 
ager Indianapolis 5: Martinsville Rapid Transit Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. 
Treasurer. W. F. Milholland. treasurer Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. Executive Committee: A. Iv. Drum, 
general manager Indiana Union Traction Co., Anderson. Ind.; C. C. 
Reynolds, general manager Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction 
Co.. Indianapolis. Ind.: Gardner F. W'ells. general manager Terrc 
Haute Traction & Light Co.. Terre Haute. Ind, Finance Commit- 
tee: Charles Murdock. president Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Trac- 
tion Co.. Ft. "Wayne. Ind.; W. G. Irvin. general manager Indianapolis. 
Columbus & Southern Traction Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. 
Regular meetings on the second Thursday of each month. 
President. C, H. Williams. Madison. Wis. First vice-president. R. 
N. Kimball. Kenosha. Wis. Second vice-president. H. Almert. Oak 
Park. Ill, Secretarv-treasurer. Thomas R. Mercein. Milwaukee. Wis. 
Directors: P. H. Korst. Janesville. Wis.; Ernest Gozenbach. Sheboy- 
gan. Wis.: H. R. Gille. St. Paul. Minn. 
Annual meeting. January. 1906. 

President. E. E. Potter, general superintendent I^nlon Street Rail- 
way Co.. New Bedford. Mass. Vice-presidents for States: Paul 
Winsor. Boston. Mass.: Norman McD. Crawford. Hartford. Conn.: 
L. N. Wheelock Claremonf, N. H. : A. .T. Crosby. Springfield. Vt. : 
J. E. Thielsen. Providence. H. I.: George E. Macomher. .Augusta. Me. 
Secretarv. John .T. Lane, editor Street Railwav Bulletin. 12 Pearl St.. 
Boston. Mass. Treasurer. N. L. Wood, with Frank Ridlon Co.. Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

President. Edward C. Spring, general superintendent Dayton. Cov- 
ington & Piqua Traction Co.. Dayton, o. vice-president. Warren 
F. Bicknell. president Lake Shore Electric Railwav Co.. Cleveland. 
Secretary. F. "W. Coen. general freight agent. Lake Shore Electric 
Railway Co.. Cleveland O. Treasurer. R. E. DeWeese. superin- 
tendent Dayton ,R- Northern Traction Co., Dayton. Executive Com- 
mittee: F. J. .T. SIORt. general manager Cincinnati. Dayton & Toledo 
Traction Co.. Hamilton; F. D Carpenter, general manager Western 
Ohio Railway Co.. Lima: J. R. Harrlgan. general manager Newark 
(^ Granville Street Railway Co., Newark; T\'. B. Tarklngton. general 
superintendent Detroit. Monroe & Toledo Short Line. Monroe; F. J. 
Green, general manager Springfield. Trov t^ Piqua Rallwav Co.. 
Springfield. Finance Committee: The president and J. H. Merrill, 
auditor Western Ohio Railway Co.. TJma. and A. W. Anderson, 
superintendent Dayton & Xenia Transit Co.. Dayton. 
President. Leon .Tanssen. Secretary General. P. t'Serstevens. 6 Im- 
passe, due Pare. Brussels. Belgium. 

President. Alfred Baker. Esq., general manager Birmingham Corpo- 
ration Tramways, 254 Corporation St.. Birmingham. Vice-president. W. 
M. Murphv. Esq.. chairman of the Dublin United Tramwavs Co.. Ltd., 
39 Dame St.. Dublin. Secretary. Ernest Benedict. Esq.. M. T. C. E.. 
Chin House. Surrey St.. Strand, W. C. The offices of the association 
are at Clun House. Surrey St.. Strand. W C. James W. Courtenay, 
Esq.. managing director of the Tramway & Railway World. Amber- 
lev House, Norfolk St.. Strand. W. C, Is secretary to the Tramways 
exhibition to be held In 1906. 

President, C. R. Bellamy, Esq.. A. M. I. C. E.. Liverpool Corporation 
Tramwavs. 6 Sir Thomas St.. Liverpool Vice-president. A. Baker. 
Esq.. Birmingham Corporation Tramways. 25'la Corporation St.. Bir- 
mingham. Secretary and treasurer. J. M. McEIroy. Esq.. ,55 Piccadilly. 
Manchester. Execu'tl-vre Committee: J. Aldworth. Esq.. general man- 
ager Nottingham Corporation Tramways: Councillor Boyle, chairman 
tramway committee Manchester Corporation Tramways; A. R. Fearn- 
lev. Esq.. general manager. Sheffield Corporation Tramways: A. L. C. 
Fell. Esq.. chief officer London County Council Tramways; P. Fisher, 
Esq.. manager Dundee Corporation Tramways; .T. B. Hamilton. Esq.. 
general manager Leeds Corporation Tramways; Bailie Paton, Esq.. 
chairman tramway committee. Glasgow Corporation Tramways; Coun- 
cillor Smlthson. chairman tramway committee. Leeds Corporation 
Tramways; C. J. Spencer, general manager Bradford Corporation 

Feb. 15. 'SOS- 1 



lohii Stephenson Car anil Truck Plant Sold. 

'Ilu- final anaiiKciiicnt (n l;il<c over the large plant of the John Kli/aljclh, N. J., was consinnnialed Jan. 18, 1905, 
by parlies connected with the J. C. Brill Co., of Philadelphia. A com- 
plete transfer of all the capital stock has been made to the new 
owners, and the work on the orders now in hand will be contiinied 
without interniplion. The new company, which will do business 
under llie old name, has the following officers: William II. Ilenl- 
nigs, jr., president; Samuel M. Curwen, vice-president; James Rawlc, 
Ireasnrcr, and J. G. Root, secretary and assistant treasurer. Peter 
M. Kling, who has been the general manager for several years, and 
b: I Lawless, sales agent, are retained in the same capacity. Mr. 

llculings. the new president of the 
.Stephenson company, has been iden- 
lified with the J. G. Brill Co. since he 
left school, entering the employ of 
the company at the age of 14 years 
as a stenographer, and has, through 
his integrity, industry and ability, 
risen to the position of vice-president 
of the Brill company and president 
of the Stephenson company. As the 
same interests have already taken 
over the Brownell Car Co. and 
American Car' Co. of St. Louis, and 
the G. C. Kuhlman Car Co., of 
Cleveland, rumors to the effect that 
there would be a general consolida- 
w. 11. HEULINGS, JR. (jq,, q,- _.,]] ji,j. ^^^. huilding interests 

in the United States have been current. We can state positively that 
no such thing is contemplated, and that the purpose of the pur- 
chases is simply to reduce freight rates and afford better facilities 
for conducting business. The companies are organized separately, 
and other than being licensees of the Brill patented cars and trucks 
and specialties, have as companies no connection with the J. G. 
Brill Co. 

The Stephenson plant at Elizabeth is comparatively new, the com- 
pany moving there from New York about five years ago. The plant 
is in the southern suburbs of the town on a tract of 89 acres, and 
covers one-fourth of this area. The works are accessible to the 
principal railroads of the east, have a water front on Staten Island 
and are also in the heart of an unsurpassed labor market, both as to 
skill and quantity. It is conceded that the company has one of the 
best manufacturing sites in the vicinity of New York Harbor. The 
shops have every modern improvement, and the latest types of elec- 
trically driven machinery. During the last three years the capacity 
of the plant has been tripled. 

John Stephenson, the founder of the company, is known as the 
father of American street railway industry. He designed and built 
the first street railway car in 1831. He also developed the type of 
horse car with which all cities and countries are familiar, and was 
the first in the field when cable and electric cars were adopted. 
During his life he built over 25,000 cable and electric cars. Since 
his death the business of the company has steadily increased, and 
today Stephenson cars can be found in all parts of the world. 

The company exhibited at the St. Louis Exposition a car weighing 
108,000 lb., the largest electric car ever built. The car is capable of 
running at a speed of two miles per minute, and is mounted on the 
first six-wheeled trucks made for electric service. 

The Lundell Universal Motors. 

A new motor for repair shop work and similar use has recently 
been placed upon the market by the National Electric Co. That the 
advent of this motor in the direct current field is a noteworthy de- 
velopment in the art of construction has been proved at several 
severe tests carried on before the public. During these tests the 
motors have shown a remarkable efticiency and rapid adjustment to 
serious change in load. 

It may be of interest to describe, in a general way, this new form 
of motor construction. The frame of the Lundell motor consists of 
two cast iron housings, which contain laminated yoke rings and 
support the bearing brackets. The rear one of these housings has 
cast upon it four hollow extension arms of rather heavy cross sec- 

tion, accurately bored 10 engage and support the yoke lamina- 
tions which are assembled between the two halves of the frame. 
'I'hcsc two halves arc clamped tightly and rigidly against the yoke 
laminations by bolts, and when bolted together, the entire frame 
possesses exceptional stiffness which is in no way dependent upon 
the laminations, and at the same time the overall dimensions of 
the magnet yoke are not exceeded. 

The yoke of the motor is its distinguishing characteristic. The 
Lundell laminated yoke is built up of punched mild steel rings, se- 
cured and accurately centered in the rigid frame just described. 
rhe outer and inner perimeters of these rings arc concentric circles. 
I'he pole pieces are separately punched from the same material as 
ihe yoke rings and are provided with end plates of a design which 
furnishes ventilating ducts to dissipate the heat generated in the 
field coils. These end plates are tapped and retaining bolts pass 
through the frames accurately clamping the pole core into a posi- 
tion of rigid contact with the inner circumference of the yoke rings, 
liy removing these bolts the pole pieces and field coils can then 
readily be taken off. 

In machines of this type up to 60 h. p. it is not necessary to in- 
troduce ventilation into the center of the armature as the losses in 
these machines are exceptionally low. The foregoing characteristic 
of the Lundell "Universal" motor enables it to save space which 
other types of motors must use, and the extremely low losses also 
make it possible to enclose these motors at lower temperature rises 
than is possible with motors in which the losses are greater and the 
temperature rise consequently higher. The armature coils are form 
wound and are separately insulated independently of slot insulation. 


The commutators are built on the lines of the standard street rail- 
way practice giving a rigid support to the bars. The commutator 
shells are ventilated through their centers, which construction aids 
in securing cool running of the commutators. 

A new principle is involved in the brush device of this motor, 
namely : the placing of two carbon brushes in tandem on one stud. 
I he total brush surface in this construction is the same as though 
the brushes were side by side, hut as any irregularity in the commu- 
tator does not lift both tandem brushes from the commutator at 
the same time a better contact and therefore, a cooler, smoother 
running commutator is obtained. For variable speed work the brush 
at the leaving edge is made of high resistance carbon to Uke care 
of the sparking conditions and the other brush of high conductivity 
to care for the current, which combination is successful. 

The Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co. has in force a 
modified "Brown" system of discipline, with the workings of which 
it is very well satisfied. The principal point of difference in the 
scheme as adopted at Birmingham lies in the preponderance of the 
merits as compared to the demerits. Employes are not discharged 
on their merit and demerit record, but for special offenses only. 
The advantage, therefore, of die merit and demerit record, as this 
company keeps it, is to differentiate among the good men rather than 
among the poor ones, as this is shown by their individual records 
on which appear credit balances of merits. 



[Vol. XV, No. 2. 

Miller Anchors. 

The accompanying illustration is that of the Miller anchor for 
railway wrecking purposes, together with auger for setting them. 
These anchors can be set in from 30 to 40 minutes, eight feet deep, 
and will stand a strain of 40 to 50 tons. The anchors are made 
in three sizes. 10x25 in., with i'4-\n. rod, 9 ft. long; 10x30 in., 

eluding several controlled by the British Electric Traction Co., Ltd., 
and have given very satisfactory results. 

The sales office of the American Ventilating Co. is at 15 CortUlndt 
St., New York City, and the officers of the company are : Presi- 
dent, Anderson Fowler ; secretary, Richard B. Kelly, who is vice- 
president of the Fifth National Bank ; treasurer and general man- 
ager, H. M. Shaw. 


with iH-m. rod, 9 ft. long; 10x30 in., with ili-in. rod, 9 ft. long. 
The anchors are made of cast iron and the rods of wrought iron. 
The anger has a 9- ft. stem, one inch in diameter, with an adjustable 
handle, as the anger goes down the handle can he moved up the 

The Miller Anchor Co., Norwalk, O., wliich manufactures these 
wrecking anchors, also manufactures a line of smaller anchors for 
anchoring guy wires to telephone and trolley poles, together with a 
combination auger with two boring heads for the different size 
anchors. The Miller rock anchor is also a product of this company 
and can be used in any kind of rock. They are ij4 •"■ i" diameter 
and 3^ ft. long, with a J^-in. rod, and will stand a strain of 15,000 
lb. The Miller products have met with a great deal of success and 
are used extensively throughout the country by such concerns as 
the Bell Telephone Co., the Appleyard Syndicate, the Detroit & 
Toledo Construction Co. and the United States Telephone Co. 

The Buckeye Automatic Lowering Jack. 

The American Ventilating Co. 

The American Ventilating Co., owner of the Joseph Leather 
United States patents, is manufacturing a new ventilator which is 
illustrated in the accompanying engraving. This ventilator is manu- 
factured of chilled steel, in any desired finish, and there are five 
types for cars, as well as special designs for various classes of 
buildings. As may be seen in the iUustration, the ventilator com- 


prises a double deflector and two airways, so that when the train 
or car is in motion the deflector intercepts the air and injects it 
through the forward airway, first taking out the cinders, dust and 
smoke. A partial vacuum is maintained behind the deflector so 
that the foul air is drawn out through the rear airway and thereby 
the air in a car is changed in a very short time. Cars in service may 
be equipped in the deck sash without damage or detriment of their 
appearance. These ventilators are now in use on the London & 
North-Western railway, the Midland railway and the Southeastern 
railway, of England, the Liverpool Corporation tramways, Liver- 
pool Overhead railw.iy and a number of other electric railways, in- 

The jack shown in the accompanying illustration is a product of 
the Buckeye Jack Manufacturing Co., of Louisville. O.. and is what 
is known as its No. 2 automatic lowering jack, being suitable for all 
general lifting purposes. This jack is one that has given general 
satisfaction and gratifying results as used by electric railway com- 
panies in track construction, and in emergency cases, such as a de- 
railment or accident. Its operation is simple and easy, operating at 
any angle. The load may be moved up or down half a notch at each 
stroke, and the direction is easily controlled by the eccentric at the 
side of the frame. The frame or ba.^e is of malleable iron ; the rack 
is of forged steel, with machine-cut teeth ; the pawls are dropped 
forged, open hearth steel of high carbon; the fulcrum pin is of high 
carbon rolled steel, machined : the hearings are of hardened steel 


and the handles made of selected ash or hickory. The capacity of 
the No. 2 jack is 10 tons, and is of the following dimensions: height 
with bar down, 21 in. ; raise of bar, 10 in. ; height with bar raised, 
31 in.; size of bar, ij^ x l^ in., and weight, 65 lb. The Buckeye 
Jack Manufacturing Co., which has a large and well appointed fac- 
tory at Louisville, O., has for some years given special attention to 
the manufacture of jacks to meet the demands of both steam and 
electric railroads and manufacture several other types and sizes of 
jacks than that illustrated. 

The Old Colony Street Railway Co. is making arrangements for 
hauling tlie product of neighboring shoe factories over its lines. 

Feb. is, 'QOS 



A New Combination Mail and Kxprcss Car. 

'I'lic accnmpaiiyiiig illiistralioii shows llie lypc of new coiiibiiiation 
mail aiitl express car recently liiiilt liy the Laconia Car Company 
Works for the rorlsnioiith, Dover & York Street Railway Co., 
Portsmonth, N. 11. The car i.s of the following dimensions: Length 
over corner posts, 28 ft. 8 in. ; length over liiniipcrs, 38 ft. 8 in. , 
width over corner posts, 8 ft. ^ in.; width inside, 7 ft. 4H in.; height 
from bottom of sills to top of nnniing board, 9 ft. .J4 in.; length of 
mail compnrlmeni inside, 15 fl., and length nf haggnge compartment 
inside, 12 ft. 11 in. 

The car is hiiilt on the linos of those for steam railroad service, 
having straight sides, sheathed; extended monitor roof; two win- 
dows on a side in the mail c-ompMilmenl ; vostilndes at each end with 


single swing doors, also single sliding door in one end of the bag- 
gage compartment ; two side baggage room doors and two side mail 
room doors. The car is sheathed on the inside with hard pine and 
the ceilings are sheathed and painted. Mail boxes are arranged on 
each side of the mail room and slots are provided in the sides of the 
car directly over the mail boxes so that letters may be dropped in. 
The mail room is also fitted up with one Harrison bag rack and one 
slotted shelf is located over tlie bag rack, which is supported by 
chains and can be folded back against the side of the car. A table is 
provided opposite tlie bag rack ; it is supported by iron stands and 
may be folded back against the side of the car when not in use. 
'["he car is equipped with eight No. 93 T "Consolidated" heaters, 
DeVVitt sand bo.xcs, Wilson trolley retrievers, Laconia scrapers and 
Sterling safety hand brakes. • 

The Piatt Iron Works Co. 

The Phut Iron Works Co. was organized in October last to take 
over the plant, business and good will of the Stillwell-Bierce & 
Smith-Vaile Co., of Dayton, O. ; all of the assets of that company 
were purchased from the receivers and also the new company has 
secured the addition to the plant built for the old company by 
Colonel Piatt. This gives the company a total ground area of 22 
acres, conveniently situated as regards shipping facilities. The 
equipment throughout is modern and the new company is in a posi- 
tion to build all kinds of steam and hydraulic machinery. The total 
capitalization of the Piatt Iron Works Co. is $1,600,000, of which 
$800,000 is capital stock and $800,000 is bonds ; of the latter, one-half 
remains in the treasury. The officers of the company are : Presi- 
dent, H. E. Talbott ; vice-president "and treasurer, E. F. Piatt ; 
secretary, G. B. Smith. The directors include J. D. Piatt, president 
of the Barney & Smith Car Co., A. M. Kittredge, E. Frank Piatt, 
H. E. Talbott and J. S. McMahon. 

Westinghouse Crane Motor. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., which has long 
been actively engaged in the construction of electric crane machin- 
ery, has developed a type of motors designed for the operation of 
cranes, hoists, etc.. where the service is intermittent and where 
heavy starting torques and wide speed variations are required. These 
are known as type K motors and are made in 10 standard sizes, in- 
cluding capacities from 2 to 40 h. p. The frames are of the wholly 
enclosed form to guard against dust or moisture, but the working 

parts may be opened for inspection or .idjiistmcnt without dis- 

Type K motors have four inwardly projecting poles, each of which 
is magnetized by a separate field coil. The motors arc series-wound 
and are designed to operate on direct current circuits of from 220 
to 500 volts. The frames arc of cast steel, excepting the three 
smallest sizes, and they are extremely compact, being nearly square 
in section and requiring the smallest possible amount of head room 
on a crane. The frame is built in two parts divided in a plane pass- 
ing through the shaft of the armature and at an angle of 34° with 
the horizontal. This arrangement allows the upper half of the field 
to be removed without disturbing the gears or the shaft. 'I'hc lower 
frame has four feet with holes for bolting to the support. The 
opening arouTid the commutator is entirely closed by a sheet steel 
band fastened by thumb screws which permits ready 
access to the commutators and brush ludders. The 
pole pieces are built up of soft steel punchings riv- 
eted between iron end plates and the armature core 
is built up in the same way. The shells arc lined 
with cither brass or babbitt and are mounted in hous- 
ings which may be removed without separating the 
motor frame. The shafts are of ample strength and 
may be extended at either end to accommodate pul- 
leys, pinions or brake disks. 

The brush holders of the type K motors are of the 
sliding type and possess a number of points of merit. 
The individual holders may be independently ad- 
justed. Tension is provided by means of a coil 
spring which acts through a short brass strip so that 
the spring responds immediately to any movement 
of the brush. .An adjustment is also included to compensate for the 
wear of the commutator. All but two smaller sizes of the type K 
motors have a shunt connected with the tip of the spring which is 
extended back over the spring and securely fastened to the brush 
holder, thus relieving the spring from carrying current. Flexible 
leads are brought out through insulating bushings in the upper frame 
and are either connected to terminal blocks mounted on the motor 
or are directly connected to the controller lines. 

A New Flooring Machine. 

Realizing the demand for an efficient flooring machine suitable for 
turning out the many different kinds of matched lumber which are 
used in car shops, the J. A. Fay & Egan Co., 230 W. Front St., Cin- 
cinnati, O.. has lately perfected and placed upon the market its new 
style double cylinder "Lightning" floorer No. 106. This machine 
has all the advantages which made the earlier machines of this com- 
pany so useful and universally satisfactory, but to these advantages 
have been added a great many new improvements, so that this 
new machine is one of the most efficient floorers on the tnfti'ket. 


The machine is built with a heavy frame having its separate parts 
held together rigidly and securely. Care has been taken in the 
design ,so that all adjustments can be easily and rapidly made. The 
machine is highly recommended for making flooring, ceiling, casing 
and siding and will work the four sides of material 15 in. wide by 
6 hi. thick, matching as narrow as 1' '< in. and handling twisted and 
warped lumber with facility. 

Printed matter further detailing the features of this new tool, 
together with a catalog of the many other types of wood working 
machines whicli are made by this company may be had by addressing 
the J. A. Fay & Egan Co. 



rVoi.. XV. No. 2. 

Ornamental Wire Fences for Parks. 

The rapid and extensive development of amusement parks by 
railway companies has been rewarded in most cases by large attend- 
ance and lias made the fencing problem an important one. High 
board fences are highly objectionable and recent improvements in 
wire fences have attracted the attention of the discerning ones and 
managers and purchasing agents are finding the sohition of their 
troubles in extra heavy wire constructions. 

In the modern wire fences, as shown in Fig. i. the upright wickets 
or other cross wires arc made of stock even heavier than that of 
the running wires and long after the galvanizing wears off there is 

a sufficiently large core of good tough steel inside the rust to main- 
tain the strength of the fence. Sagging and stretching are always 
occasioned by the heat of summer and are scientifically provided 
for by a ratchet, as shown in Fig. 2. This automatic ratchet is 
placed on the back of the post, and each strand passes through a 
small hole in the post and onto the ratchet. The staples on the 
intermediate posts are under control of the ratches on the end post, 
and a turn or two of the control of the ratchets take up whatever 

A wide mesh anchor fence was erected at the Trans-Missis- 
sippi Exposition at Omaha, to confine the largest bufltalo ever 
held in captivity. The fence was g ft. high, with the posts 20 ft. 
apart. The animal was brought by the Indians from Wyoming 
and broke a number of the 6-in. posts, but not a single wire or 
clamp. This remarkable exhibition of strength and durability se- 
cured for the anchor fence the highest award and gold medal at 
the Omaha Exposition. The anchor fence has been awarded over 
30 first premiums and gold medals at other e.xpositions in America, 
Canada, and Australia. Catalog giving particulars and illustrating 
styles used for ornamental fencing and similar purposes may be 
obtained of M. D. Jones & Co., 71-73 Portland St., Boston, Mass. 

The Anderson Patent Cushioned 
Non-Return Valve. 

Two new valves that have recently been placed 
on the market by the Best Manufacturing Co., of 
Pittsburg, Pa., are shown in the accompanying 
illustrations. They are known as the Anderson 
patent cushioned non-return valve and the Ander- 
son patent combination cushioned non-return 

These valves cover a very vital point in the 
general piping system of power plants. When 
placed between the boiler and the header they 
will equalize the pressure between the different units of a battery 
of boilers as they remain closed as long as the boiler pressure 
is lower than that of the header. When the boiler pressure equals 
that of the header, they open and will remain in that position 
without chattering or hammering. They will automatically cut off 
a boiler in case of accident to the boiler, such as the bursting 
of a tube, and will also act as a safety stop to prevent steam 
being turned into a cold boiler while men are working inside. The 

FIG. 2. FIG. 3. 

slack may be occasioned by the wear and tear of time and hard 
usage. The end posts have to be well set and braced very securely, 
but the intermediate posts require no bracing or anchoring except 
when on curves or in gullies. 

Game preserves and deer parks demand fences of special height, 
strength and size of mesh. The fence designed for this purpose is 
one that is built on the ground, each strand being run and made taut 
separately, with spacing to suit particular conditions. The upright 

Fro. 4. 

stays are clamped on at more or less frequent intervals at the 
option of the builder, and each joint should be absolutely rigid. 
The anchor clamps shown in Fig. 3 are used extensively for this 
purpose with universal satisfaction. They are made from No. 16 
gage steel l in. wide and galvanized after cutting. The clamp 
pincher shown in Fig. 4 closes the clamp with one stroke, and at the 
same time crimps both the horizontal and upright wires so that 
slipping is prevented. 



sectional cut shows plainly the well arranged dash-pot for cushion- 
ing the valve, which is so essential in order to avoid chattering and 
hammering in this class of valves. The only difference between the 
cushioned non-return valves and the combination cushioned non- 
return valves is the additional feature of being able to open the 
latter valve and hold it in that position if desired by simply operat- 
ing the small auxiliary hand wheel. 

The Best Manufacturing Co. furnishes ana erects complete piping 
systems for power plants, making a specialty of high pressure valves 
and fittings, and besides its Pittsburg office has branch offices at 39 
Cortlandt St., New York, and Betz Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 




Vol. XV 

MARCH 15. 19U5 

No. 3 

McKinley Syndicate Properties of Northern Illinois. 

Describing the Intcriiihan Line of the Illinois Valley Ry. from I. add. III., luist to .Marseilles. 


Ill llif "Rivli'w" fnr ScpU'iiibtT and Dcci-iiiIht. 1904, were dcscrilied 
iIr- McKiiilry syiulicate proiicrties of central Illinois, which include 
wlial will eventually form an unhrokeu line of interurhan railways 
extending from Danville through Urhana. t'hamiiaign, Decatur and 
Springfield down to St. Louis. In northern Illinois Mr. McKitdey 
also controls two important interurhan properties, one of which is the 
Illinois Valley Railway Co., the headquarters for which are at La- 
Salle, 111., and the other an interurhan line, at Galesburg, which will 
be described in a subsequent issue. It should be explained that while 
Mr. McKinley is at the head of both of the syndicates owning these 

a rural poimlation between these cities of about 5,000. LaSallc and 
Peru, with a combined popni.-ition o( ig.coo people, and Ottawa with 
12,000 population, are the most important cities touched by this road. 
I.aSalle and Peru may be considered as practically one city, the 
two places having grown together so as to leave no well-defined 
boundary line between them. Locally they are spoken of as the 
"twin cities" and both contain many thriving business houses and 
manufactories. They arc also the center of a large coal mining 
district, and coal mining forms one of the principal industries of a 
number of the cities along the western end of this road. Ladd is 


two groups of interurhan properties, that the two syndicates have no 
connection with each other and outtide of Mr. McKinley are com- 
posed of two entirely distinct groups of men. 

The Illinois Valley Ry. begins at Ladd, 111., and runs south to Spring 
Valley. .-Kt Spring Valley the road turns east and runs in a gener- 
ally easterly direction through to Marseilles. The principal points 
lying between the termini are Spring Valley, Peru, LaSalle, Utica 
and Ottawa. The total length of the road is 36 miles, and the 
entire route at present constructed is shown on the accompanying 

1 lie total iwpulation served is about 42,000, divided as follows : 
Ladd. 2.000; Marquette, 350; Spring Valley, 8,000; Peru, 7,500 ; 
LaSalle, 11,500; Utica, 2,000; Ottawa, 12,000; Marseilles, 4,000, and 

almost exclusively a mining town, and Marquette, otherwise known 
as "No. 3", consists merely of a settlement at one of the mine shafts 
At a point on the electric line three miles from Ladd. the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. is opening a mine which it is stated will 
have one of the largest outputs in the world. 

The Illinois Valley Ry. parallels the Chicago. Rock Island S 
Pacific Ry. from Marseilles to Spring Valley and the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy R. R. from LaSalle to Ladd. It crosses the 
Chicago, I^urlington & Quincy at Ottawa, the Chicago. Rock Island 
& Pacific at Split Rock, the Illinois Central at LaSalle. the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pa 
cific and the Indiana. Illinois & Iowa railroads at Spring Valley 
Of these crossings three are at grade and the others are either over- 
head or under crossings. The three grade crossings are all witii 
transfer tracks or branch lines, none of the three main line rail- 



[Vol. XV, No. j. 

roads crossing at grade. The route of the electric line follows Illi- 
nois River quite closely for a greater part of its length, and for a 
considerable distance lies between the Illinois River and the Illinois 
&• Michigan Canal. The surface nf the cminlry i* bnikcn and in 

road leaves LaSalle it makes a crossing with the Illinois Central 
railroad, and has a short but steep descent of 7 per cent down to 
the river valley. A short distance beyond this it crosses the Ver- 
million River, and the next and principal point of scenic interest 


places very irregular; the route selected is apparently the only 
available one, and it offers many unavoidable sharp curves and 
several heavy grades. It also required the building of a number 
of bridges. These condition- explain the fact that in building the 

on tlie route is Split Rock, several views of wliich are shown lierc- 
witli. .As will be seen from the illustrations, the formation of tlie 
country at this point is very interesting. Two steam roads pass 
through .S])lit Rock, one through a natural opening and another 


^^B^^' ' ^^^^^^^^B^Gc^^^DH^BHIH^kd 


•^)k . Nk 

npijs. ^^ 




road very high speed was not taken into consideration. Aside, 
however, from the difficult profile of the line, there is apparently 
no reason for a specially high speed service, as the road does not 

through a tunnel cut through the solid rock. The electric road 
makes an overhead crossing with the two steam roads and with the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, which also passes through Split Rock, by 


connect any large centers of population calling for a fast through 
service, but rather the traffic is very evenly distributed between a 
comparatively small number of medium-sized towns. 

Between Ottawa and LaSalle the road lies in a picturesque country, 
in which there are several notable points of interest. Just as the 

means of two steel bridges thrown across the openings through which 
the two steam roads run. 

A short distance farther on, a peat bog was encountered in the 
construction of the road, and this part of the roadbed which covers 
a distance of two miles had to be cut out by men with shovels and 

Mau. 15. '<P5\ 




vvlici'lli.irrciws. Al Ulic:i llii- roiiti- is ilirciiiuli a CDriier nl Ihc town, 
about Iwi) blocks from llic main llioroiiKlifarc. Ut-yoncl Ulica lies 
ii popular summer resort known as Starved Rock, 'i'his is a huge 
(lat rock of consiclerahle size, which lies isolated upon the plain, 
and obtains its name from the legend of a band ni liidiaus said 
to have been stranded upon this rock during a warfaring expedition, 
where they were confined until all starved to death. Near this iioiru 
is a group of sulphur springs, which are locally celebrated, and 
which draw considerable excursion traffic. The company's gravel 
pit lies a short distance beyond this, and in this pit 45,000 yards 
of gravel have already been <\ui!, and utilized for ballast upon the 
road, IIiiITmIii Rnclv is llu- lu \l puinl of scenic interest, and is a 

Wliislling Mgn- are panM'-d al Irorn t/x) to >i(M ft. of crossings, 
llie colors being arranged as just dcscriticd with a large "W" in 
black painted on a wliile signboard. On llie right of way 600 ft. 
from each crossing is placed a sign which reads "KXOoo." There 
are also signs along Ihe right of way prohibiting trespassing, and 
special warnings in regard lo trespassing arc posted at each end 
of all the company's bridges. The culverts are of two kinds, the 
smaller ones being bnilt of wood and the larger ones of concrete. 
There are a number of bridges along Ihe road, all of which were 
designed for so-ton inlcrtirban cars. All these bridges are of steel, 
and rest on concrete abutments, 'the longest bridge is located in 
llii- town of Spring Valley, and is 640 ft. in length. 


curious ruck fcu-iiiation abimt 100 fl. hi^h. three-(|uarters of a mile 
long and nne-(iuarler of ,1 mile wide, Tlie LaSalle County farm 
lies a short distance beyond this, and the Chautauqua Park is tlie 
next point of interest, before reaching Ottawa, which is the couuiy 
.seat. Tliere are no points of sjiocial interest between Ottawa and 
Mar.scilles, the present terminus. The latlir place is developing a 
large manufacturing interest operated by means of a considerable 
water power which the Illinois River affords. Paper manufacturiuy 
is the predominant industry here. 

The track is laid with (lodb. f-rails of the .\. S. C. E. standard 
section, rolled by the Candjria Iron Works, and in passing tlirougli 
parts of the city a 6-in. T-rail is used. These rails are laid on 
white oak ties of standard size spaced 24 in. between centers. The 
line is well ballasted, four miles being built with cinder ballast, and 
the rest with gravel ballast taken from the pit previously mentioned. 
The maximum grade is 7 per cent, the maximum fill .^.i ft, high, and 

Oi:e of the illusjrations shows a long tangent located two miles 
east of Utica, III., and this illustrates the character of the roadlicd 
and overhead construction on most of the road. The overhead work 
is principally span work, the high-tension lines being carried on 
the poles on one side, while the low-tension feeders, telephone lines 
and block signal wires are carried on the opposite side of the poles. 
A separate high-tension pole line three miles long has also been 

The trolley wire is No. ocoo copper wire of figure 8 section, and 
there are two No. 0000 bare copper feeders on the low-tension side. 
The overhead fittings are of the Ohio Brass Co. make and were fur- 
nished by Porter & Berg. United States block signals are used on 
parts of the line. The telephones are of the Stromberg make. 

Rolling Stock. 
Ihe company operates 11 interurban cars, two of which were built 
by the John Stephenson Co., seven by the St. Louis Car Co., and 
two by the Kuhlnian Car Co. These cars are all mounted on St. 



the maxinnun cut 20 ft. deep, this being the rock cut. A special 
style of painting the poles has been adopted for warning signals 
on approaching down grades or sharp curves. .\t a distance of 8 
poles from the beginning of a grade or curve, the pole is painted 
with a 6-in. black ring around it, then a wdiite ring, next a narrow 
black ring and then 18 in. of bright red, and then white down to 
the ground. The white section is made longer and longer on each 
successive pole as the point of the grade or curve is approached. 

Louis Car Co.'s M. C. B. trucks, and each is equipped with four 
G. E. 57 motors and K 14 controllers. Two of the cars are 28 ft. 
two 30 ft., two 32 ft., and five 34 ft. in length. There is also one 
baggage and express double truck car, mounted on Peckham trucks, 
and equipped with four Westinghouse No. 69 motors. 

For the local line in LaSalle there are three 20-ft. cars, three 
i6-ft. cars, and two lo-bencb open cars, all with single trucks, part 
of which are equipped with two G. F. 67 motors, and part with 



I Vol.. XV, No. 

Westinghouse No. 69 motors. Kio controllers are used on all the 
local cars. The 34-ft. intemrban cars have smoking rooms and 
toilet rooms, and are equipped with Christensen air brakes and 
Peter Smith hot-water heaters. Among the devices with which the 
interurban cars are equipped may be mentioned Wagenhals head- 
lights, Wilson trolley retrievers and St. Louis sand boxes. The 
standard color for the exterior of the cars is Valentine's coach red. 

The company owns two home-made nose plows, two side-dump 
double-truck cars, two side-dump single-truck cars, si.\ center-dump 
.single-truck cars, and one single-truck construction car. The com- 
pany maintains quite an extensive construction equipment at the 

time limit, on which the following rebates may be collected if the 
book cover is returned within the time limits specified : If used 
up within 30 days from date of sale, a rebate of $2.00 is allowed ; 
if within 60 days froin date of sale a rebate of $1.00, and if within 
90 days, a rebate of 50 cents is allowed. 

For the purpose of determining fares, the road is divided into a 
number of fare sections, or divisions, on each of which a s-cent 
fare is charged, and a passenger entering a car pays a s-ccnt fare 
for the division from which he starts, and 5 cents inore for each 
division into which he travels. .Ml employes entitled to ride on 
the company's cars are provided with pads of 100 tickets, and no 


gravel pit; there is a number of both wheeled and slip scrapers 
which are used in digging gravel. .A.! the gravel pit are a storage 
house for feed, a conk house, with full kitchen outfit, and a bunk 
house for 15 men. Tlie company does considerable business in 
supplying gravel for building some of the local country roads, and 
has supplied as much as 16 car loads per day to Spring Valley. At 
another pit in Webster Park, 10 cu. yd. of gravel per hour are deliv- 
ered with two teams. 


There arc two sub-stations along the line, one of which is near 
Ottawa, and is shown in one of the accompanying illustrations, and 


the other is on a long grade not far from the western terminus of 
the road. The Ottawa station is a rotary converter sub-station of 
the usual type, and contains standard Stanley equipment of step- 
down transformers, rotary converter, etc. The other station is a 
storage battery station, and contains a battery of "Chloride" accumu- 
lators which floats upon the line. 

Some Operating Points. 

The only card tickets used by the company are return trip tickets, 
no single trip tickets being sold. A reduction of 5 cents is made on 
return tickets. Three styles of books of tickets are in use. one of 
which is a commutation book, issued for an individual, between 
two given points. Another book contains 100 coupon tickets of a 
face value of five dollars, which is sold for $4.50, or a reduction 
of 10 per cent. The other book is a lOO-ticket coupon book with r 

riding on badges is permitted. The collector must collect cither a 
cash fare or a ticket from every passenger. 

A rather unusual method of making conductors' returns is in 
vogue on this road. No cash is turned in to the office by the con- 
ductors, but instead of this each conductor at the end of his day's 
run deposits all his cash fares at the company's bank, together with 
a remittance slip, merely giving the amount of currency, silver and 
copper deposited, which is signed by the conductor. This remit- 
tance slip has a duplicate slip attached, upon which the cashier of 
the bank acknowledges each deposit made by the conductor, and this 
part of the slip is forwarded to the cashier of the railway company. 

The two slips together measure "H x 6j<i in. and perforated so as 
to be readily torn apart. The text of the deposit slip is as follows : 

Remittance Slip. 

LaSalle, 111., 190. . 

To the LaSalle State Bank : 

Please find enclosed the following remittance and place the same 
to the credit of the Illinois Valley Railway Co. : 

Currency $ 






The text of the other half of the remittance blank is as follows: 

Remittance Slip. 

LaSalle, 111 190. . 

To the Cashier, I. V. Ry. Co. : 

We have received the following remittance from 

Conductor, and placed the same to the 

credit of the Illinois Valley Railway Co. : 

Currency $ 

Silver : 




Mah. is, 1905.] 



I lie iiianaKfiiK'iit considers that this practice saves considerable 
office work, as it dispenses with the handling and counting of large 
amounts of currency of small denomination. At the same lime the 
conductor deposits his money at the bank he deposits an envelope 
al the oHlce of the railway company containing his tickets and trans- 
fers collected, on the outside of which is a form which he fills in 
and signs. This form includes the date, route, starting and closing 
lime, register and key nnmher, transfers, tickets and fares collected, 
cash deposited, car nuniher, trips and mileage. The cash deposited, 
which is entered on this envelope, must agree with the acknowledge- 
ment from the cashier of the bank. 

The comjiany employs about 50 men in the uniformed force, two 
attendants at the rotary converter sub-station, and in the power 
house there are one chief and two assistant engineers, two firemen 
and two helpers, and one man for the ash pit. The lighting nia- 
chiiiery in the stalinn runs 24 hours per day, and the railway ma- 
chinery 18 hours per day. The cost of power in this station has 
been reduced to a very satisfactory figure, l)cing about .9 cent per 
kilowatt-hour, with coal at $1.60 per ton. 

During the winter there arc six interurban ami three Incal cars 
in regular operation, and during the summer seven interurban and 
three local car.s, with extra cars on Saturdays and Sundays. 

The company's rules for employes are practically identical with 
ihc A. S. K. A. rules, with the exception of one rule in regard to 
the painted posts at grades and sharp curves. On approaching a 
painted pole the conductor rings one bell and the motorman answers 
with three whistles. He then receives two bells to go ahead. 

The general system of accounting used by the company follows 
(he .\ccountants' Association standard. The freight and oxpress 
liusiness of the company has not been very fully developed, owing 
largely to the fact that while the road has been in operation on 
both sides of LaSallc for over a year, the tracks have only recently 
been connected through this city, previous to which it was neces- 
sary to transfer passengers across this break in the road. It is 
unlikely that the company will attempt to develop any business in 
heavy freight, owing to the heavy grades and sharp curves on certain 
parts of the line. An excellent opportunity, however, is offered 
for the development of light package express business between the 
different towns along the line, and a good start has already been 
made in this direction. 

The portion of this road already built may be considered as the 
beginning only of a future .system of considerable extent. Plans 
have already been prepared for further extension of the road in 
both an easterly and a westerly direction. It is probable that the 
next step will be in the direction of an extension running east from 
Marseilles, and the purpose is to ultimately extend this eastern 
branch to connect with some of the suburban lines entering Chicago. 

The officers and heads of departments of the company are : W. B. 
McKinley, president; George F. Duncan, vice-presidept ; Edward 
Woodman, secretary and treasurer; H. E. Chubbuck. general man- 
ager; Frank Bedard, superintendent; Charles R. McMillin. assistant 
superintendent and master mechanic. , 

(To he continued.) 

March Meeting of the Indiana Electric Rail- 
way Association. 

The regular meeting of the Indiana Electric Railway .Association 
was held at Lebanon, Ind., March gth. The Indianapolis & North- 
western Traction Co. provided a special car leaving Indianapolis 
shortly after 9 o'clock. On reaching Lebanon a brief inspection 
was made of the power house and shops of the Indianapolis & 
Northwestern Traction Co.. after which the meeting was called to 
order at II :20 a. m. in Castle Hall. 

In the absence of President Henry, who is now in California for 
a trip of several weeks, the vice-president, Mr. J. W. Chipman, 
general manager of the Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co., pre- 
sided. Mr. Paul H. White was also unavoidably absent, and Mr. 
E. G. Hendrickson, auditor of the Indianapolis & Martinsville Rapid 
Transit Co., served as secretary. 

After the reading and approval of the minutes of the, last meet- 
ing, the subject for discussion, "Coupon Ticket Books." was opened 
by Mr. F. D. Norviel, who stated that after three meetings of the 
committee, the compilation of data concerning rates on the Indiana 
electric lines, and conferences with representatives of the Ohio In- 

terurban Railway Association, the committee felt that it could not 
report definitely at this time, and asked that it be given another 
month for further consideration. Me suggested, however, that a 
preliminary report, which had been prepared by Mr. W. R. Mc- 
Kown, be read and discussed at this time. 

Mr, McKown reported that the committee had secured from the 
Indiana roads interesting information as to the number of miles 
operated, the rates per mile one way on which fares were based, the 
percentage of reduction allowed on round trip tickets, and ihc 
percentage of reduction given on mileage books now used. 
These reports show that the rate per mile varies from Ij^ to 2% 
cents, the average being 1.7 cents per mile. For this reason, the 
committee believed that a mileage book would be entirely imprac- 
ticable, and therefore recommended a coupon ticket IxKik that would 
be interchangeable. At present Indiana companies are selling mileage 
books, coupon books or lOO-ride books, to meet various local condi-